Productivity of durum wheat cultivar Predel at nitrogen-phosphorous fertilization

L. Plescuta*

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 June 2017; accepted for publication 10 October 2017)

Abstract. The effect of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilization at nitrogen rates 0, 80, 120 and 160 kg.ha-1 and 0, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 for phosphorus has been studied in durum wheat Predel cultivar, grown on leached vertisol soil type during the period 2012-2014 in the field of the Field Crops Institute – Chirpan. The results show that at alone nitrogen fertilization grain yield reaches 3,75 t.ha-1 at moderate N120, while at alone phosphorus fertilization the increase compared to the non- fertilized control (2,50 t.ha-1) is insignificant. At combined N120P120 the highest grain yield was obtained during the period – 4.50 t.ha-1, with 57.41% above the control. The harvest index of durum wheat grain variety Predel is 0.353 on average. Good HI results are formed at fertilization with P120 and N80P80.


Length of the growing season and yield in Triticum monococcum L., in accordance with the growing conditions

S. Stamatov*, E. Valchinova, G. Desheva, K. Uzundzhalieva, P. Chavdarov, T. Cholakov, B. Kyosev, R. Ruseva, N. Velcheva

Institute of Plant genetic resources „Konstantin Malkov”, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 7 June 2017; accepted for publication 1 September 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the current study is to trace the changes in the length of the growing season in accordance with the accumulated effective temperatures, rains and plant nutrition during the vegetation period, as well as the influence of these indices on the grain yield. The study was conducted in the period 2015 – 2016 in the experimental field of Institute of Plant Genetic Resources – Sadovo with the local variety B3E0025 from the National Genebank in Sadovo. The experiment was made in block method in four repetitions. Three sowing times were made – autumn, winter and early spring and two options of N fertilization – without additional N and 3 kg/da input of active N substance in tillеring phase. The beginning of the basic phenophases has been observed. As a result of the study it was established that the vegetation period in T. monococcum L. has 114-238 days’ duration and accumulation of effective temperature of 2266.0- 2714.71°C. The length of the growing season and the necessary accumulated temperature depends on the sowing period, the predecessor, the amount of nutrient substances and soil moisture. The extension of the critical phases of autumn sowing favours the obtaining of higher yield. The significance of the effective temperatures decreases with additional N input.

Study on the emptying time of grain harvester hoppers

K. Trendafilov1, N. Delchev2, B. Kolev3, G. Tihanov21Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technics and Technologies – Yambol, Trakia University,
6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
3Department of Agricultural Machinery, Agrarian and Industrial Faculty, “Angel Kanchev” University of Ruse, 7017 Ruse, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 4 January 2017; accepted for publication 11 April 2017)

Abstract. When unloading grain harvester hoppers at a standstill the emptying time has an effect on the grain harvester performance. A study has been conducted on the actual emptying time of harvester grain hoppers on various farms in Bulgaria and the actual flow rate of the unloading auger has been determined. The results obtained have been compared to the designed ones. It has been established that when unloading at a standstill the full rate of the unloading auger is not in use, but only 73.14% of it, with which the hopper emptying time is 1.4 times greater than the theoretical one.

Lucrative status of improved dual purpose cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp) in Damboa, Borno State, North-Eastern Nigeria

B.H. Gabdo*

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria (Manuscript received 22 May 2017; accepted for publication 27 October 2017)

Abstract.Thisstudydivulgedthecost-returnsanalysisbetweenimproveddualpurposecowpea (IDPC)varietiesandothernon-IDPC/localcowpeavarieties in Azir, Damboa town, Kuboa and Sabongari villages of Damboa local council, Borno State, Nigeria. Socio-economic stratification of the villages into Low Population Low Market (LPLM) and Low Population High Market (LPHM) on the basis of human demographic profile and proximity to wholesale market were the criteria adopted for selecting the villages for this study. A total of 150 cowpea farmers responded to the questionnaire instrument; administered between December, 2006 and February, 2007. Results of the budgetary techniques used show that adopters of IDPC varieties generate $386.01ha-1 as net income as against $248.37ha-1 for the non-IDPC adopters; proportional to 55.42% rise in net income per hectare of cowpea resulting from the impact factor of IDPC adoption alone. Similarly, farmers in Sabongari village realized the highest net income of $491.99ha-1 as against Azir the lowest net income of $247.21ha-1 across the four villages owing to demand factor; interplay between human population and proximity to wholesale market; both in favour of Sabongari but none in favour of Azir. In terms of ratios, farmers in Sabongari were adjudged as more lucrative across adopters’ category, socio-economic domain and villages respectively owing to higher return on sale ratio and lower operating ratio. Azir and Sabongari villages were found to exhibit potentiality for comparative cost advantage and comparative sales advantage respectively. Thus, the research concludes that an expansion path for cowpea is feasible if cultivation and sales are premised on cost and sales advantages.

Body condition score, nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in goats with subclinical ketosis

V. Marutsova*, R. Binev

Department of Internal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 29 May 2017; accepted for publication 31 October 2017)

Abstract. Studies were conducted to establish the influence of the values of β-hydroxybutyric acid (ВНВА) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood on the assessment of body condition score (BCS) of goats with subclinical ketosis (SCK). A total of 113 dairy goats with yearly milk yield of 680 L, in their 2nd to 3rd lactation and average body weight 50-60 кg were included in the study. The goats were divided in three groups: І group (n=27) – pregnant (from pre-partum days 15 to 0); ІІ group (n=28) – recently kidded (from postpartum days 0 to 15) and ІІІ group (n=58) – lactating (from postpartum days 30 to 45). It was established that the quantity of BHBA in goats from control groups I, II and III were between 0.17±0.11 mmol/l and 0.56±0.11 mmol/l. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood BHBA was statistically significantly elevated vs control goats – from 0.88±0.11 mmol/l to 1.2±0.42 mmol/l (р<0.001). Blood ВНВА <0.8 mmol/l in goats are indicative a good transition from pregnancy to lactation, whereas an amount between 0.8 mmol/l and 1.6 mmol /l are indicative of the SCK. Blood BHBA concentrations indicative for clinical ketosis were not established in goats from the three groups (ВНВА <1.6 mmol/l). The body condition scores (BCS) of goats from the control groups was within the reference range – 2.45±0.3 – 2.85±0.2, whereas in goats with SCK – declines of varying degrees of reliability. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood NEFA was statistically significantly elevated vs control groups.

Comparative study of rapeseed, monofloral types and multifloral honey by some physico- chemical parameters

I. Zhelyazkova*, S. Lazarov

*Department of Animal Science – non-ruminants and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakiа University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 5 September 2017; accepted for publication 27 October 2017)

Abstract. The objective of the present study is to make a comparative analysis of some basic qualitative parameters of rapeseed (Brassica napus) honey, monofloral (acacia Robinia pseudoacacia, sunflower Helianthus annuus, coriander Coriandrum sativum, lime Tilia sp.,) and multifloral honey. The study uses 26 samples of bee honey from different regions in the country. The physicochemical study was carried out at the Scientific Research Laboratory of Trakia University according to the harmonized methods of the International Honey Commission and the methods described in Bulgarian State Standard (BSS) 3050- 80 and Regulation No. 48/2003. The following indicators have been investigated: water, glucose, fructose and sucrose content (%); hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, mg/kg); electrical conductivity (mS/cm). Based on the results obtained for glucose (G) and fructose (F) content in the honey samples, the sum total of G + F has been calculated. It has been found that the average values of the studied physico-chemical parameters in all analyzed honey samples (incl. rapeseed honey) are within the tolerable limits according to national regulations. The established deviations from the requirements concerning HMF content in rapeseed honey samples can be explained by technological errors rather than by plant origin. By glucose content the analyzed rapeseed honey samples have values close to those of sunflower honey (over 30%). These results can explain the rapid crystallization of rapeseed and sunflower honey. The lowest average electrical conductivity values have been established for rapeseed and acacia honey, which is a characteristic feature of light coloured honey types. Rapeseed and multifloral honey have higher average active acidity value (pH) compared to the average for the monofloral honey types. Based on the results, it can be concluded that rapeseed bee honey (Brassica napus) is of quality, does not differ from the monofloral and multifloral types produced in our country, complies with national and international regulatory documents and can be used by humans for food and as preventive agent.

Нordein polymorphism between spring barley cultivars by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis

N. Neykov1*, S. Doneva2

1Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria 2Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9521 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 April 2017; accepted for publication 28 September 2017)

Abstract. In this study reserve endosperm proteins, hordeins of seven spring barley cultivars with different origin: Zernogradskii (Russia), Bodega, Fink, Scarlett and Barke (Germany), Josefin and Astoria (France) were fractionated and characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. On the basis of the obtained spectra 19 bands (D + C + B) with different relative electrophoretic mobility and intensity were identified. The electrophoresis profiles of the groups D-, C- and B- hordein are designated as separate types (models) using the index corresponding to hordein blocks. We have established one profile type for D-hordein (D1), two- for C-hordein (C1, C2), and five – for B-hordein (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5). Based on these results hordein formulas (configurations) of accessions are constructed, which enable the expression of specific varietal characteristics and prove the existence of the inter allelic variation (hordein polymorphism) due to the presence or absence of protein components and their different electrophoretic mobility in the profiles of D-, C- and B-hordein.

Study on the loss of accuracy of AC-method for milk yield control in sheep

D. Dimov*, P. Zhelyazkova, A. Vuchkov

Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 June 2017; accepted for publication 5 September 2017)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the loss of accuracy of AC-method for milk yield control in sheep under the conditions of threefold milking per day. Test day milk yield records of 113 ewes raised on sheep farm of the Agricultural University in Plovdiv collected according to official A4 method were used. Two breeds were raised at the university experimental farm: White Maritza (49 ewes) and Patch Faced Maritza (64 ewes). Predicted milk yield data on test day were simulated using different prediction coefficients (calculated at morning, noon or evening milk recording). Database includes 2577 predicted milk yield records on test day. The loss of accuracy using AC method is accumulated in two ways: by milk yield prediction coefficients on test day and milk yield calculations during milking period. Loss of accuracy (LA1) in prediction of test day milk yield by prediction coefficients varies from 10.02% to 12.74% according to type of milk recording (morning, noon or evening). Three factors such as level of test day milk yield, type of milk recording and animal have larger influence on LA1, 27.70%, 21.99% and 19.32%, respectively, of total variation. Loss of accuracy (LA2) in the calculated total milked milk per milking period on the basis of predicted test day milk yield according to the morning, noon and evening milk recordings compared with A4 method are 7.04%, 8.03% and 6.05%, respectively. Depending on the type of milk recording on the test day (morning, noon and evening), 46.88% to 56.15 % of the observations of LA2 fall within the scope of ±5%. Rank correlations in the ranking of ewes in all years and different designs of AC method have high values from 0.891 to 1.000.

Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley

N. Dyulgerov, B. Dyulgerova*

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 4 July 2017; accepted for publication 27 October 2017)

Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley. For this purpose, 22 lines from the ICARDA High Input Barley Program for favorable environment and 3 check varieties (Rihane-03, VMorales and Veslets) were tested in an alpha-lattice design with two replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015 growing season. The traits days to heading, plant height, number of tillers per plant, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, spike length, awn length, peduncle length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei), net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) infection were studied. Significant differences between lines for all studied traits were found. The number of fertile tillers per plant was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Lines expressed higher grain yields, shorter stem, better tolerance to net blotch and stripe rust than Bulgarian check variety Veslets were identified. These genotypes can, therefore, be used as parents for the improvement of spring barley.

Influence of elevated platform (wire-mesh or wooden) in the cage on domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) activity

S. Peeva1*, E. Raichev1, D. Georgiev2, A. Stefanov3

1Department of Animal Production – Non-ruminants and Other Animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria,

2Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, 6000, Bulgaria

3Student Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 29 June 2017; accepted for publication 12 August 2017)

Abstract. Placing an elevated platform in the cage of rabbits is an option to increase its area. The aim of this study was to determine whether raised platform affected the overall activity of breeding rabbits and to evaluate the influence of used material (wire-mesh or wood). Two experimental groups of three male Californian rabbits at four months of age, equal body mass and condition were formed. Their activity was examined in three cage types: without platforms, with wire-meshplatformsandwithwoodenplatformsusingcameratraps.Separationofcagevolumebymeansofanelevated platformincreasedtheactivityof breeding rabbits. The rabbit activity was also influenced by the platform material. It was almost three times higher when the platform was made from wood than from wire-mesh.