Research on the water regimen of soil upon the production of vine planting material

N. Kovachev, N. Taneva, V. Kovachev, L. Halil
Abstract. In the period 2007-2010 at the Experimental Vineyards /Viticulture Facility/ – Septemvri an experiment was initiated for studying the influence of water regimen of soil upon the production of vine planting seed material. The experiment layout included the grape sort Cabernet Sauvignon. The following groups or versions were included for surveying – V reference – gravity irrigation; V sprinkling irrigation and V drip irrigation. For all versions of irrigation 200 0 1 2 pieces of stratified paraffinized crops were engrafted. The data obtained throughout the 4 years indicates that the irrigation techniques applied provide the necessary optimum soil moisture varying within 70% – 75% for V to 90% for V and V . The results also indicate that the drip irrigation and sprinkling techniques 0 1 2 have an advantage compared to gravity irrigation. The said advantage is expressed in higher values of the first class material percentage, the number of step roots above 1mm, the thickness of the 3rd internode, the mature portion percentage. The trend visible is that when drip irrigation and sprinkling is applied in the production of vine planting seed according to the bed row technology it is possible to achieve about 50-60% first class vine planting seed.

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Accumulation dynamic of Ruta graveolens L. essential oil

A. Dzhurmanski, G. Zhekova, D. Angelova
Abstract. In the vegetation of rue the content of essential oil in fresh leaves herb doesn’t change and it maintains constant value of 0.1%. However, there are significant changes in content of essential oil of the inflorescence in order of 4-5 times with the lowest values 0.07 -0.1% in stage beginning of blossoming and the highest 0.26-0.49% in stage wax ripeness. Important changes in content of essential oil occurred after the drug drying – it increased to 4-5 times in leaves and inflorescence gathered in stage full blossoming, but in wax ripeness with 2.8 times. The essential oil composition has presented that the main ingredient 2- undecanone increased slightly from 62% in stage full blossoming to 70-73% in stage wax ripeness. In same time 2 – nonanone decreased from 21% to 14%. In some samples gathered in stage wax ripeness has been observed increasing of 2-nonanona to 21%.

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The effect of the milking liner design on the parameters of the milking machine pulsation system

V. Vlashev, B. Banev, K. Peichev, G. Dineva
Abstract. The analysis of nitrile rubber milking liners with triangular and circular cross section has been performed. Dependencies between surrounding surfaces and volume of pulsation chambers of the tested specimens and the effect of squeezing the teat have been determined. The obtained data have been related to the structure (the time-frequency components) of the pulsation curve describing the mode of the samples. The functional relationships between the spatial parameters of the teatcup and the frequency components of the identified pulsation curves have been studied. Pressure exercised by the milking liner on artificial teat has been measured with various parameters of the pulsation system.

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Use of brewer’s grains for feeding of lambs

A. Kirilov, K. Ivanov
Abstract. In production of beer, bio-ethanol or bio-diesel from grain or oil-bearing seeds by-products are obtained having good forage characteristics. The byproducts from brewing and distilling industry, which are rich in protein and are successfully used as protein sources in the rations for ruminant animals, are of interest to the farmers. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of substitution of 50% of the protein of sunflower meal in the compound feed by protein from brewer’s grains, preserved and fresh, or from rapeseed meal in feeding of lambs. For that purpose an experiment was carried out with 40 lambs of initial live weight of 27 kg from the Pleven Blackface sheep breed divided into 4 groups. On average for the experimental period the obtained daily weight gain was 206 g for the lambs from І group fed with sunflower meal and 205 g, 197 g and 253 g for ІІ, ІІІ and ІV group respectively, where 50% of the protein of sunflower meal was substituted by preserved brewer’s grains, rapeseed expeller and fresh brewer’s grains. It was concluded that the substitution of 50% of the protein of sunflower meal by such one from brewer’s grains or rapeseed expeller did not influence negatively the weight gain and feed consumption in feeding of lambs.

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Effect of body condition score at calving on body condition during lactation in Holstein and Brown Swiss cows

Zh. Gergovska, T. Angelova, D. Yordanova, Zh. Krastanov, Ch. Miteva
Abstract. The study comprises 37 cows of which 20 Holstein and 17 Brown Swiss cows. The rearing technology in both breeds is free rearing in individual cubicles for rest. Milking is two times in milking parlour. Cows are divided in three technological groups depending on the physiological state, respectively: dry cows, І-st – up to 120-150 th day and ІІ-d lactation period. Feeding is on the basis of whole ration mixture including maize silage, alfalfa haylage, concentrated fodder and vitamin and mineral additives. The body condition of cows has been recorded on a monthly basis by using a 5-score evaluation system, from 0 to 5 points, recorded with accuracy up to 0.5 points. In Brown cows average BCS at calving is 3 points, average BCS during lactation is 1.64 points. In Holstein cows average BCS at calving is 2.8 points and average BCS during lactation is 1.38 points. Heifers from both breeds have a bit lower BCS at calving (3.0 points) than older cows, but they have less loss of body condition during lactation – 1.66 points. With cows at ≥ ІІ-d lactation loss is more intensive as early as the first lactation month and till the lowest BCS they lose a total of 2.04 points. Holstein cows lose at the beginning of lactation more points (an average of 2.14) and reach lower BCS (1.05) compared to Brown Swiss ones in which these values are 1.85 an 1.20 points. BCS drops to the lowest value during lactation in cows from both breeds with poor body condition at calving (2 and 2.5 points). The smoothest are the changes in the body condition of cows that had reached BCS at calving 3.5 and 4 points.

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Intraorbital glands in turkey broilers. III. Lacrimal gland histometry

D. Dimitrov
Abstract. Twenty-four lacrimal glands obtained from 12 turkey-broilers (6 of each gender) of the BUT-9 stock hybrid (France) were investigated. Permanent histological preparations were done from previously fixed glands using routine techniques. Morphometric studies of the main microstructural elements of the lacrimal gland in turkey broilers were performed by means of a light microscopy with built-in eyepiece micrometer. Data were statistically processed. The average size of lobules of turkey lacrimal gland was 368.43 μm. The mean outer diameter of glandular acini was 55.42 μm, whereas those of tertiary, secondary and primary secretory ducts – 52.22 μm, 66.30 μm and 77.18 μm, respectively. The mean outer diameter of interlobular ducts was 155.84 μm, while that of gland’s excretory duct –386.03 μm. The results from this histomorphometric study allowed us to assume that by the time of turkey hybrid BUT-9 realization on the market, the lacrimal gland was a structurally mature and functionally active organ.

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Epidermal growth factor content in rabbit doe milk during the different lactation stages

Vachkova, B. Bivolarski
Abstract. The productivity in industrial rabbit farms could be increased by early weaning of the offspring. During the post natal development, the intestinal tract of neonates undergoes morphological and functional changes. These adaptation events are largely modulated by biologically active substances in milk secretion, such as the epidermal growth factor. Studies in humans, mice, rats, swine, sheep and cattle have shown that the colostrum and milk concentrations of this factor are species-specific. There are however no investigations on the content of epidermal growth factor during the different lactation stages in rabbit does. The present study aimed to establish the content of epidermal growth factor in rabbit doe milk during the different stages of lactation. The experiment was performed with 5 rabbit does for each period of lactation (post parturient hours 24 and 48, and post parturient days 3, 6, 16, 21 and 28). The concentrations of epidermal growth factors in rabbit doe milk ranged between 47.20–152 pg/ml. They were the lowest as compared to those obtained in men and other animal species. Nevertheless, it was established the highest concentrations were attained by the end of the lactation period. The early weaning of rabbits deprives them from epidermal growth factor in a period when its milk concentrations were the highest

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Pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin after oral application of Pulmotil G 200 – premix in pigs

Dimitrova, V. Katsarov, D. Dimitrov, D. Tsoneva
Abstract. The purpose of the present study was to determine the main pharmacokinetic parameters of tilmicosin after oral application of Pulmotil G 200-premix (Elanco). Eight clinically healthy Danube White pigs 4 from both genders, at the age of 9-10 weeks, weighing from 9 tо 14.55 kg were used. Pulmotil G 200- premix was applied once at a dose of 16 mg/kg body weight tilmicosin. Plasma antibiotic concentrations were assayed by HPLC and the main pharmacokinetic parameters of tilmicosin were calculated. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tilmicosin after application of Pulmotil G 200-premix were as followed: elimination half-life (t ) 14.92 0.87 h, maximum plasma concentrations (C ) 1.031 0.035 g/ml, time to reach maximum plasma concentrations (T ) 1/2 max max 2.096±0.095 h, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC ) 9.68±0.91 μg.h/ml. Plasma tilmicosin concentrations higher than 0.112±0.011 μg/ml → LOQ were detected for 24 hours while lower than 0.092 g/ml – until the end of the 72-h experimental period. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of tilmicosin after oral application to pigs corresponded to those specific for macrolide antibiotics and at the same time, was distinguished plasma concentrations maintained over a long period of time.

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Effect of dietary coconut oil supplementation oN some blood biochemical indices in yearling rams

Т. Slavov, V. Radev, K. Sivkova, I. Varlyakov
Abstract. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing coconut oil to the ration of yearling rams on some clinically important blood biochemical parameters. Nine male Blackhead Pleven yearling rams were used in the experiment, with initial weight of 45.2 kg on the average. The experimental design included two periods. During the first period, the first group of yearling rams received 1 kg barley and 1 kg grass hay (ration I); the second group – 0.800 kg barley, 0,200 kg sunflower meal and 1 kg grass hay (ration II), and the third group 0.800 kg barley, 0.200 kg sunflower expeller and 1 kg grass hay (ration III). During the experimental period, 0.02 kg coconut oil was applied via cannulae at the time of the morning feeding in all groups. The addition of coconut oil to ration II resulted in increased serum total and HDL cholesterol 2.5 h after feeding (р<0.001). Serum triglycerides remained unchanged in animals fed rations I and II, despite the additional amount of lipids introduced in the rumen. IN all three rations, coconut oil decreased significantly serum ASAT activity both prior to feeding (р<0.05) and after feeding (р<0.001). After coconut oil supplementation, serum alkaline phosphatase decreased in animals fed ration II both before (р<0.001) and after feeding (р<0.05).

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Еvaluation of perspective sorghum breeding forms in their reaction to some diseases in field conditions

M. Georgieva – Andreeva, K. Tanova, S. Raykov
Abstract. During the period 2009-2010 a phytosanitary evaluation of 17 breeds of sorghum from breeding experiment of Agricultural Institute – Shumen, grown at different density, has taken place. The development of bacterial diseases – bacterial leaf streak and bacterial leaf stripe, fungal leaf blight and non-infectious chlorosis have been reported. Regardless of plant density, the fungal leaf blight develops strongest (from 16% to 34%), with a tendency of increasing in dense sowing. Regarding bacterial leaf streak, the selection materials have shown mediocre resistance with maximum intensity 38% for thin sowing and 36% for dense sowing. The non-infectious chlorosis occurs depending on origin with disease development from 0 to 48%.

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