A study on entrepreneurship skill practices among rural women in Kwara state, Nigeria

G.B. Adesiji, S.O. Ibrahim, S.E. Komolafe


Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 18 March 2018; accepted for publication 21 May 2018)


Abstract. The study examined the entrepreneurial skill practices of rural women in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 147 respondents were selected. Primary data were collected with the use of questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for the study. Mean age of respondents was 38.5 years. The average entrepreneurship experience was 11 years. The most prominent enterprises undertaken by respondents were garri processing (83.7%), corn milling (82.3%), soap making (82.3%), livestock production (81.6%), selling of provision/petty trade (80.3%), grinding pepper (78.2%), tailoring (76.9%), selling of pepper (71.4%), and poultry farming (64.6%). Commonly practiced entrepreneurial skills were communication skills (74.1%), creative thinking skills (72.8%), time management skills (70.1%), decision making and risk management skills (68.0%) and organizational management (61.2%). Most indicated constraints faced were high interest on loan (70.8%), poor road structure (67.3%), high cost of input (66.0%), lack of storage facilities (63.9), poor electricity supply (62.0%), lack of production materials (61.2%) and environmental factors (60.5%). Findings also show that age, marital status, household size and years of experience of respondents had positive significant influence on entrepreneurial skills practised at p<0.01 level of significance. The study concluded that communication skills, creative thinking skills, and time management skills were most practised by rural women entrepreneurs in Kwara State. The study recommends the need for rural women entrepreneurs to form strong credit cooperative society in other to empower themselves financially as well as easy procurement of inputs at cheaper rate.

Perception of rural farmers on pesticide use in vegetable production

  1. Naznin1, M. S. I. Afrad1, M. E. Haque1, M. Zakaria2, A. A. Barau1


1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh

2Department of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh


(Manuscript received 20 March 2018; accepted for publication 21 May 2018)


Abstract. In rural areas of Bangladesh, farmers use various types of pesticides without thinking about the effects of these pesticides on deteriorating and polluting the environment. As a result, the present study examined the rural farmers’ perception on pesticide use for vegetable production. The study was conducted in four villages of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. A total of 110 vegetables farmers were selected as sample for the study. Interview schedule was employed for collection of primary data. Simple statistics was used for analysis, viz. frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, while correlation was employed to test the relationship between the selected socioeconomic characteristics and perception of the farmers on pesticide use in vegetable cultivation. Findings revealed that most of the respondents were over 35 years old, had high literacy level, 7 or less family members, contacted various information sources, received training (64.55%), earned low (78.2%) income annually and slightly above half (52.73%) participated in organizations. A greater majority of the respondents had favorable to highly favorable perception on pesticide use in vegetable production. Also, most of the respondents faced myriad of difficulties in dealing with pesticide, especially eye and skin difficulties. Organizational participation (r = 0.220) showed significant relationship with perception on pesticide use in vegetable production. Therefore, information dissemination should be improved by the government in order to increase awareness on safe use of pesticides, as well as establish centres for surveillance, prevention, and management of difficulties associated with dealing with pesticides.

Effect of fertilizer type and plant spacing on plant morphological characteristics, yield and chemical composition of desho grass (Pennisetumpedicellatum Trin.) in Northwestern Ethiopia

B.Mihret1, B. Asmare2, Y. Mekuriaw2


1Awi Zone, Department of Agriculture, Injibara,Ethiopia

2Department of Animal Production and Technology, P.O.Box 5501, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia


(Manuscript received 19 January 2018; accepted for publication 4 April  2018)


Abstract. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer type and plant spacing on morphological characteristics, yield and nutritive value of desho grass.The study compared three type of fertilizer and three type of between plant spacing on the performance of desho grass. The data collected from the study were morphological parameters including plant height (PH), leaf length per plant (LLPP), number of leaves per plant (NLPP), number of tillers per plant (NTPP), number of roots per plant (NRPP) and root length per plant (RLPP), biomass yield and chemical composition including crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), neutral detergentfibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre(ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) of the grass as well as yield parameters crude protein yield (CPY)and dry matte yield (DMY) were collected. The result indicated that all morphological parameters were significantly affected (P<0.05) by the type of fertilizer. Among chemical composition parameters CP, ash, NDF, ADF, ADLand yield parameters CPY and DMYwere significantly different (P<0.05) due to both factors. However, DM content was not affected (P>0.05) by effect of fertilizer and plant spacing. The highest CPcontent was observed (10.95%) for chemical fertilizer and least value (9%) for non-fertilized grass. The result revealed that the maximum biomass yield and improved quality can be obtained using NPS fertilizer if it is accessible by smallholder farmers. However, if the NPS is not accessible, the use of manure could be an alternative to produce good quality desho fodder with optimum yield. With regard to plant spacing, the intermediate plant spacing can be best to obtain optimum biomass in the study area. Overall, this study implied that desho grass can be planted with available fertilizer and proper spacing recommendable since it has shown good result for yield and quality of the desho grass in the study area and similar agro-ecologies.

Effect of pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf meal on productive parameters of growing rabbits

P.C. Jiwuba


Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 25 December 2017; accepted for publication 9 March 2018)


Abstract. A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the productive performance, carcass yield and organ characteristics of growing rabbits fed diets containing pawpaw leaf meal (PLM). A total of forty-eight (48) growing rabbits with an average body weight range of 477.01g were randomly divided into four experimental groups of twelve animals each, with four rabbits constituting a replicate. Four experimental diets were formulated and designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 to contain PLM at 0%, 15%, 30% and 45%, respectively. The four treatment groups were assigned the four diets in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each rabbit received an assigned diet for 56 days. The determined chemical composition of the experimental diets ranges from 90.46-92.91% dry matter (DM), 16.70-17.44% crude protein (CP), 15.40-16.45% crude fibre (CF), 3.29-8.09% ash, 2.30-3.11 ether extract (EE), 49.34-52.89% nitrogen free extract (NFE) and 2550.05-2604.10 Kcal/kg metabolisable energy (ME). The proximate analysis of the PLM revealed 87.67% DM, 17.30% CP, 12.86% CF, 8.88% ash, 0.81% EE 47.82% NFE and 2348.05 Kcal/kg ME. The results on productive performance showed significant (p<0.05) improvement with the inclusion of PLM in the diets for final body weight, daily weight gain, total feed intake and daily feed intake. Similarly, the live weight at slaughter, dressing percentage, loin, back cut and gastro intestinal weight (GIT) were significantly (p<0.05) better and higher for the treatment groups in comparison with the control. It was concluded therefore that PLM is rich in essential nutrients and therefore suitable for inclusion in rabbit ration up to 45% for improved live weight, weight gain, feed intake and carcass and organ yields.

Sexual dimorphism in growth and feeding of Japanese quails in Northern Guinea Savanah

  1. N. Molokwu1, H. Y. Abbaya2,


1Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University (ADSU), Mubi, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 February 2018; accepted for publication 2 May 2018)


Abstract. The study was conducted to determine effect of sex on growth, feed consumption and reproductive pattern of Japanese quails over 16 weeks of age in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. A total of 206 (84 males and 122 females) quails were used for the study and some of the traits measured were body weight, average daily gain, growth rate, feed intake, feed cost, feed cost to gain ratio, age at sexual differentiation and weight at sexual differentiation. There was significant (p<0.05-0.01) difference in all the parameters measured except in feed consumption and feed cost (p>0.05) at 0-3 weeks, body weight, weight gain and growth rate (p>0.05) at 13-16 weeks. There is also no significant difference in the sex differentiation traits of the age at sexual differentiation (p>0.05). It is, therefore, concluded that sexual dimorphism was observed for growth and reproductive traits with the females having more response than the males; also, the Japanese quail used for this study showed a good variation for growth and reproduction traits, thus these traits can be used as basis for selection to develop highly efficient and direct, improved lines of Japanese quails.

In vitro propagation of white oil-bearing rose (Rosa alba L.)

V. Badzhelova1, V. Bozhanova2, G. Chokov3,

1Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Cultures, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

2Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

3Industrial plants company, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 22 June 2018)


Abstract. The influence of major factors such as explant sterilization, plant growth regulators in the multiplication and rooting media and the genotype on the in vitro multiplication of White Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa alba L.) was studied. Explants used in the experiment were 1.0 to 1.5 cm long nodal segments from specially cultivated mother plants. The combination of two disinfectants in the following order: 0.2% HgCl2 solution for 3 min followed by treatment with 0.5% NaClO solution for 20 min and 0.25% NaClO for 30 min was determined as the most suitable sterilization scheme. The best results of multiplication were obtained in basic MS medium with added BAP in concentration of 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The analysis of the variance reveals that the genotype, media variants and interactions between them have a statistically significant influence on the variation of the total number of induced adventive shoots. The highest percentage of successfully rooted young plants (97.5% on average for both genotypes) was obtained in ex vitro conditions by direct rooting in a soil mixture.


Exterior traits of a male parental form for production of autosexing Easter eggers

  1. Lukanov, A. Genchev, E. Halil


Department of Animal Science – monogastric and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.


(Manuscript received 13 March 2018; accepted for publication 2 May 2018)


Abstract. The aim of the present study was to perform exterior evaluation of a newly created male parental form for production of autosexing Easter egger crosses. The main exterior traits and measurements were conducted along with phenotype evaluation of hens and roosters of the XL male parental form at 6 and 12 months of age. The average live weight of 6-month-old roosters and hens was 2.62±0.03 kg and 1.77±0.028 kg, respectively. One-year-old roosters and hens weighed 2.8±0.027 kg and 2.03±0.04 kg, respectively, on average. The ratio between the main exterior measurements of males and females was preserved for both age groups. Hens exhibited lower massiveness index than roosters. The compactness index in hens at 6 and 12 months of age was higher than that of roosters. Six-month-old roosters demonstrated higher long-leggedness index values as compared to year-old males and hens of both studied ages. Phenotypically, birds resembled productive type Rhode Island Red chickens except for the presence of pea combs and small wattles.

Ovarian cysts in sows: causes, frequency of occurrence – a review

  1. Szostak1*, A. Stasiak2, V. Katsarov3, T. Penev4

1Institute of Animal Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Biology and Animal Breeding, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland

2Department of Pig Breeding and Production Technology, Faculty of Biology and Animal Breeding, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland

3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

4Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 9 June 2017; accepted for publication 18 March 2018)


Abstract. The article presents the causes and frequency of occurrence of ovarian cysts in sows. The literature indicates that the pathogenesis of ovarian cysts is a complex process linked to dysfunction of the mechanisms responsible for ovarian follicle development and ovulation. Disturbances in hormonal interactions often originate in stress situations associated with difficulties in adaptation. According to many authors, large-scale farming places a substantial burden on animals, leading to disturbances in the homeostasis of the organism and thereby contributing to the occurrence of reproductive disorders. The authors of this paper have presented literature data and their own observations pertaining to the frequency of occurrence of ovarian cysts in herds of sows. They have described the symptoms accompanying this type of disorder and presented diagnostic methods, emphasizing the key role of post-slaughter evaluation of the reproductive organs of sows.

Influence of Goji berries on oxidative changes, microbiological status and chemical properties of sausages

  1. Mitev1*, A. Kuzelov1, E. Joshevska2

1Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University „Goce Delchev”, 2400 Shtip, Republic of Macedonia

2Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Biotechnical sciences, University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bitola, Republic of Macedonia

(Manuscript received 11 January 2018; accepted for publication 28 February 2018)

Abstract. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of dried and minced goji berries over the oxidative changes (acid level, peroxide value), microbiological status and chemical properties on semi-durable sausage vacuumed and kept at a temperature of +4°С. Therefore, four types of sausages were made. The study was carried out on the 1st, 10th, 25th, 35th, and 50th day of the production of the sausage groups. The acid level of all examined groups of sausages is increasing, and the highest increase is registered in the control group of sausages (2.08). During the storage of the sausages, the peroxide value increased from the first to the fiftieth day. The presence of Listeria monocitogenes, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus was examined as well as the number of aerobic bacteria. In all examined groups, none of the abovementioned bacteria were identified. During the storage of sausages, the number of aerobic bacteria ranged from 2.08 to 2.93 log/CFU/g, which was much lower than the permissible limit (7.00 log/CFU/g) according to the national legislation. The fruit of goji berry doesn’t have a significant effect on the chemical composition of the studied sausage groups.

Organoleptic properties of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata poir) as affected by autoclaving time

  1. Ahmed1*, Y.B. Kiri2, M.S. Abubakar3

1Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

2Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

3Department of Soil Science, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 22 October 2017; accepted for publication 31 January 2018)

Abstract. This experiment examined the effect of processing white yam (Dioscorea rotundata poir) using autoclave under different heating times with the main objective of assessing its effects on the organoleptic properties (colour, mealiness, taste, softness and wetness). Yam tubers were washed, peeled and chopped into chunks. Treatments consisted of yam autoclaved at the temperature of 121oC and pressure of 100 kPa using five different autoclaving times (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min) laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Descriptive sensory analysis was conducted by five trained panelists using a 7-point descriptive scoring method. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance using SAS (1999). Least Significant Differences (LSD) tests were used to compare means that showed significant difference at P≤0.05. The results show that, autoclaving time had positive influence on organoleptic properties of white yam. The effect was more apparent on yam autoclaved for 5 minutes and therefore, recommended to be adopted for improved sensory attributes of boiled white yam.