Effect of the sowing norm and nitrogen fertilization on the yield from dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Beslet

G. Milev
Abstract. During 2010 – 2012 a field trial was carried out with the new cultivar Beslet in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute on slightly leached vertisol. The aim of the investigation was to find out the optimal sowing and nitrogen norms for this cultivar under the conditions of slightly leached vertisol in Dobrudzha region. Five sowing norms were tested: 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 germinating seeds per m2, as well as four variants of nitrogen fertilization: 0, 40, 80, and 120 kg/ha against phosphorus background of 60 kg/ha. The trial was designed according to the split plot method, with four replications of the variants, the size of the harvest plot being 12 m2. The sowing norm of 45 g.s. / m2 was found the most efficient with regard to yield from cultivar Beslet. Nitrogen fertilization increased seed yield, the rate of increase being the highest with the lowest nitrogen norm – N P . Subsequent increase of the sowing norm did not go together 40 80 with the same rate of yield increase. One thousand seed weight reached a maximum as early as the second sowing norm (35 g.s. /m2) and fertilization norm N P . The effect of the investigated factors on yield structure generally followed the same model of variation as yield itself. The effect of the sowing norm on the 120 80 yield components was better expressed than the effect of nitrogen fertilization. The highest effect on the three investigated indices was determined for the respective year conditions. The highest yield was obtained in the first year of the investigation: 2010, i.e. the year with optimal conditions for expression of the biological potential of cultivar Beslet.

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Changes in some blood parameters in yearling rams fed diets with different protein and lipid levels

V. Radev, T. Slavov, I. Varlyakov
Abstract. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of three rations with different lipid and protein levels on some blood biochemical parameters in yearling rams. The experiment was performed with nine Blackhead Pleven yearling rams, with initial average body weight 45.2 kg. They were divided in three groups of three animals each and housed indoor, in individual boxes. The animals from the three groups were fed 3 rations, conditionally termed ration I, ration II and ration III were tested. Ration I contained 1.00 kg ground barley and 1.00 kg meadow hay. To the others, a different protein and lipid source was added. Ration II consisted of 1.00 kg meadow hay, 0.800 kg barley mash and 0.200 kg sunflower meal. Ration III contained 1.00 kg meadow hay, 0.800 kg barley mash and 0.200 kg sunflower expeller. Rations differed with respect to their lipid and protein contents. They were offered twice daily –8:00 AM and 1:00 PM.Blood samples were collected from vena jugularis externa during three consecutive days, twice daily – before and 2.5 hours after feeding. The following parameters were assayed: total protein, albumin, globulins, total lipids, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. The effect of the three rations on studied parameters and the changes before and after feeding were followed out. The results showed that feeding rations with different protein and lipid sources did not result in statistically significant changes in blood total protein and albumin in yearling rams. There were neither considerable changes in total lipids concentrations. In animals fed ration II (containing sunflower meal), a pre-prandial increase in blood globulins (p<0.05) was noted compared to animals fed sunflower expeller. The globulin concentrations were also higher than average values in rams fed ration I, but the differences were not significant. Total and HDL cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.01) 2.5 hours after feeding ration III containing sunflower expeller compared to both rations I and II.

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Blood parameters in yearling sheep fed Paulownia (Paulownia spp.) leaves

I. Varlyakov, V. Radev, T. Slavov, G. Ganchev
Abstract. A physiological experiment was conducted with three yearling sheep, Stara Zagora x Pleven Blackhead crosses, to establish the effect of feeding Paulownia elongatа leaves on some blood parameters. The trial consisted of two periods: control and experimental. During the control period, yearling sheep were fed a ration of 1 kg barley and 1 kg meadow hay, and during the experimental period – dried Paulownia elongatа leaves. Blood samples were collected from v. jugularis externa before feeding and 2.5 hours after feeding during both periods after allowing 10-day adaptation to the respective diet. The studied parameters were erythrocyte counts, leukocyte counts, blood glucose, total protein, albumin and globulins. The intake of Paulownia leaves resulted in statistically significant reduction in erythrocyte (p<0.05) and leukocyte counts (p<0.001). This was most pronounced in the postprandial hours. Paulownia leaves also provoked increased total serum protein concentrations on the account of both higher albumin and globulins. The albumin/globulin ratio was 0.29 regardless of the type of diet or the time of sampling – prior to or after feeding.

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Comparative investigations on feeding efficiency in growing and fattening DanBred and Topigs hybrid pigs

G. Ganchev, A. Ilchev
Abstract. A balance trial was performed with two groups of Topigs hybrid pigs (n=4) and DanВred hybrid pigs (n=4). Each trial was of 10-day duration (5 days preliminary and 5 day experimental period, during which urine and faeces were collected). The pigs were fed total mix rations prepared in the Experimental base. DanBred hybrid pigs were fed in compliance to Nutrients Standards for pigs in Denmark, 12-th edition, Copenhagen, July 2005. Feeding of Topigs hybrid pigs was done according to recommendations of Guideline for feeding Topigs sows (Topigs International, BV, 2001). Over the entire fattening period, DanBred hybrid pigs exhibited a higher daily nitrogen retention compared to Topigs pigs – by 5.5% on the average. Because of the higher nutrition norms during the different fattening stages DanBred pigs consumed more expensive compound feeds – by 10% on the average. The average costs for lean meat gain produced from Topigs pigs were by 8% lower than those from DanBred pigs. Provided that the other production costs in farms are identical, the rearing of Topigs hybrid pigs was evaluated as more profitable.

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Impaired pancreatic function in mulard ducks with experimental aflatoxicosis

I. Valchev, N. Grozeva, D. Kanakov, Ts. Hristov, L. Lazarov, R. Binev, Y. Nikolov
Abstract. Changes in blood concentrations of some biochemical indices (alpha amylase, lipase, insulin and blood glucose) as well as in pancreas morphology were monitored in mulard ducks with experimental aflatoxicosis В . The experiments were conducted with 4 groups of 20 10-day-old mulard ducks: group I – 1 control, fed a standard compound feed according to the species and the age; group II – experimental, whose feed was supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB , 1 group III – experimental, supplemented with 0.8 mg/kg AFB and group IV – experimental, supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB and 2 g/kg Mycotox NG. The 1 1 duration of the experiment was 42 days. By the 21st day of the experiment, ducks from groups II and III showed reduced activity of enzymes and blood glucose. The observed changes tended to become more pronounced by the 42nd day of the trial. Histopathologically, the pancreas exhibited intralobular swelling, disorganisation and disintegration of glandular acini, various extents of dystrophic changes, mononuclear infiltrates as well as necrobiotic changes depending on the dose of ingested toxin. The supplementation of contaminated feed with a mycosorbent (Mycotox NG) reduced statistically significantly the changes in blood biochemical parameters as well as the severity and frequency of observed histological lesions.

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Comparative study of some biochemical indicators in Karakachan and Copper-Red Shumen sheep breeds

G. Angelov, I.Dimitrova, T. Mehmedov, P. Stamberov, N. Stancheva, S. Georgieva, Zh. Nakev
Abstract. The survey covers 140 clinically healthy sheep from two indigenous sheep breeds – Karakachan (KK)and Copper-Red Shumen (CRS) over one year old. Blood samples are taken from v. jugularis, and using a semi-automatic biochemical analyzer were determined in serum levels of blood sugar, total serum protein and albumin, creatinine, urea, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium. The results obtained indicated that the levels of total protein (75.81±7.03 for KK and 72.19±5.64 for CRS), albumin (44.85±6.43 for KK and 42.09±4.06 for CRS), creatinine (183.35±291.77 for KK and 128.30±45.70 for CRS) and urea (9.30±3.90 for KK and 11.10±5.76 for CRS) in Karakachan breed are poorly higher than those of the Copper – Red Shumen. The values of blood sugar (2.89±0.49 for KK and 2.49±0.57 for CRS), calcium (2.30±0.41 for KK and 2.22±0.33 for CRS), inorganic phosphorus (1.94±0.64 for KK and 1.94±0.44 for CRS) and magnesium (1.23±0.29 for KK and 1.14±0.20 for CRS) showed no breed differences. The significant differences between the two breeds were obtained only in value of both creatinine and blood sugar.

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Evaluation of the combining ability of grain yield of mutant maize lines

M. Ilchovska
Abstract. For the purposes of preliminary evaluation of the combining ability for grain yield of 12 mutant maize lines a top cross method for early testing and the mathematical model of Savchenko(1993) for analysis of the general combining ability and specific combining ability of these lines are used. Mutant lines are tested by three testers that have proven high general combining ability. For the purposes of evaluation of the productive abilities of the received top crosses at the experimental filed of Maize Institute,Knezha three preliminary varietal experiments are carried out by using agro technique accepted for the region. As a result of the committed experimental workand the analysis performed under the method of Savchenkoit is established that the lines ХМ 42-7-1*-1, ХМ 34-1-1*- 1 and ХМ 33-4-4-1 have the highest generalcombining ability. They can be used as components for obtaining synthetics with high yields or as testers in analyzing crosses for determining the general combining ability at earlier stages of the selection process. Specified lines with high specific combining ability – ХМ 4-1-1-1, ХМ 31-1-3*-1, ХМ 44-6-2*-1, ХМ 34-1-1*-1 and ХМ 3-5-1-1 are appropriate to be included in the combination for obtaining hybrids with high yields. Two mutant lines of the spectrum – ХМ 33-4-4-1 and ХМ 42-7-1*-1, have both high general combining ability and specific combiningability. They can be used in both selection directions.

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Evaluation of double haploid lines of winter malting barley using selection indices

B. Dyulgerova, D. Valcheva
Abstract. Twenty two double haploid lines from winter malting barley breeding program of the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat were tested in randomized complete block design with four replications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the breeding potential of double haploid lines of winter malting barley using multiple selection indices. Selection indices used included: Elston’s index, Baker’s index, Rank summation index and a simple-weighted index as proposed by Wehner. The significant correlation between selection indices calculated for 6 quality traits (1000 grain weight, hectoliter weight, malt extract content, protein content, germination on day 3 and grain grading) and indices based on the most important 4 (1000 grain weight, hectoliter weight, malt extract content and protein content) quality traits was found, indicating that the 4-trait indices could be substituted using 6-trait indices to save work in data collection. Selection indices were calculated using the most important 4 quality traits and grain yield. The lines A 9/16, A 8/3, A 25/19, A 15/2 combine the desired quality characteristics with high grain yield and can be selected for further evaluation in a breeding program of winter malting barley.

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Effect of genotypic and environmental factors on the inheritance of the main characters in chickpea and relationships between them

R. Sturzu, T. Nistot, Cr. Melucă, Fl. Bodescu, A. Stoilova
Abstract. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the environmental influence weight compared to the weight of genetic variance in quantitative characters in chickpea main expression and phenotypic correlations between them. In the period 2011–2012, at the Agricultural Research and Development Station Teleorman, Romania, we conducted a series of experiments that included five species/groups of chickpea along with direct F hybrids obtained after a half 1 diallele cross. The results obtained showed that the coefficients of variation had values corresponding to the intended purpose and they are from 12.34% for the size of the plant to 20.17% for the seed weight per plant and seed size. High values of regression coefficients (b = 0.61 to 0.97) expressing the relationship Vr/Wr (variance and covariance parent – descendant) suggest large gene effects for the characters and small environmental effects and reveal a high probability of similarity of the descendants with their parents. Heritability coefficients in narrow sense that are due to additive gene action and are of importance for the breeding were high for all the characters. The presence of high and positive correlations between the characters allows purposeful selection on several characters simultaneously. Genetic information acquired from this study offer opportunities to chickpea breeders to intensify the rapid improvement of all studied characters.

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Comparative morphological study of new burley tobacco lines

T. Radoukova, Y.Dyulgerski
Abstract. The variation degree of the basic morphological characteristics in 15 new perspective lines of the Burley tobacco variety group was established and analyzed. Detailed morphological characteristic of the studied tobacco samples was developed. For the plant height, leaf number and size, the differences between the studied lines are in statistical error, which is an indication of breeding success. The highest variability of the descriptive characteristics was established for the flower panicle width and the size of the leaf auricle). Referring to descriptive characteristics, the greatest diversity in the studied lines was reported for the shape and surface of the leaf blade, as well as for the angle of leaf divergence from the stem. The developed morphological characteristics showed that all the studied lines had optimal quantitative and qualitative characteristics complying with the requirements to Burley tobacco variety group.

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