Registration of a new sunflower hybrid – Sevar

  1. Peevska1*, M. Drumeva2, G. Georgiev1

(Manuscript received  2017; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

 Abstract. The aim of the present article was to introduce the new Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Sevar, which since 2015 has been included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties. Sunflower hybrid Sevar was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI), General Toshevo. The hybrid is male sterile, two-linear and was obtained by interlinear hybridization. The parental components are line 807А, which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father line is 509R, a branched fertility restorer line developed through in vitro methods. The two lines demonstrated very good combining ability. Sevar is an early maturing hybrid, with duration of the vegetation period of 107–110 days. Plant height is within the range of 155-160cm, and the head diameter is 26–29cm. The seeds have absolute weight 48–57g and oil content 49–50%. The oil is of linoleic type. The percent of kernel in the seed is 75 – 76%, and the protein in the whole seed is 19–20%. The weight of seeds per plant is 69-80g, and the number of seeds is 1150-1300. The duration of flowering is 10–12 days. The maximum seed yield obtained in the experimental fields of DAI is 4300 kg/ha, and in the neighboring Romania – 6406 kg/ha. In the breeding fields of DAI, the hybrid was tested three years according to a scheme approved for this crop. During the testing period, Sevar exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 2.7–11.8%. By oil yield, the exceeding during the three years was within 3.5 – 19.1%. The highest yield was observed in 2010 – 4002 kg/ha seed yield and 1985 kg/ha oil yield. The oil content of this hybrid reached 49.6% and was higher than the standards San Luka and Brio. Sevar is resistant to the economically important diseases downy mildew (up to race 731) and the parasite Orobanche (up to race F). Hybrid Sevar was registered in Romania with certificate No. 4934/09.06.2015 and was included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties.

Evaluation of lentil cultivars and lines for resistance toFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis

  1. Koleva1*, Y. Stanoeva2, I. Kiryakov2, A. Ivanova1, P. Chamurlyiski1

 

1Shumen University “Bishop Konstantin Preslavski”, College Dobrich, Department of Crop Science and Plant protection, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria

2 Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute, 9500 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 July 2017; accepted for publication 18 January 2018)

 

Abstract. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is one of the most important food legume crops in the farming and food systems of many countries, including Bulgaria. In recent years lentil fields increased in our country. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis (F.o. f.sp. lentis) is a key yield-limiting factor worldwide. The major approach to control the disease is through resistance breeding. The aim of this investigation was to screen lentil cultivars and lines for resistance to F.o. f.sp. lentis. The investigations were carried out during 2013-2015. Thirty two lentil accessions were sown in 1m rows, in three replications. Barley grains (100g/m) inoculated with mix of four isolates of F.o. f.sp. lentis were used as inoculum. Disease reaction was estimated during flowering and pod filling stage according to 9 degree scale. The disease incidence (DI) of every accession was calculated according to McKinney index. Cluster analysis was used to group the accessions according to DI. ‘Genotype’ x ‘Year’ interaction was estimated by Two-way ANOVA. The results showed that middle disease incidence (MDI) was the highest in 2014 and the lowest in 2015. Our investigation confirms the results of many authors that disease incidence of F.o. f.sp. lentis on lentil was determined by the interaction of the factors ‘Genotype’x‘Year’. The cluster analysis grouped the accessions into two major classes. No resistant accessions were found. Six accessions showed MDI from 48.59 to 58.11 and they can be used in a genetic-improvement breeding program for fusarium wilt resistance.

Evaluation of rye specimens in maturity stage on the base of mathematical – statistical analysis

  1. Kuneva1*, E. Valchinova2, A. Stoyanova3

 

1*Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria,

2Institute of Plant Genetic Resources “К. Malkov”- Sadovo, Bulgaria

3Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 June 2017; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of the study is to evaluate comprehensively the rye collection and the possibilities for the specimen usage in selection on the basis of mathematical approaches. The study was carried out during 2009-2012 in the experimental field of the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (IRGD) – town of Sadovo on cinnamon-forest soils with 54 specimens collected (16 samples from expeditions in Bulgaria and 38 samples from abroad). As standard, the Bulgarian variety “Millennium” (current standard in IASAS) was used. The Danae variety has been used as a former 30-year standard for the country. Evaluation of the impact of the examined specimens was made on the basis of the following biometrical indicators: spike length (cm); tillering – productive and non-productive tillering; plant weight (g); ears weight (g); weight of the main spike(g); weight of the main ear`s grain (g); number of the spikelets in the spike; grain weight of the main spike (g); crop index (%). The correlation analysis made allows determination of the dependence of the complexity impact on the rye performance indicators. The established correlations show the degree of impact of each indicator in yield formation. Based on the correlation coefficients derived, the established dependencies between plant seed yield and maturation yield elements, a mathematical model of the plant with high productive potential was obtained. Rye specimens of the highest yield are characterized by high value of the crop index.

Phenotypic diversity in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum sativum L.) varieties

  1. Dyulgerov, B. Dyulgerova

 

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)

 

Abstract. The objective of this investigation was to study the phenotypic diversity among six-rowed winter barley varieties. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, during the period 2014/2015-2015/2016. The diversity among 22 barley varieties was estimated using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Maximum variation was found for grain weight per a spike and grain number per a spike. The presence of significant variation among the evaluated six-rowed winter barley varieties suggests an opportunity for improvement of grain yield through using promising genotypes as parents in the winter barley improvement program.

Agronomic performance of mutant lines of winter two-rowed barley

  1. Dyulgerova, D. Valcheva, N. Dyulgerov

 

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to study agronomic and morphological traits of winter two-rowed barley mutant lines in the M6 and M7 generations. Eight mutant lines, their parent – breeding line 244D and national standard cultivars – Obzor and Emon were evaluated in Complete Block Design with four replications. The research was conducted in the 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 growing seasons in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria. The characters studied included days to heading, plant height, lodging, peduncle length, spike length, awn length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, protein content, extract content and grading (>2.5mm). Mutant lines M1/3, M1/5 and M1/217 produced a significantly greater grain yield than the parent and standard cultivars. The improvement of grain yield was associated with increasing of spike length and grain weight per spike. The studied mutant lines were characterized with a high yield ability combined with other valuable agronomic traits and can be used in a breeding program for developing winter malting  barley varieties.

Yield and coefficient of ecological valence of spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat, Bulgaria

  1. Neykov, T. Mokreva

 

1Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria

2Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 April 2017; accepted for publication 21 September 2017)

 

Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the yield and the coefficient of ecological valence of spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat. Seven spring barley cultivars were planted in the first and second ten days of March, in comparative cultivars trials on the block method in four repetitions of an area of 10 m2, with sowing rate of 450 germinating seeds per m2. They were assessed on the standard for the French cultivar Josefin used of the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control. The statistical processing of the results was carried out by ANOVA. The coefficient of ecological valence (W) is calculated.  Cultivars grown in the region of Sadovo showed better ecological plasticity, but gave lower yields, in the region of Karnobat were more productive but difficult to adapt to environmental conditions. Suitable cultivars for growing spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat are Barke, Scarlett and Bodega. They exceed the standard variety Josefin in yield with proven differences at both test sites.

Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain maize (Zea mays L.)

  1. G. Delchev, M. Georgiev

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of agriculture, 6000 Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 28 November 2016; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides, are more effective than when they are applied alone in maize crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. There are maize hybrids resistant to imidazolinone for Clearfield technology, but they have not yet been introduced in Bulgaria. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of perennial graminaceous weeds in maize crops are quite scarce even worldwide. The problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information in maize relates to conventional technology for weed control. There is not information about the new Duo system technology in grain maize and the hybrids used are resistant to cycloxydim. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature about control of these volunteers.

Volume 10, Number 1, March 2018

Review

Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain maize (Zea mays L.)
G. Delchev, M. Georgiev

Genetics and Breeding

Yield and coefficient of ecological valence of spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat, Bulgaria
N. Neykov, T. Mokreva

Agronomic performance of mutant lines of winter two-rowed barley
B. Dyulgerova, D. Valcheva, N. Dyulgerov

Phenotypic diversity in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum sativum L.) varieties
N. Dyulgerov, B. Dyulgerova

Evaluation of rye specimens in maturity stage on the base of mathematical – statistical analysis
V. Kuneva, E. Valchinova, A. Stoyanova

Evaluation of lentil cultivars and lines for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis
M. Koleva, Y. Stanoeva, I. Kiryakov, A. Ivanova, P. Chamurlyiski

Registration of a new sunflower hybrid – Sevar
P. Peevska, M. Drumeva, G. Georgiev

Nutrition and Physiology

The effect of novel xylanase on feeding value of diet containing cereal by-products for broilers
J.M. Abdulla, S.P. Rose, V. Pirgozliev

Effect of dietary garlic powder and probiotics supplementation on growth performance of male Ross 308 broilers
H. Lukanov, I. Pavlova, A. Genchev

Slaughter traits of Pharaoh Japanese quails
А. Genchev, H. Lukanov, I. Penchev

Blood count in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma
Ts. Hristov, R. Binev

Production Systems

Economic efficiency of fattening on different genotypes slow-growing and fast-growing broiler chickens
M. Oblakova, Y. Popova, P. Hristakieva, N. Mincheva, M. Lalev

Effect of nutmeg extract supplementation on some productive traits and economic efficiency of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultivated in recirculation system
G. Zhelyazkov, S. Stoyanova, I. Sirakov, K. Velichkova, Y. Staykov

Agriculture and Environment

Influence of biomanipulation on the living communities and the water quality in the Strezhevo hydroecosystem, R. Macedonia
R. Nastova, V. Kostov, N. Gjorgovska, V. Levkov

Product Quality and Safety

Residue analysis of difenoconazole in apple fruits grown in Republic of Macedonia
V. Jankuloska, I. Karov, G. Pavlovska

Organoleptic properties of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata poir) as affected by autoclaving time
M. Ahmed, Y.B. Kiri, M.S. Abubakar

Influence of Goji berries on oxidative changes, microbiological status and chemical properties of sausages
A. Mitev, A. Kuzelov, E. Joshevska

Role and importance of the awareness for whey in dairy sector at an international level

M. Yılmaz1*, H. Celik2, A.D. Karaman3, K. Celik4

1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University Aydın, Turkey
2Economics and administrative sciences, Çanakkale on Sekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey
3Department of Dairy Technology, College of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey 4Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Çanakkale on Sekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey

(Manuscript received 6 June 2017; accepted for publication 2 November 2017)

Abstract. The WHY-WHEY? is a training project supported by the EU with regard to the Erasmus+ program aiming at promoting awareness for it. In this study, the surveys carried out with the participants of a total of 4 workshops in Turkey, Italy, Poland and Hungary were evaluated. Whey is the main dairy by-product, rather than a waste, which is obtained during the coagulation of milk casein in cheese making and which is considered as a residual aqueous solution of lactose containing protein and minerals. Survey results indicated that whey is a significant source and it could facilitate the production of some different alternative products. However, there is a great lack in the knowledge and the awareness in this sense. For this reason, it could be said that more detailed surveys and result analyses could offer a solid base to develop a training course and didactic materials in a way that could completely meet the needs of the sector.

Carcass traits and meat quality of different slow growing and fast growing broiler chickens

M. Oblakova1, N. Mincheva1, P. Hristakieva1, I. Ivanova1, M. Lalev1, Sv. Georgieva2

1Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora, 6000, Bulgaria
2Department of Genetic, Breeding and Reproduction, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 3 July 2017; accepted for publication 5 October 2017)

Abstract. The experiment was conducted in the breeder farm of department Population genetics, reproduction and technologies of poultry and rabbits at the Agriculture Institute of Stara Zagora. Five lines from the National Gene Pool of Bulgaria: line Ss (Sussex), line E (Barred Plymouth Rock), line NG (New Hampshire), line F (NG x Red Rhode Island), line L (White Plymouth Rock) were used as maternal forms in the crossing schedule and line M (Cornish) as a paternal form for production of slow-growing broilers. The birds were grown to 84 days. Feeding was done with compound feeds according to the age: starter (1/14 days of age), grower (14/28 days of age), finisher (28/84 days of age). By the end of the experiment, slaughter analysis was performed with 3 female and 3 male broiler chickens per group with live weight corresponding to the average of each genotype. The live weight was determined, as well as the grill weight, the weights of cuts (breast, thighs, wings), edible offal (heart, liver, gizzard) and abdominal fat. On the basis of these data, the slaughter yield and body parts ratios were calculated. The data for the live body weights of birds at slaughtering indicated the highest values for group V – 4040g, followed by groups ІV and ІІ – 3271.67g and 3186.67g, respectively (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes with superiority of male birds (p<0.001). In the other 3 groups, breast meat percentage ranged from 19.48 to 19.84%. The share of thighs from the grill was the greatest in slow-growing chickens from group II – 33.01%, followed by group І – 32.35%, group IV – 32.18%, and the lowest- in groups ІІІ and V (31.91% and 31.18%, respectively). The analysis of data exhibited a significant effect of the genotype on water content of breast meat (resp. Dry matter), with lower values in slow-growing birds from group III – 73.19% (p<0.05), whereas in the other groups it ranged between 73.44 and 73.62%. The dry matter higher percentage was associated with better lavor of meat. The analysis of the effect of genotype on meat protein content showed that protein content was the highest in the breast of slow-growing chickens from group III- 24.89% and lowest in the breast meat of conventional broilers from group V – 23.86% (p<0.05). In the other 3 groups, it ranged from 24.55 to 24.59%. The protein content of thighs was the lowest in slow-growing birds from group I- 19.49%, and the difference was the highest when compared to groups II and III, also slow-growing (p<0.05). With respect to the thigh fat content, it was the highest in slow-growing chickens from group IV (5.84%), followed by fast-growing from group V (5.33%) and the lowest- in slow-growing birds from group І – 4.12% (p<0.05). The analysis of data showed a statistically significant effect of the sex on water content (p<0.001), fat (p<0.001) and ash (p<0.01). In males, thigh meat contained water and ash and in females more fat. The interaction of genotype and sex effects were important for thigh meat fat content, with highest values in fast-growing females from group V – 5.98% and lowest in slowly growing males from group I – 3.88% (p<0.001). Weak but statistically significant interaction between both factors was found with respect to thigh protein and ash (p<0.05). The highest protein content was established in slow-growing females from group IV (19.81%), whereas thigh ash was with highest percentage in slow-growing males from group II (1.11%).