Quantity and quality of wool yolk in Caucasian Merino rams

D. Pamukova1*, G. Staykova2, N. Stancheva2

1Department of Animal Husbandry- Ruminant Animals and Dairy Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Agricultural Institute, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 September 2018; accepted for publication 5 November 2018)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the quality and quantity of the wool yolk of the rams from Caucasian merino breed in order to improve their technological features. The analyses included seven rams at 2.5 years of age and eleven male lambs at the age of 18 months. Thirty-six individual wool samples from two parts of the body (side and thigh) were studied. The following wool parameters were investigated: percentage of the dirty areas of the wool (on the side and the thigh), fat amount, sweat amount, pH of sweat, laboratory wool yield, and color of greasy wool on the side. Percentage of the dirty areas of the wool by categories and topographic ranges varied from 30.79% to 41.52%, indicating that the wool yolk of Caucasian rams was of sufficient quantity and good quality. The percentage of the fats in wool yolk to the greasy wool was relatively high (23.25% in the male lambs at the age of 18 months and 25% in the rams) and had a negative impact on the wool yield. The ratio of fat/sweat was 1.91:1 in rams at 2.5 years of age and 1.44:1 in male lambs at the age of 18 months). The higher relative part of the fat compared to the sweat was an indicator of good protective properties of the wool yolk. That allowed to protect the technological properties of the wool.

Proximate composition, lipid quality and heavy metals content in the muscle of two carp species

A. Merdzhanova*, V. Panayotova, D.A. Dobreva, K. Peycheva

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, 9000 Varna, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 2 August 2018; accepted for publication 12 October 2018)

Abstract. The aim of the presented study was to characterize the quality of edible tissue of freshwater common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), based on their proximate and lipid composition (lipid classes, fatty acid profile, fat soluble vitamins, carotenoids and cholesterol). Health risk assessment was evaluated based on the analysis of some toxic elements (As, Cd, Ni, Pb and total Hg). Proximate composition (moisture, crude protein and total lipid) was determined using standard procedures. Lipids were subsequently separated into neutral (NL) and polar lipids: Phospho- (PL) and Glycolipids (GL) by means of column and thin-layer chromatography. Lipid classes were derivatized into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) which were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Vitamins A, D3 and E, beta-carotene, astaxanthin and cholesterol were analysed simultaneously using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg and Ni) were determined by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) following a microwave digestion procedure. Protein content was higher in bighead carp (18.5%) and lower for common carp (15.5%), whereas lipid content showed opposite trend. Similarities in lipid classes distribution were observed for both species: NL>GL>PL. Neutral lipids constituted approximately 70% of TL in both species, as FAs profile was dominated by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) prevailed in polar fractions. Omega-3 PUFAs were higher in all lipid classes compared to omega-6 PUFAs. Cholesterol content was low (17-24 mg.100-1g ww). Astaxanthin was detected only in bighead carp, whereas beta-carotene, vitamin D3 and vitamin A showed similar concentrations in both samples. Vitamin E content was higher in bighead carp (10.4 mg.100 g-1 w.w.). Trace elements content was higher in bighead carp showing a maximum value of As (0.312 mg.kg-1 w.w). All determined toxic elements were found below the recommended value in carp muscle. The results of the present study confirmed the high quality and safety of common carp and bighead carp meat. These freshwater species are valuable sources of essential nutrients such as proteins, vitamin D3 and long chain omega-3 PUFAs. Together with the nutrients, the information for low concentrations of toxic elements makes them valuable components of a healthy human diet.

Antioxidant properties and phytochemicals of three brown macro algae from the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Strait

A.K. Ilknur1*, G. Turker2

1Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Turkey 2Department of Food Technology, Canakkale School of Applied Sciences, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Turkey

((Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 26 August 2018))

Abstract. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant properties and phytochemicals of brown algae Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link, Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C. Agardh, and Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy, collected from the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Strait, Turkey, in February 2018. The antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, condensed tannins, and total content of phenolics and flavonoids in ethanol extracts were quantified. P. pavonica showed the highest antioxidant potential as well as the maximum content of phenolics and carotenoids. The total flavonoid contents changed from 1375.43±2.37 μg/g Ext. (C. barbata) to 2250.92±46.60 μg/g Ext. (S. lomentaria). The highest condensed tannins were found in C. barbata. According to results obtained, C. barbata, S. lomentaria and P. pavonica possess antioxidant activity and could be used in the food and feed industries.

Effect of wheat straw and cellulose degrading fungi of genus Trichoderma on soil respiration and cellulase, betaglucosidase and soil carbon content

D. Draganova*, I. Valcheva, Y. Kuzmanova, M. Naydenov

Department of Microbiology and Ecological Biotechnologies, Faculty of Plant Protection and Agroecology, Agricultural University, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 June 2018; accepted for publication 31 August 2018)

Abstract. Due to the intensive soil exploitation and increased mineral fertilization, the degradation of plant residues in the soil is becoming more difficult and slower over the years. This disturbs the structure of the soil and the nutritional balance and leads to a reduction in soil fertility. To solve the problem, microorganisms capable of degrading plant residues in the soil can be used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fungi of genus Trichoderma on the biodegradation of wheat straw in the soil by observation of the change in cellulase enzyme activity in the soil and the increase in soil biological activity. The highest basal soil respiration was noted at T2TUR (65.76 μgCO2) and T6 (53.69 μgCO2). During the entire straw degradation period, the highest endoglucanase activity was observed at T4 (285.0 μgGlu) and T6 (275.56 μgGlu), whereas the highest β-glucosidase was noted at T6 (5220.3 μgPNP/g/h) and T1UKR (5020.0 μgPNP/g/h). The presence of cellulose-degrading fungi positively affected the increase in the total amount of microbial biomass at the end of the study period, whereas the amount of Corg was increased in all straw amended variants. At the beginning of the process, CMCase correlated with the microbial carbon (r=0.896 for Cmic) and β-glucosidase activity was closely connected with both soil organic carbon and microbial carbon (r=0.819 for Corg and r=0.866 for Cmic). At the end of the investigated period a stronger correlation with Corg was observed.

Effectiveness of Oxalis bee and Ecostop for prophylaxis and control of varroosis in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

I. Zhelyazkova*, S. Lazarov
Department of Animal husbandry – Non-ruminants and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 August 2018; accepted for publication 26 October 2018)

Abstract. The objective of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of Ecostop (plates) and Oxalis Bee – plant-based products for the prevention and control of varroosis in bees (Apis mellifera L.).The study was conducted at the end of the 2017 Beekeeping Season of the Beekeeping Experimental Training Center at the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora. Two products were used: Ecostop containing peppermint oil (2 ml/plate) and timol (5 g/plate), and Oxalis Bee – zootechnical feed additive for bees, including plant extracts, organic acids and invert solution from bio-sugar. The dosing of the products is in accordance with the instructions of the producers Primavet-Sofia Ltd., Bulgaria and the company Vechni pcheli Ltd., Bulgaria. The development and extensinvasion of bee colonies at the beginning and the end of the study and the effectiveness of the applied products were determined. It has been established that the development of bee colonies is normal for the end of the beekeeping season. The comparative analysis of the acaricidal effect of the test products against Varroa destructor shows 98.55±0.30% for Ecostop and 78.15±8.76% for Oxalis Bee. The reported difference in efficacy of both preparations is reliable at p≤0.05.

Effects of nitrogen doses on growth and some nutrient element uptake of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) hybrids

G. Ören1*, H. Çelik2

1Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Institute of Natural Sciences, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey 2Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey

(Manuscript received 14 August 2018; accepted for publication 10 October 2018)

Abstract. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is known as one of the most important and preferred vegetable oil producing plants. In recent years, new cultivars with high oleic acid contents have been developed because of their health effects, extended frying and shelf life. On the other hand, nutrition of the plants is important for healthy growth, high yield, and oil quality and their nutrient needs may differ between the plant species and varieties. We aimed to determine the effects of increasing application doses of nitrogen (N) (0, 16, 32, 48, and 64 mg.kg-1 N) on growth and on some nutrient element uptake of four sunflower hybrids and compare the nutritional differences of linoleic (ESNovamis CL, and LG 5542 CL) and high-oleic (Oliva CL and ESGrafic CL) type sunflower hybrids in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in randomized factorial design with three replicates. Increasing doses of N effected the dry matter and nutrient uptake of sunflower hybrids significantly (p<0.01). Increasing doses of N elevated the dry weight, N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and boron (B) uptake of all tested sunflower hybrids. The increases were found maximum at 32 mg.kg-1 N dose. Significant differences were also established between the hybrids. Among the tested hybrids, ESGrafic CL a high oleic type sunflower has higher nutrient uptake capacity so much more nutrients might be supplied to this new generation sunflower hybrids according to the soil and plant analysis results.

Influence of foliar feeding of common wheat varieties on the nutritional value of the grain

A. Stoyanova1*, G. Ganchev2, V. Kuneva3

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Morphology, Physiology and Animal nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 3Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 29 June 2018; accepted for publication 3 September 2018)

Abstract. . Two years of polls from the field trials of the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria were used for the purpose of the survey. In the period 2015-2016, two varieties of common wheat (Apolon and Bolonga), treated by leaf liquid fertilizers, imported alone and in combinations were tested under field conditions. Main fertilization with ammonium nitrate was done. The variants of the experiments were as follows: 1) Without fertilization (Control); 2) Ammonium nitrate (N140); 3) Lactifrost – l0.0 L/ha; 4) Lactifros + Lactofol base – 10.0 L/ha + 5.0 L/ha; 5) Lactofol base – 5.0 L/ha; 6) Wuxal Grano – 4.0 L/ha; 7) Wuxal Grano – 4.0 L/ha + 2.0 L/ha. It was found that crude protein content ranged from 136.90 to 144.63g/kg DM in the Apolon variety and from 129.98 to 145.12 g/kg DM in the Bologna variety. An increase in CP content was seen as a result of feeding with Lactifrost and Lactofol base, respectively, by 5.6% and 11.7% relative to the control. Treatment of common wheat with liquid leaf fertilizers, however, does not lead to improvements in energy (metabolizable energy, digestible energy, feed unit for milk, feed unit for growth) and protein digestible in (small) intestine nutrition. In both varieties there were many positive and negative correlations between the investigated parameters: CP, CFAT, CF, DEE, FUM, FUG, PDI, Dep, MEp, DEpg and MEpg; in ruminants the same positive correlations for both varieties are between CP and PDI (p<0.01) and negative – between CP and FUM (p<0.05), and between CFAT and PDI (p<0.05); in nonruminants negative correlations exist between CF and the energy values (DEp, MEp, DEpg and MEpg) only in Apolon variety.

Effect of conservation agriculture on grain yield and income of maize under maize based cropping system in far western Nepal

H.K. Prasai1*, S.K. Sah2, A.K. Gautam3, A.P. Regmi3

1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Regional Agricultural Research Station, 10801 Bhagetada, Dipayal, Doti, Nepal 2Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, 44209 Chitwan, Nepal
3Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Singh Durbar Plaza, 44617 Kathmandu, Nepal

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 25 October 2018)

Abstract. The adoption of Conservation agriculture (CA) contributes to sustainable production and its advantages include lower inputs and stable yields. This study was conducted in the research field of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bhagetada, Dipayal, Doti during 2014 and 2015 to identify the effect of CA on grain yield and income of maize in Maize based cropping system. Both conservation and conventional agricultural (ConvA) practices were evaluated on two maize based cropping systems namely maize-wheat-mungbean (M-W-MB) and maize-lentil-mungbean (M-L-MB). For this purpose two maize varieties namely Raj Kumar and Arun-2 were used. The average productivity of maize under M-L-MB cropping system was 1.6% higher (5.75 t/ha) than M-W-MB cropping system (5.66 t/ha). The average grain yield of maize under CA was 16.7% higher (6.15 t/ha) than ConvA (5.27 t/ha). Rajkumar produced 43% higher average grain yield (6.73 t/ha) than Arun-2 variety (4.69 t/ha). The average net benefit was slightly higher (US$ 597.33/ha) under M-L-MB cropping system than M-W-MB cropping system (US$ 573.89/ha). Similarly, the average net benefit from CA was 102% higher (US$ 783.67/ha) than ConvA (US$ 386.79/ha). Rajkumar variety gave 127% higher average net benefit (US$ 813.49/ha) than Arun-2 (US$ 357.81/ha). The average benefit – cost (B:C) ratio of M-L-MB cropping system was slightly higher (1.72) than the average B:C ratio of M-W-MB cropping system (1.70). The average B:C ratio of CA was 42% higher (2.01) than ConvA (1.41). The average B:C ratio of Rajkumar variety was found 33% higher (1.95) than Arun-2 (1.46). The higher grain yield, net profit and B:C ratio were found in CA practices under M-L-MB cropping system and Rajkumar variety. This study suggests that hybrid maize planting and the adoption of M-L-MB cropping system should be used to increase grain yield and economic performance under CA practices.

Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides II. Influence at treatment during 2-nd stem node stage

Gr. Delchev*, M. Delcheva

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 16 October 2018)

Abstract. Theresearchwasconductedduring2012-2014onpellicvertisolsoiltype.InvestigatedwastheBulgariandurumwheatcultivarVictoria(Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were investigated: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat. During 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat the following antibroadleaved herbicides can be used: Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Mustang, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra, Starane, Dicotex and Herby. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable treatments are with herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 2-nd stem node stage technologically the most valuable are the herbicides Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. Their application provides high and stable grain yield during different years. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Weedmaster, Logran, Eagle and Herbaflex cannot be used during 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat.

Grain yield response of some agronomy practices on contemporary common winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)

M. Nankova*, A. Atanasov
Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 28 June 2018; accepted for publication 5 September 2018)

Abstract. During2014–2017,theinfluenceofsomemainagronomyfactorsonthesizeoftheresultantagronomiceffectfromtheirapplicationtocontemporary common winter wheat cultivars was investigated. The study was carried out in the experimental field (Haplic Chernozems soil type) of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo. The trial was designed by the split plot method, in four replications, on harvest area of 12m2. Cultivars Sadovo 1, Pryaspa, Kami, Kalina, Kiara, Kossara and Katarjina were grown after winter oilseed rape, spring pea, sunflower and grain maize at four levels of nutrition regime. The nutrition regime was differentiated depending on the previous crop. After spring pea, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/ha were used, and after the rest of the previous crops – 60, 120 and 180 kg N/ha. With the exception of the check variant all fertilizer variants were against background fertilization with 60 kg P2O5/ha and 60 kg K2O/ha. The positive reaction from the complex interaction of the tested agronomy factors was best expressed in 2015 – 2409.2 kg/ha, while during the extremely unfavorable year 2016, the effect was only 628.2 kg/ha. The independent and combined action of the mineral fertilization and the year conditions had determining influence on the size of the agronomic effect (AE). The positive effect from the mineral fertilization on the values of AE was accompanied by slight differentiation between the tested fertilization norms. Within this study, the highest mean value of AE was determined after fertilization with N180P60K60 – 2274.2 kg/ha. The variation in the mean size of AE depending on the type of previous crop was high – from 900.6 kg/ha (pea) to 2031.2 kg/ha (oilseed rape). The applied agronomy practices caused differentiation in the mean values of AE according to the type of cultivar. The cultivars Kiara (1796.1 kg/ha) and Kalina (1704.5 kg/ha) were with the highest size of AE. They exceeded the AE values of the two standard cultivars Sadovo 1 and Pryaspa by 30.26% and 23.62%, respectively. Averaged for the research, it was found that AE was in positive statistically significant correlation with grain yield and its physical properties.