Amendment speed of water infiltration in surge irrigation for cinnamon forest soil

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of supplements of pieces of walnuts without and with honey and hazelnuts on the count of lactic acid bacteria, dynamic of acidity, and the syneresis of yogurt. It was prepared yogurt from cow’s milk, supplemented by pieces of walnuts, without and with honey and hazelnuts. Our experimental results show that supplements reduced the time for coagulation with 2.3 to 15.7%, and slightly increased the titratable acidity of yogurt during the storage. All supplements lead to increasing of extracted milk serum and syneresis index during the storage. The highest effect was obtained from walnut + honey supplementation. Enrichment of milk with plant biologically active substances has positive effect on the microbial activity. Total count of lactic acid bacteria increased significantly at coagulum, almost twice – with the supplementation of walnut and hazelnut, and almost three times – with walnut plus honey.

Amendment speed of water infiltration in surge irrigation for cinnamon forest soil

I. Gospodinov, S. Chehlarova-Simeonova, A. Stoianova, R. Petkova

Quality characteristics of yogurt supplemented with nuts

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of supplements of pieces of walnuts without and with honey and hazelnuts on the count of lactic acid bacteria, dynamic of acidity, and the syneresis of yogurt. It was prepared yogurt from cow’s milk, supplemented by pieces of walnuts, without and with honey and hazelnuts. Our experimental results show that supplements reduced the time for coagulation with 2.3 to 15.7%, and slightly increased the titratable acidity of yogurt during the storage. All supplements lead to increasing of extracted milk serum and syneresis index during the storage. The highest effect was obtained from walnut + honey supplementation. Enrichment of milk with plant biologically active substances has positive effect on the microbial activity. Total count of lactic acid bacteria increased significantly at coagulum, almost twice – with the supplementation of walnut and hazelnut, and almost three times – with walnut plus honey.

Quality characteristics of yogurt supplemented with nuts

S. Boycheva, N. Naydenova, G. Mihaylova, T. Dimitrov, D. Pavlov

Theoretical determination of the width of strip for turning when ploughing with trailed and semi-mounted reversible ploughs in a field with irregular shape

When ploughing a field with irregular (other than rectangular) shape with a trailed and semi-mounted reversible ploughs, unsymmetrical turns are produced – pear-shaped and eight-shaped. Correlations have been produced for determining the width of strip for turning when these turns are carried out. The way of cultivation of the field in which the width of strip for turning is minimum with different angle between the direction of movement of the unit and the border of the field is specified.

Theoretical determination of the width of strip for turning when ploughing with trailed and semi-mounted reversible ploughs in a field with irregular shape

K. Trendafilov

Аgrobiological characterisitics of wintering forms of foeniculum vulgare L.

The general agrotechnical characterization of fennel was done mainly in four areas: Growth rates – the earlier and simultaneous seed formation resulted in obtaining a high quality production with minimum loss of harvest. Of the observed plants 64% meet these requirements. The seed yield per plant is the most important indicator characterizing the economic qualities of the selected specimen. In the observed plants it varied over 7 times- from 13.6 to 97.2 g / plant. The essential oil content in seeds is a major quality indicator for fennel. The tested samples have a variation of nearly three times – from 2.1 to 6.1 percent. The content of anethole and fenchone in essential oil are conclusive indicators that show the viability of the observed samples. The discovery of plants with high levels of the undesirable constituent fenchone of 11-17% points to the hybrid nature of the observed samples. In the seminal progeny of successfully wintered plants there is one with economic indicators exceeding those of the Shumen variety, as a seed yield of 97.2 g /plant, essential oil content 6.2%, fenchone 0.99%, anethole 86%. These, however, cannot be sustainably inherited in the progeny.

Аgrobiological characterisitics of wintering forms of foeniculum vulgare L.

A. Dzhurmanski

Effect of organo-mineral fertilization on growth and development of perennial grass mixture, cultivated in Strandzha

During the period 2005-2008 at the Experimental Station of Agriculture in the town of Sredetz, based on field experiment with organo-mineral  fertilization of grass mixture comprising: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-60%, tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae, Schreb)-20%, and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) – 20%. The following variants were included in the trial: 1. Background P80K80 -kg/ha – control, 2. N40P80K80 kg/ha; 3. N80P80K80 kg/ha; 4. N120P80K80 kg/ha; 5. Bovine manure of 20 t/ha; 6. Bovine manure of 40 t/ha; 7. Sheep manure of 20 t/ha; 8. Sheep manure of 40 t/ha; 9. Treatment was before sowing of seeds and three times as leaf fertilization with humustim. The purpose of this study was to test the influence of organo-mineral fertilization on the development
of perennial grass mixture, cultivated in Strandzha region, Bulgaria. It was found that the fertilization with mineral fertilizer reduces the participation of pulses, increasing that of wheat and various types of grass. Fertilization with manure reinforces the presence of leguminous grasses, increases density, reduces participation of weeds and weed composition. Leaf treatment with humustim increases the participation of legumes and decreases weed components, but reduces the density of grass mixture.

Effect of organo-mineral fertilization on growth and development of perennial grass mixture, cultivated in Strandzha

K. Stoeva, V.Vateva

Comparative analysis of some investments costs for free rearing female breeding calves

The objective of the study is to compare and analyze investment costs for construction and technological equipment of buildings with different way for free rearing of female breeding calves, as a result of which to define the most economical and practically recommendable solutions with different capacity of dairy cattle-breeding farm. A total of 8 technological variants for freestall rearing of female calves and heifers in farms for 40, 60. 80 and 100 cows have been compared (4 variants for buildings with group cubicles on a sloping floor – for calves 3 to 18 months old and with Butterfly landings for heifers and 4 variants for buildings with group cubicles on straw bedding). It has been established that with the same farm capacity the variants for buildings with group cubicles on a sloping floor for calves and with a Butterfly landing for heifers are more economical than buildings with group cubicles on straw bedding by relative construction cost of the load bearing and fencing structures and by relative total construction cost, but they are more capital-intensive by relative construction cost of the floor profile. By increasing the farm capacity from 40 to 100 cows the parameters of the two types of technological variants (with group cubicles on a sloping floor for calves and Butterfly landing for heifers and with group cubicles on straw bedding) decrease – the relative construction cost of the technological profile drops from 299 to 203 BGN/st.pl. (up to 47,3 %), the relative construction cost of the load bearing and fencing structures drops from 1388 to 832 BGN/st.pl. (up to 66,8 %), the relative total construction cost – from 1650 BGN/st.pl. to 1080 BGN/st.pl. (up to 52,8 %). The variant with group cubicles on a sloping floor for calves and with Butterfly landing for heifers on a farm with capacity for 100 cows is the most economical – up to 66,8 % by relative construction cost of the load bearing and fencing structures of the buildings and up to 52,8 % by relative total construction cots. The variant with group cubicles on straw bedding on a farm with capacity for 100 cows is more economical up to 47,3% than the other variants by relative construction cost of the floor profile.

Comparative analysis of some investments costs for free rearing female breeding calves

V. Dimova, Y. Popova, D. Dinev

Effect of addition of multienzyme preparation VemoZyme®Plus on productive and slaughter parameters and meat composition of broiler chickens, fed wheat-corn-soybean meal diets

An experiment, lasting 42 days, was made to stady the еffect of addition of Bulgarian multienzyme complex VemoZyme®Plus on productive and slaughter performance and chemical meat composition of broiler chickens, fed wheat-corn-soybean meal based diets. In this trial 120 male one day old chickens of „Ross 308” hybrid, keep in battery cages, divided into 4 groups (distributed equally in three repetitions in each group) were used: 1. Positive control, fed with balanced diet ; 2. Positive control with addition of 0,05 % VemoZyme®Plus. 3. Negative control, fed with diet, contains 5 % less metabolizable energy(ME) and digestible essential amino acids (DEAA)–lisine, methionine+cistine, treonine. 4. Negative control with addition of 0.05% by VemoZyme®Plus. Tested enzyme preparation had no significant effect on the live weight, feed conversion, slaughter indices, protein and fat composition in the white meat of broiler chickens, fed with balanced diets. Addition of VemoZyme ® Plus to the diets of diminished nutritive value, increases (compared to the same, without addition of VemoZyme ® Plus) with 8,0 (P<0.05) and 5.7% (P<0.05) live weight, respectively through the grower and whole 42 days period, improved feed conversion with 11,0 (Р<0,05) and 4,7 % (Р>0,05) respectively through the grower and the whole fattening period, has a positive (Р<0,05) effect on grill weight (with 6,5 %), without significantly affecting percentage of protein and fat in the white meat, compared with the control group.

Effect of addition of multienzyme preparation VemoZyme®Plus on productive and slaughter parameters and meat composition of broiler chickens, fed wheat-corn-soybean meal diets

V. Georgieva, S. Chobanova , G. Ganchev, I. Manolov, D. Jarkov, M. Lalev, D. Stoianov

Combined effect of Cygro® and vitamin E on oxidative stress status of broiler chickens infected with Eimeria tenella

We measured plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) as indices of the levels of lipid peroxidation products. In addition, we studied the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria tenella and treated with a combination of Cygro® (1% maduramycin ammonium) and vitamin E. Before treatment with this drug combination there were significantly higher levels of MDA, decreased SOD and increased CAT erythrocyte activities in the infected chickens compared to the healthy controls (P<0.001). Treatment with Cygro® alone showed some beneficial effects on lipid peroxidation in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria tenella. However, a combination of Cygro® (5 ppm) and vitamin E, at a dose 50 mg per chicken for 11 days, did not attenuate oxidative stress (increased plasma MDA) and did not normalize the ecological oxidative balance (EOB) in the chickens (decreased SOD and increased CAT). The observed changes in the economical parameters (weight gain and FCR) were indicative for a severe infection, in which the oxidative stress probably was also involved during pathogenesis.

Combined effect of Cygro® and vitamin E on oxidative stress status of broiler chickens infected with Eimeria tenella

N. Georgieva, V. Koinarski, M. Gabrashanska

Age-related changes in mineral retention and excretion in starter and finisher pigs diets with and without exogenous phytase

А. Ilchev, G. Gаnchev, S. Chobanova, D. Kanakov, P. Petkov, I. Nikiforov

Five balance feeding trials were performed to evaluate age-related changes in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium utilization in growing and fattening male castrated DanBred hybrid pigs. Two commercial phytase preparations were used: Optiphos and Natuphos at a dose of 0.01 %. It was found out that with age, the amount of dietary nitrogen intake and nitrogen output in urine increased statistically significantly (P<0,05). The total nitrogen output was also higher. The retention of nitrogen decreased substantially with age. The supplementation of rations with phytase did not alter this tendency. Phytase added to feed improved phosphorus absorption by 28-34 % and reduced its total output by 38-45 %. The digestibility of calcium in pigs decreased with age, whereas its output in faeces became higher. There was no statistically significant difference between the effects of Optiphos and Natuphos

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Breeding and agrotechnics of rape (Brassica napus L.). Winter rape – distribution, cultivation and investigation in Bulgaria

Oilseed rape (OSR) or rapeseed – Brassica napus L. is the most important plant of genus Brassica, grown for its oil content. Breeding of new rape varieties without eruc acid content (“0” type) and low-glucosinolytic content (“00” type) is a prerequisite for the cultivation of this crop in more countries and on increasingly larger areas. The recent gradual re-introduction of rapeseed in our country turned it into a successful crop. The potential of the introduced winter and spring rape varieties was investigated. The technology for new varieties and hybrids grown in Europe and worldwide was studied and improved. New initial material was collected and eaxamined as a basis for the resumed breeding of rapeseed in Bulgaria. The research work was directed towards developing parental forms and using heterosis in rapeseed.

Breeding and agrotechnics of rape (Brassica napus L.). Winter rape – distribution, cultivation and investigation in Bulgaria

M. Hristova-Cherbadzi, G. Georgiev