Optimal use of areas in perennial vegetable crops during first year of growing

T. Dintcheva, H. Boteva, B. Arnaoudov

Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 25 March 2019; accepted for publication 20 May 2019)

Abstract. This paper tries to illustrate how intercropping increases the overall output of a cropping system and achieving much larger yields than sole crops by using environmental resources more fully over time or more efficiently in space. The research was conducted to establish the opportunity for optimal use of the growing area in perennial vegetables crops (Asparagus officinalis L., Rheum rhabarbarum L., Cynara cardunculus var. Scolymus, Levisticum officinale) by an intercropping system with annual vegetables (Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis, Eruca sativa) in open field. The experiment was carried out in 2018 year in Vegetable Crops Research Institute (VCRI) Maritsa, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Crops were grown under schemes: asparagus – 200+60/50 cm; artichoke – 200+60/90 cm; rhubarb – 200+60/90 cm; lovage – 200+60/50 cm; pak choi – 55+45+45+55/20 cm and 55+30+30+30+55/20 cm; rocket – 55+45+45+55/15 cm and 55+30+30+30+55/15 cm. As a result it was determined that the use of annual crops increases efficiency of the areas in perennial vegetables during the first year of growing. Annual vegetables pak choi and rocket grown under scheme 55 + 30 + 30 + 30 + 55/20cm and 55 + 30 + 30 + 30 + 55/15cm, respectively, are suitable for an intercropping system.

Food safety knowledge among farming households in Irepodun local government area, Kwara State, Nigeria

A.O. Awoyemi, M.N. Ajiboy, G.B. Adesiji, A.O. Kayode

Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, P.M.B. 1515, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 21 November 2018; accepted for publication 22 April 2019)

Abstract. The study assessed the food safety knowledge and practices among farming households in Irepodun Local Government Area (LGA) of Kwara State, Nigeria. Irepodun LGA was purposively selected due to the large population of farmers in the area. Two-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select one hundred and four (104) respondents from five villages, namely: Elerinjare, Batanyin, Igbo-owu, Omode and Idofian. Primary data were used for the study and the data were collected by means of an interview schedule. Descriptive statistical tools such as precision counts, frequencies and percentages were used in analyzing the data while Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) analysis was used to test the hypothesis. The findings revealed that the mean income was 156375.50 NGN (441.74 USD) per annum, majority of the farming households have low knowledge towards food safety practices. Constraints to food safety practices include: lack of knowledge, inadequate training and awareness and inadequate finance. PPMC analysis showed that income and educational level was significantly related to the food safety practices among farmers across the selected farming households P≤0.05. Based on the findings, training and effective monitoring by relevant stakeholders, adequate provision of modern technology, sensitization and enlightenment campaigns will further boost farming household’s knowledge and attitudinal changes towards food safety and ultimately safe food for the people.

Households’ consumption willingness for locally processed rice in Kogi State, Nigeria

A.O. Ojo, O.M. Animoku, M.A. Ojo

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 1 November 2018; accepted for publication 4 March 2019)

Abstract. Importation of rice in Nigeria discourages local production and hinders the realization of the self-sufficiency goal of the Nigerian Government. With improvement in processing technology and information on its health benefits, consumers of rice are gradually shifting ground for locally produced rice. Hence, this paper explores the priority of local rice in household food expenditure in Kogi State, Nigeria. Simple randomized sampling technique was used to select a sample of 120 respondents. Primary data were sourced from civil servants within the locality. Statistical tools involved descriptive statistics and regression models for the assessment of the households’ attitude, their monthly expenditure, determinants of consumption preference and demand for local rice. The findings revealed that the majority of the households preferred local rice due to the good health benefits and palatability, among others. About 58.3% of the households spent ₦20000 – ₦40000 (1 NGN = 0.0028 USD) on food while 72.2% spent about ₦5000 on local rice monthly. Household income, household size, age, taste, expenditure on food and non-food were the main factors that affected preference for local rice. The study also indicated that local rice in the study area was price elastic and income inelastic. Increased awareness of the nutritional benefits of local rice and its quality improvement has increased the consumers’ preference for local rice in the area.


Boar taint and meat quality characteristics of entire male and castrated male pigs


I.G. Penchev

Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 22 February 2019; accepted for publication 25 April 2019)


Abstract. The aim of the present research was to study the chemical composition, technological traits and intensity of boar taint of meat in entire male (EM) and surgically castrated male (CM) pigs. The study included 46 male pigs, cross F1 (Landrace x Danube White), fattened to average live weight 90 kg. In terms of chemical composition, the higher water and lipid content of the meat of entire male pigs, compared to the meat of surgically castrated male pigs was not statistically significant. A significant difference in the meat’s technological traits – pH values, water-holding capacity, cooking losses and tenderness between the two groups of male animals ware not found. The influence of the factor “castration” was reported in trait marbling of meat (p<0.001). There were statistically significant differences in the values of L*, b* and Hue angle, defining the color characteristics of the meat.

Heavy metals analysis in some freshwater and marine fish species from markets of Lahore, Pakistan

M.A. Hadyait1, A. Ali1, S. Salim1, M. Shahzadi2, E.M. Bhatti1, U. Pasha1

1Fish Quality Control Labs, Fisheries Research and Training Institute, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of Chemistry, Government Postgraduate, Islamia College for Women Cooper Road, Lahore, Pakistan

(Manuscript received 28 November 2018; accepted for publication 19 March 2019)

Abstract. Muscle portion of 72 fish samples of eight selected species, four from marine (Pampus Chinensis, Otolithes ruber, Trachipteridae and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and four from fresh water (Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Rita rita and Walago atu) fishes were collected from three superstores in Lahore, Pakistan. The prepared fish samples were analyzed for determination of Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) concentrations by using the inductively coupled plasma (PerkinElmer, Model: Optima 7000DV ICP-OES). It was found that Cd (0.294±0.001 mg/kg) concentration was the highest in Labeo rohita collected from Metro Superstore while the lowest level (0.023±0.000 mg/kg) was in the Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the same superstore. Species wise concentration of Cd varies significantly. Concentration of Cr (0.172±0.001mg/kg) was the highest in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha collected from Main Fish Market of Lahore while the lowest level (0.002±0.001mg/kg) was in Labeo rohita collected from Hyperstar superstore. Concentration of Pb (0.057±0.000mg/kg) was the highest in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha collected from Metro Superstore while the lowest (0.012±0.001mg/kg) in Otolithes ruber of the same superstore. Species wise concentration of Pb varies non-significantly. Origin wise t-test shows that: a) Cd concentrations vary significantly, while Cr and Pb concentrations vary non-significantly when marine and fresh water species were compared. b) The range of Pb (0.011-0.057 mg/kg) and Cr (0.002-0.172 mg/kg) was within limits and of Cd (0.023-0.297 mg/kg) was higher than the WHO international standards (0.123 mg/kg for Pb, 0.050 mg/kg for Cd and 0.1 mg/kg for Cr) in most of the fish species of main Fish Market Lahore, Hyperstar and Metro store.

Biotic stress factors in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under various environmental conditions in Trakia Region

İ. Öztürk*

Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 December 2018; accepted for publication 16 April 2019)

Abstract. Barley is an important crop in Trakia region, Turkey and due to various environmental factors it can suffer some biotic stress and yield loss in the region. This research was carried out in two locations (Edirne and Tekirdağ) of Trakia region during 2013-2014 growing year. The experiment was set up with 25 advanced genotypes in completely randomized blocks with four replications at two locations. Grain yield, plant height, days to heading, leaf rust, net blotch, powdery mildew and relationship among these characters were investigated. According to the results, there was significant difference among genotypes for grain yield, biotic stress factors and other characters. The mean grain yield of the genotypes was 6866 kg ha-1. TEA1619-11 had the highest grain yield with 7667 kg ha-1. TEA2311-19 (7593 kg ha-1) and Harman (7593 kg ha-1) were the other highest yielding genotypes. Due to various environmental conditions, there was significant difference between locations. Mean yield in Edirne location was 7841 kg ha-1 and in Tekirdağ location it was 5891 kg ha-1. TEA1619-8 and TEA1619-9 sister lines had the shortest plant height and early genotypes had higher grain yield. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) is the mainly prevalent disease in Trakya region. Leaf rust and powdery mildew had negative effect and decreased grain yield. TEA1619-12, TEA1619-17, TEA2311-19 and TEA1980-25 genotypes were resistant at both locations. TEA1980-25 was an outstanding line to net blotch, leaf rust and powdery mildew. It was determined that increase of net blotch had negative effect and decreased the grain yield in the genotypes.

Effect of salinity on morpho-physiological parameters and nitrogen content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

K. Fatiha1, H. Abdelkrim1, B. Abdelkader2

1Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and Nutrition in dry areas, Ibn-Khaldoun University, Tiaret, Algeria
2Biotechnology Laboratory of Rhizobia and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Sciences, Oran University, Es-Senia, Algeria

(Manuscript received 17 December 2018; accepted for publication 7 March 2019)

Abstract. To characterize the effect of salt stress on six varieties of chickpea (Cicer areitenumL.): ILC 32/79, Flip 84/92C, Ghab4, Belkhadem, Collection 28 and F97/555, morphological and physiological parameters of the plants were studied to determine which can be cultivated under salty conditions. The genotypes were subjected to three increasing concentrations of NaCl (50, 75 and 100mM) and compared to an unstressed control (0mM NaCl).The results showed the studied genotypes behaved differently depending on saline concentrations, and plant water content decreased depending on NaCl concentrations, with a higher reduction in root dry matter. The root dry weight/shoot dry weight ratio decreased with high NaCl concentrations that caused reductions in root volume, number of nodules, and total nitrogen. It appeared the ILC 32/79 and collection 28 varieties were the most salinity-tolerant genotypes.

Bulk density and organic carbon contents of soil pedons influenced by different tree species

C.M. Ahukaemere1, D.N. Osujieke2, V.O. Ugwa1, A.O. Ogwuche1

1Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
2Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020 Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 1 November 2018; accepted for publication 24 March 2019)

Abstract. Bulk density and organic matter content of soil are important soil attributes used in predicting the productivity potentials of soil and overall soil quality. The distribution of soils bulk density and organic carbon in horizons of soil pedons under different three tree species (Hevea brasiliensis – rubber, Pentaclethra macrophylla – oil bean and Irvingia gabonensis – ogbono) in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria were investigated. A random survey method was used in field sampling. In all, three profile pits were dug, one in each site. A total of 36 soil samples were collected and analyzed for the study. Samples were collected at different horizon levels (A, AB, Bt1 and Bt2). Three representative samples were collected from each horizon. Bulk density, organic carbon and other routine analyses were performed using routine laboratory techniques. Mean, coefficient of variation and correlation analyses were analyzed. From the results obtained bulk density increased with depth, ranging from 1.05-1.81 g cm-3 in the rubber plantation, 1.02-1.70 g cm-3 in ogbono plantation and 1.11-1.57 g cm-3 in oil bean plantation. Bulk density decreased with the increase the organic carbon content. However, mean bulk density values irrespective of tree species did not exceed critical limits ranging from 1.28 to 1.32 g cm-3 as appropriate. Organic carbon ranged from 0.06-0.89 g kg-1 in rubber plantation, 0.42-0.87 g kg-1 in ogbono plantation and 0.72-1.25 g kg-1 in oil bean plantation. The epipedal horizons contained higher organic carbon than the endo-pedal horizons. The average organic carbon contents of the pedons were lower than the critical value irrespective of the tree species. The oil bean plantation had higher organic carbon and total nitrogen than the ogbono and rubber plantation while the ogbono plantation contained higher available phosphorus than the other two plantations studied.

Analysis of cost and return in cowpea production: A case study Mubi south local government area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

T. Joshua, J. Zalkuwi, M.M. Audu

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 27 September 2018; accepted for publication 10 April 2019)

Abstract. This study was designed to analyze the profitability of cowpea production in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa state. The primary data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used for the selection of a study area. Descriptive statistics and inferential techniques were used as analytical tools. The result shows that most of the cowpea producers (64%) were aged between 20-49 years with males dominating the business and the majority of the respondents (57%) were married. Household size was relatively large, 78% had some form of formal education and a greater proportion of the respondents (86%) did not belong to any farmer’s association. Most of the respondents (61%) are full-time farmers, while about 92 % of cowpea farmers had between 6 – >15 years of experience in cowpea production. Most of the farmers (78%) had one form of formal education. The computed gross margin and net farm income were N289128.2/ha (=816.5USD) and N286976.3/ha (=810.4USD), respectively, for cowpea production, which indicated that cowpea production was profitable in the area. It is recommended that, there is need for government support in terms of revitalization and priority finding extension delivery activities and agricultural development programs (ADP) in the study and area, access to subsidized farm input (such as pesticide, fertilizer and herbicide) and making credit facilities accessible and affordable to enable farmers boost their production.

Investment on wheat research and its effect: A case of Nepal

K.P. Timsina1, S. Gairhe2, P. Koirala3, J. Shrestha4

1Socioeconomics and Agricultural Policy Research Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Singhdurbar Plaza, Kathmandu, Nepal
3Institute for Integrated Development Studies, Kathmandu, Nepal
4Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Commercial Agriculture Research Program, Pakhribas, Dhankuta, Nepal

(Manuscript received 5 October 2018; accepted for publication 28 February 2019)

Abstract. Although the agriculture sector markedly contributes to the Nepalese economy, very little is known about the government’s investments in agricultural research activities and how these investments have impacted the sector. In this study, we picked a case of wheat crop as it is the third largest crop of Nepal in terms of total annual production. We took government’s annual wheat research investments of Nepal from Fiscal year 2005 to 2016 to analyze the effects of investment on wheat research based on the availability of data. We used compound growth rate, averages, trend line, and bar diagram to present the data and interpret the results. Results revealed that the share of operational budget was lower than supposed to be allocated for the development of wheat research. The pace of increment of wheat production and productivity were observed due to improved wheat investment and technologies. Result shows the negligible spillover effect from neighboring countries in wheat production. Even though the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) has fulfilled source seed target by producing a surplus, private sectors should involve proactively in coordination with NARC to meet the projected demand of wheat seed in national seed vision. The huge gap was observed between yield potential and average national productivity. To achieve greater impact of wheat research in Nepal, it is necessary to bridge the gap by awareness program, making the availability of improved seed with an improved package of practices.