Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides.

Gr. Delchev*, S. Angelova

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 July 2018; accepted for publication 1 February 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate the productivity and yield stability at durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) treated with antibroadleaved herbicides during 3-rd stem node stage. The experiment was conducted during 2012-2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Victoria (Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were tested: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat. It was found that during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat the antibroadleaved herbicides Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra and Starane can be used. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable yield is obtained after the treatment with herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 3-rd stem node stage technologically the most valuable are herbicides Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. After the treatment with them high grain yield with high stability with relation to different years is obtained. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Weedmaster, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex, Sanafen, Dicotex and Herby cannot be used during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat.

Effect of rations with fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea on some reproductive parameters of rabbit bucks

O. Pius1*, T. Ahemen1, A.H. Abu2

1Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, College of Animal Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
2Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 27 August 2018; accepted for publication 14 January 2019)

Abstract. Thirty (30) rabbit bucks of mixed breeds (New Zealand white x Chinchilla) with average live weight of 852g, aged between 12 and 14 weeks were subjected to a feeding trial for 14 weeks, to determine the effects of diets with different ratio concentrate to fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea (FLGA) on semen characteristics, testicular and epididymal morphometry of rabbit bucks. The rabbits were randomly allocated into five treatments: Treatment 1-T1 (100g concentrate /C/: 0g FLGA), Treatment 2-T2 (75g C: 25g FLGA), Treatment-T3 3 (50g C: 50g FLGA), Treatment 4-T4 (25g C: 75g FLGA), Treatment 5-T5 (00g C: 100g FLGA). The results obtained showed that sperm motility, concentration and percentage of live sperm cells showed significant effects (P<0.05), while semen volume and percentage of normal sperm cells were not significantly affected by the test diets. Rabbits on T4 did not ejaculate within the experimental period. Mean testis density was not significantly affected, while paired testes weight, mean testis length, paired testes volume, paired epididymal weight and mean epididymal length were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. The results revealed that rabbit bucks on T2 and T3 performed better, rabbits on T4 performed least, while rabbit bucks in T5 could not survive beyond two weeks. Concentrate to FLGA at the ratios of 75g C: 25g FLGA (T2) and 50g C: 50g FLGA (T3) are therefore recommended as the best combinations for rabbit breeding bucks.

Effects of aflatoxin B1 on histopathological structure of immunocompetent organs in mulard ducks

N. Groseva1, I. Valchev2*, Ts. Hristov2, L. Lazarov2, D. Kanakov2, R. Binev2

1Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 21 August 2018; accepted for publication 28 January 2019)

Abstact. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin В1 (AFB1) on immunocompetent organs (thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius) morphology. Also, the possibility for prevention of toxic effects of AFB1 by feed supplementation of a mycosorbent (Mycotox NB) was studied. The experiments were conducted with 4 groups of 20 10-day-old mulard ducks: group I – control, fed a standard compound feed according to the species and the age; group II – experimental, whose feed was supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg. AFB1, group III – experimental, supplemented with 0.8 mg/kg AFB1 and group IV – experimental, supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 2 g/kg Mycotox NG. The duration of the experiments was 42 days. Atrophy and degenerative changes were observed in immunocompetent organs of birds from groups ІІ and III. The supplementation of the feed with 2 g/kg Mycotox NG resulted in partial neutralisation of deleterious effects of AFB1 on severity of histological lesions (considerably slighter lymphoid follicle rarefaction).

Variation and stability of the advanced bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under various environment conditions in Trakia region

İ. Öztürk1*, T. Kahraman1, R. Avcı1, A. Şen2, T.H. Kılıç1

1Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey

(Manuscript received 10 October 2018; accepted for publication 24 January 2019)

Abstract. Various environmental conditions can cause some biotic and abiotic stress factors and reduce yield and quality of wheat. This research was carried out to determine the effect of the environmental conditions on yield, some agronomic, and leaf rust disease of the bread wheat genotypes in four different locations in Trakia region, Turkey. The experiment was established with 25 genotypes in randomised complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications in 2008-2009 cycles. Grain yield, days to heading and maturity, plant height, lodging resistance, leaf rust and relationship among characters were investigated. The temperature and rainfall were scored at GS24-33, GS34-43, GS45-75 and GS77-89 growth stages and compared with the investigated traits. According to the results, significant differences among locations and some investigated parameters were found based on rainfall and temperature with yield and other investigated traits. The mean yield of the genotypes was 5851 kg ha-1, and CMSW97WM518S-12 had the highest yield with 6601 kg ha-1. Tekirdağ was the highest yielding location with 7022 kg ha-1, followed by Edirne (5808 kg ha-1) and Kırklareli (5754 kg ha-1). Due to various environment conditions infection of the leaf rust varied and there were differences among locations. Cultivar Aldane and three lines were resistant to leaf rust. Positive relation between yield with plant height and lodging resistance was found and this means that genotypes which have tall plant had higher yield potential. Rainfall at GS24-33 (r= 0.855) and GS34-43 (r= 0.911*) had a significant and positive effect on grain yield. Increase of temperature during the shooting, heading and grain filling period decreased grain yield, so negative association between grain yield and temperature at GS34-43 (r= -0.761), GS45-75 (r= -0.635) and GS77-89 (r= -0.815) was found. The overall evaluation suggested that increase of temperature from shooting up to grain filling decreased the grain yield duration of the maturating stage. Rainfall during the vegetative growth phase increased grain yield and biomass of plant of genotypes.

Correlations between some economic larval traits of silkworm

  1. Gündüz, Ü. Şahan

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa, Turkey

(Manuscript received 25 August 2018; accepted for publication 18 December 2018)

Abstract. Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. is an economic insect that has great importance on cocoon and silk production. The development of sericultural industry depends on quality and yield in terms of qualitative and quantitative silkworm characters. Mature larval weight and silk gland mass are important factors in silkworm breeding. Silk gland mass has significant impact on the synthesis of silk protein in fifth larval stage. The investigation was conducted to evaluate the correlations between silk gland mass and mature larva weight of M and ZF (China), and N and ZB (Japan) lines and their hybrids MxN, ZFxZB. In this research, silkworm lines and hybrids were reared at the laboratory with 600 silkworm larvae for each four lines and their hybrids to determine these silkworm traits. Analysis of variance indicated that the mean values in Chinese lines and hybrids were found to be significant (P<0.01) for mature larva weight. On the other hand, mean value of silk gland mass was determined as important for Chinese, Japanese lines and hybrids (P<0.01). Both mature larva weight and silk gland mass have positive correlation in Chinese lines (r=0.659) and hybrids (r=0.643) (P<0.01). Otherwise, the correlation between these characters were not found to be significant for Japanese lines. As a result, it is necessary to search the correlation between different characters and to protect the genetic diversity in silkworm lines.

 

Genetic interrelationship among quantitative traits and path analysis of some West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei) genotypes

P.M. Jonah, Y.M. Kwaga

Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 5 July 2018; accepted for publication 30 November 2018)

Abstract. Thirty-six entries of a half diallel cross were evaluated at the Teaching and Research Farm, Adamawa State University, Mubi in 2012 and 2013 under rain fed conditions. The investigation was conducted to study inter-character correlations and path coefficient analyses of yield related traits in West African okra. Fresh pod yield exhibited highly significant (P≤0.01) positive correlation with pods/plant, pod length, branches/plant, pod diameter and leaves/plant. Pod length recorded a highly significant positive correlation with plant height, pod diameter, number of leaves/plant, branches/plant and pods/plant. Similarly, pod diameter had a highly significant positive correlation with plant height, number of leaves, branches and pods/plant. Furthermore, number of pods/plant and branches/plant recorded highly significant positive correlation among yield related traits except plant height. The path coefficient analysis of fresh pod yield and yield related traits showed that number of pods/plant gave the highest direct contribution and percentage yield contribution of 47.83%, followed by pod diameter which contributed 4.58%. Also the highest combined contribution of 14.43% came from pods/plant and pod diameter. Residual percentage contribution was 30.64% revealing that pod yield attributes in this study explained 69.36%. This investigation suggests that pods/plant and pod diameter can be considered as selection criteria for the improvement of West African okra genotypes.

Quantity and quality of wool yolk in Caucasian Merino rams

D. Pamukova1*, G. Staykova2, N. Stancheva2

1Department of Animal Husbandry- Ruminant Animals and Dairy Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Agricultural Institute, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 September 2018; accepted for publication 5 November 2018)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the quality and quantity of the wool yolk of the rams from Caucasian merino breed in order to improve their technological features. The analyses included seven rams at 2.5 years of age and eleven male lambs at the age of 18 months. Thirty-six individual wool samples from two parts of the body (side and thigh) were studied. The following wool parameters were investigated: percentage of the dirty areas of the wool (on the side and the thigh), fat amount, sweat amount, pH of sweat, laboratory wool yield, and color of greasy wool on the side. Percentage of the dirty areas of the wool by categories and topographic ranges varied from 30.79% to 41.52%, indicating that the wool yolk of Caucasian rams was of sufficient quantity and good quality. The percentage of the fats in wool yolk to the greasy wool was relatively high (23.25% in the male lambs at the age of 18 months and 25% in the rams) and had a negative impact on the wool yield. The ratio of fat/sweat was 1.91:1 in rams at 2.5 years of age and 1.44:1 in male lambs at the age of 18 months). The higher relative part of the fat compared to the sweat was an indicator of good protective properties of the wool yolk. That allowed to protect the technological properties of the wool.

Proximate composition, lipid quality and heavy metals content in the muscle of two carp species

A. Merdzhanova*, V. Panayotova, D.A. Dobreva, K. Peycheva

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, 9000 Varna, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 2 August 2018; accepted for publication 12 October 2018)

Abstract. The aim of the presented study was to characterize the quality of edible tissue of freshwater common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), based on their proximate and lipid composition (lipid classes, fatty acid profile, fat soluble vitamins, carotenoids and cholesterol). Health risk assessment was evaluated based on the analysis of some toxic elements (As, Cd, Ni, Pb and total Hg). Proximate composition (moisture, crude protein and total lipid) was determined using standard procedures. Lipids were subsequently separated into neutral (NL) and polar lipids: Phospho- (PL) and Glycolipids (GL) by means of column and thin-layer chromatography. Lipid classes were derivatized into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) which were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Vitamins A, D3 and E, beta-carotene, astaxanthin and cholesterol were analysed simultaneously using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg and Ni) were determined by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) following a microwave digestion procedure. Protein content was higher in bighead carp (18.5%) and lower for common carp (15.5%), whereas lipid content showed opposite trend. Similarities in lipid classes distribution were observed for both species: NL>GL>PL. Neutral lipids constituted approximately 70% of TL in both species, as FAs profile was dominated by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) prevailed in polar fractions. Omega-3 PUFAs were higher in all lipid classes compared to omega-6 PUFAs. Cholesterol content was low (17-24 mg.100-1g ww). Astaxanthin was detected only in bighead carp, whereas beta-carotene, vitamin D3 and vitamin A showed similar concentrations in both samples. Vitamin E content was higher in bighead carp (10.4 mg.100 g-1 w.w.). Trace elements content was higher in bighead carp showing a maximum value of As (0.312 mg.kg-1 w.w). All determined toxic elements were found below the recommended value in carp muscle. The results of the present study confirmed the high quality and safety of common carp and bighead carp meat. These freshwater species are valuable sources of essential nutrients such as proteins, vitamin D3 and long chain omega-3 PUFAs. Together with the nutrients, the information for low concentrations of toxic elements makes them valuable components of a healthy human diet.

Antioxidant properties and phytochemicals of three brown macro algae from the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Strait

A.K. Ilknur1*, G. Turker2

1Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Turkey 2Department of Food Technology, Canakkale School of Applied Sciences, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Turkey

((Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 26 August 2018))

Abstract. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant properties and phytochemicals of brown algae Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link, Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C. Agardh, and Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy, collected from the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Strait, Turkey, in February 2018. The antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, condensed tannins, and total content of phenolics and flavonoids in ethanol extracts were quantified. P. pavonica showed the highest antioxidant potential as well as the maximum content of phenolics and carotenoids. The total flavonoid contents changed from 1375.43±2.37 μg/g Ext. (C. barbata) to 2250.92±46.60 μg/g Ext. (S. lomentaria). The highest condensed tannins were found in C. barbata. According to results obtained, C. barbata, S. lomentaria and P. pavonica possess antioxidant activity and could be used in the food and feed industries.

Effect of wheat straw and cellulose degrading fungi of genus Trichoderma on soil respiration and cellulase, betaglucosidase and soil carbon content

D. Draganova*, I. Valcheva, Y. Kuzmanova, M. Naydenov

Department of Microbiology and Ecological Biotechnologies, Faculty of Plant Protection and Agroecology, Agricultural University, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 June 2018; accepted for publication 31 August 2018)

Abstract. Due to the intensive soil exploitation and increased mineral fertilization, the degradation of plant residues in the soil is becoming more difficult and slower over the years. This disturbs the structure of the soil and the nutritional balance and leads to a reduction in soil fertility. To solve the problem, microorganisms capable of degrading plant residues in the soil can be used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fungi of genus Trichoderma on the biodegradation of wheat straw in the soil by observation of the change in cellulase enzyme activity in the soil and the increase in soil biological activity. The highest basal soil respiration was noted at T2TUR (65.76 μgCO2) and T6 (53.69 μgCO2). During the entire straw degradation period, the highest endoglucanase activity was observed at T4 (285.0 μgGlu) and T6 (275.56 μgGlu), whereas the highest β-glucosidase was noted at T6 (5220.3 μgPNP/g/h) and T1UKR (5020.0 μgPNP/g/h). The presence of cellulose-degrading fungi positively affected the increase in the total amount of microbial biomass at the end of the study period, whereas the amount of Corg was increased in all straw amended variants. At the beginning of the process, CMCase correlated with the microbial carbon (r=0.896 for Cmic) and β-glucosidase activity was closely connected with both soil organic carbon and microbial carbon (r=0.819 for Corg and r=0.866 for Cmic). At the end of the investigated period a stronger correlation with Corg was observed.