Animal hygiene assessment of microclimate in semi open free-stall barns for dairy cows

D. Dimov1*, Tch. Miteva1, I. Marinov2, Zh. Gergovska2, Т. Penev1, A. Enchev3

1Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Animal Science – Ruminants and Dairy Farming, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 3Enfo Agro LTD, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 December 2016; accepted for publication 16 February 2017)

Abstract. The study was conducted in three semi open free-stall barns (B1, B2, and B3) for dairy cows with capacities for 120, 120 and 500 cows, respectively, from three different dairy farms (F-1, F-2 and F-3), situated in Central Southern Bulgaria. The investigated farms had the same production system – loose housing in semi open free-stall dairy barn. For each of the farms the main microclimatic parameters – air temperature, relative humidity and speed of airflow were recorded twice a month at 10.00 h 12.00 h, 14.00 h, 16.00 h and 18.00 h of the day inside the barns in three main technological zones – above the stalls, above manure and feed alleys and outside the buildings. It was found that: a) Microclimatic parameters (air temperature, air relative humidity and speed of airflow) in technological zones (above the stalls, the manure and feed alleys) of three semi open free-stall dairy barns meet the animal hygienic requirements for all seasons according to Regulation No. 44 (2006). Exceptions are some values of relative humidity in B1 and B2 in the spring, and in B1 in winter and summer, which are lower than the minimum humidity (50%) according to the standard. b) The investigated barns are characterized with poor insulation and do not provide enough isolation from the external ambient temperatures. With the exception of winter, the temperature of the air inside the buildings was lower than that outside, with minor differences for all seasons. The fans in the barns have no effect on the inside air temperature, especially in summer. There was a risk of higher temperatures mainly during the summer period. c) There is no significant difference between the average temperatures, air humidity and speed of airflow in all technological zones of the investigated barns. d) The largest and statistically significant is the difference between the relative air humidity outside and inside the building in Farm 3, followed by buildings in Farm 1 and 2, where the differences are smaller and statistically insignificant. e) Factor analysis revealed a significant effect: of the farm on temperature in the different technological zones in the barns (P <0.05-0.01); of the farm in the zones of manure and feed alleys (P <0.001) and less effect in the zone of stalls (P <0.05) on speed of airflow, the factor season on speed of airflow in all zones (P <0.001), the time of recording in the zone of manure alley on speed of airflow (P <0.05); the farm, season and time of recording on the humidity in the three technological zones (P <0.001).

Screening of cucurbitaceous rootstocks against root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and soilborne pathogens (Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp.)

V. Yankova*, D. Markova, N. Velkov, S. Masheva

Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 22 August 2016; accepted for publication 30 January 2017)

Abstract. One of the main problems in cucumber greenhouse production is control of soil-borne pathogens and root-knot nematodes. Grafting cucumber plants represent an alternative method to control that is safety and does not pollute the environment. Immune forms to these pests are not established, but in some studies are found sources belong to Cucurbitaceae family that possesses resistant or tolerant response. The aim of this study was to screening cucurbitaceous rootstock genotypes to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp. During the period 2014-2015 in the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv thirteen breeding materials belonging to Cucurbitaceae family were tested: Gergana, Kiara F1, TG, TD (Cucumis sativus); CM 720, SB-2, SB-3, Turban (C. maxima); Muskatna 51-17, Carotina, (C. moschata); Turban × Muskatna 51-17, CM 720 × Carotina (C. maxima × C. moschata F1); Local (Lagenaria siceraria). Two parallel trials were performed in greenhouse conditions. Local isolates of pests were used for the screening tests. Plants were grown in pots and inoculated with mixed infection of Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp. In trial with root-knot nematodes the plants were inoculated with 6000 second stage juveniles (J2). The response was recorded 60 days after inoculation. Results indicated that Carotina was resistant when the pots were inoculated with Meloidogyne spp. Resistant response to soil-borne pathogens possesses cucumber lines TG and TD and Lagenaria. Tested cucurbitaceous material can be used directly for grafting cucumber plants, and also be able to used as a basis for starting breeding program for rootstocks with tolerance to Meloidogyne spp., Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp.

Agro-ecological assessment of manure from different farm animals by content of biogenic elements

D. Dermendzhieva1*, G. Kostadinova1, G. Petkov1, D. Dimov1, T. Dinev2, T. Penev1, Tch. Miteva1, J. Mitev1

1Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physics, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 November 2016; accepted for publication 23 January 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to investigate and to make agro-ecological assessment of fresh (excreted up to 24 h) and stored (for 6 months) manure from different farm animals (dairy cows, pigs, laying hens and turkeys) by biogenic elements content (N, P, K) for a period of one year. Samples of fresh and stored manure were collected and analyzed monthly for total N, total P and total K content. It was found that: a) biogenic elements in fresh and stored manure decreased in the following gradation by average values for the studies period: turkeys – total N (13.9 – 9.16 g/kg DM), total P (9.94 – 8.67 g/kg DM) and total K (5.02 – 3.74 g/kg DM); laying hens – total N (13.6-9.95 g/kg DM), total P (9.27- 7.94 g/kg DM) and total K (5.56 – 4.60 g/kg DM); pigs – total N (8.30 -6.77 g/kg DM), total P (6.08-4.65 g/kg DM) and total K (3.56 – 1.61 g/kg DM); dairy cows – total N (5.62 -4.76 g/kg DM), total P (1.72 – 1.48 g/kg DM) and total K (2.99 – 1.72 g/kg DM); b) the change in nutrients content of different types of manures by seasons both in fresh and in stored manure are divergent; c) coefficients of variation values determined surveyed manures by content of nutrients from minor to significant variable (Cv = 9.30-37.5%); d) during the storage of the tested manures nutrient losses are the greatest for potassium (17.3-54.8%), followed by nitrogen (15.3-34.1%) and phosphorus (12.8-23.5%); e) the average losses of biogenic elements in manure by kind of animal species are in varying degrees: dairy cows (total N 15.3%, total P 14.0%, total K 42.5%); pigs (total N 18.4%, total P 23.5%, total K 54.8%); laying hens (total N 26.8%, total P 14.3%, total K 17.3%) and turkeys (total N 34.1%, total P 12.8%, total K 25.5%); f) the ratio between nutrients (N:P:K), both in fresh and in stored manure from different animal species vary in relatively wide limits both by seasons (12.6%N:18.1%P:56.3%K – 41.5%N:16.0%P:39.7%K) and by average of the studied period (15.3%N:14.0%P:42.5%K – 34.1%N:12.8%P:25.5%K).

Reclamation of lands disturbed by mining activities in Bulgaria

I. Kirilov, M. Banov*

Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, 7 Shousse Bankya, 1080 Sofia, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 5 August 2016; accepted for publication 7 November 2016)

Abstract. Disturbed by the mining industry area in Bulgaria is about 24.113 ha of which only 8.253 ha are reclaimed. Reclamation of disturbed areas covers a complex of engineering, technical, ameliorative, agricultural, forestry and other activities, which aim at restoration of the disturbed terrains and their re-entry into economic turnover in accordance with environmental conditions and area landscape. All disturbed lands as well as their adjacent areas that have completely or partially lost productivity as a result of the negative impact of mining activities and land damage are subject to reclamation. Land reclamation is a two-step process which includes: technical reclamation and biological reclamation. Technical reclamation is performed by the land owner and covers cleaning and preparation of the terrain, leveling, final formation and laying a humus soil layer on site by adding appropriate “improvers” (e.g. fertilizers, texture enhancers, etc.). Biological reclamation covers restoration of the productivity of the disturbed areas. Reclamation technologies applied in Bulgaria as a whole have led to a state of these territories that requires both maintenance and search for new ways of integration of the reclaimed landscapes with modern economic activities. The aim of the study is analysis and applying reliable modern practices that ensure good results in visual qualities of landscape and more options for future use of the reclaimed land.

 

Effect of green manure cover crops on tomato greenhouse production

I. Tringovska, V. Yankova, D. Markova

Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 22 August 2016; accepted for publication 27 September 2016)

Abstract. Cover crops are an important component in sustainable vegetable production with main purpose to reduce the use of synthetic inputs, especially nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops as hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) on (i) greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality and (ii) root-knot nematodes infestation. The experiment was carried out during two consecutive years (2014 – 2015) in an unheated greenhouse at Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute. Cover crops were grown before the main crop and plowed under and incorporated into the soil a week before transplanting the tomato plants. Control plots did not receive green manures. Two variants of fertigation were applied – optimal and 50% reduced amount of nitrogen fertilizer. Green manures did not change significantly the yield of tomato plants as well as did not influence on fruit quality parameters as brix, total sugars and titrable acidity. A slight negative effect was observed on Vitamin C content in tomato fruits. By green manuring with hairy vetch a reduction of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer used for fertigation could be achieved. Hairy vetch and white mustard as green manures suppressed to some extent the development of Meloidogyne spp.

Selectivity and stability of herbicides and their tank mixtures for the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

G. Delchev1*, T. Barakova2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 16 May 2016; accepted for publication 11 August 2016)

Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation were 4 sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.): hybrid Bacardy (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField plus technology), hybrid Estiva (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField technology), hybrid Sumico (a tribenuron-methyl tolerant hybrid by ExpessSun technology) and hybrid Arizona (a hybrid by conventional technology). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B, herbicides and tank mixtures, included 20 rates. It includes 3 variants by ClearField plus technology, 5 variants by ClearField technology, 5 variants by ExpessSun technology and 7 variants by conventional technology. All variants are on herbicide Gardoprim plus gold 500 SC (S- metolachlor + terbuthylazine) – 3.5 l/ha, which treated after sowing before emergence of the sunflower. It is found that the highest seed yield is obtained at herbicide tank mixture Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua by ClearField plus technology. Tank mixture Listego + Dash + Sharpen by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super by ExpressSun technology also lead to obtaining high seed yields. The most unstable are secondary weed infested checks by the fourth technologies for sunflower growing which are treated with soil-applied herbicide Gardoprim plus gold only. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua and herbicide Pulsar by ClearField plus technology, tank mixtures Listego + Dash + Sharpen and Listego + Dash by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super and Express + Lactofol B + Select super by ExpressSun technology. Tank mixtures of herbicides Smerch, Pendigan, Wing, Raft, Pledge and Modown with Amalgerol premium by conventional technology have low estimates due to insufficient control of some weeds in sunflower crops.

Panthaleus major /Duges/ of cereals in Bulgaria

V. Maneva*, D. Atanasova

Institute of Agriculture, 1 Industrialna Str., 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 30 June 2016; accepted for publication 19 September 2016)

Abstract. Until recently, Penthaleus major (Dugès) has not been recognized as an economically significant pest for the cereal crops. After climatic changes, its population began to grow and inflict damages around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate its distribution in Bulgaria and establish whether it presents a danger to the cereal crops. In the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a monitoring survey was conducted to establish Penthaleus major (Dugès) with the cereal crops in Bulgaria. Over 60 sowed fields were investigated from all around the country. Samples were taken to identify the pest. It was established that Penthaleus major (Dugès) inflicted harm to the wheat in north-eastern (12-14 mites per stem) and south-eastern Bulgaria (6-8 mites per stem). Its density was under the threshold of economic harm. There was not found infestation of barley, rye, oat and triticale. On the field boundaries bordering the areas attacked by the mite were reported the following weeds: Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medic, Descurania sophia (L.) Welb. et Berth, Senecio spp., Sisymbrium orientale Torn., Taraxsacum officinale Weber, Anthemis spp., Bromus arvensis L., Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P.B. Lolium temulentum L., which can be habitat for Penthaleus major (Dugès).

Phytosanitary conditions of the organic field and boundary

D. Atanasova1*, V. Maneva1, N. Grozeva2

1Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, Bulgaria
2Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 July 2016; accepted for publication 11 August 2016)

Abstract. In the field and boundary of certificated field for organic farming in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat have been observed and described diseases, pests and weeds in wild and cultivated plants and dependencies between them are reported. The cultural plant diversity at the certified field for organic farming is significant and amounts to 32 species and varieties of cereals. The weeds in crops and in the free areas significantly differed. In crops, the annual broadleaf weeds had greater diversity of species (Anthemis arvensis L., Lathyrus aphaca L., Papaver phoeas L., Polygonum aviculare L., Polygonum convolvulus L.) and at the boundaries – the cereal weeds (Аpera spica-venti L., Hordeum murinum L., Bromus tectorum L., Poa pratensis L.). At the adjacent areas the perennial broadleaf weeds – Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and Convolvulus arvensis L. were not found. At the boundaries less pest species and types of diseases were registered than in the crop fields. In cereals the most common pests are Sitobion avenae L., Aelia acuminate L., Eurygaster austriaca Schr. Beneficial insects are Coccinella septempunctata L. The most common diseases are Erysiphe graminis and Rhynchosporium secalis (Oudem.) Davis.

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Effect of some soil herbicides on vegetative habits of almond trees of ‘Nonpareil’ cultivar grown in a second-year nursery field

Z. Rankova1*, M. Tityanov2

1Fruit Growing Institute, 4004 Plovdiv, 12 Ostromila, Bulgaria 2University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ohridski, 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 31 May 2016; accepted for publication 26 July 2016)

Abstract. The study was carried out in the period 2010 – 2012 in a nursery field established on the territory of the Fruit-Growing Institute, Plovdiv. The effect of the combined soil-applied herbicide metolachlor + oxyfluorfen (Metofen) and the contact soil herbicide with foliar activity flumioxazine (Pledge 50 WP) on the vegetative habits of ‘Nonpareil’ almond cultivar grafted on almond seedling rootstock was evaluated. In the period 15-25 March, before beginning of vegetation, soil herbicides were applied in the row strip in the second-year nursery field. The following variants were included in the study: 1. Control (untreated, hand- weeded); 2. Metofen – 120 ml/da; 3. Metofen – 240 ml/da; 4. Pledge 50 WP – 8.0 g/da; 5. Pledge 50 WP – 20.0 g/da. The effect of the herbicides on weed infestation and on the vegetative habits of the cultivar/rootstock combination ‘Nonpareil’/almond seedling rootstock was followed up. The results showed that the herbicides applied at the tested rates had a good control on weed infestation and the herbicide activity continued for 3.5-4 months. That makes it possible to eliminate the competitive impact of weeds on the development of the grafted trees for 4-5 months after beginning of vegetation. Visual symptoms of phytotoxicity (chlorosis or necrosis in the leaves and shoots) or an obvious suppression of the development of the grafted trees in the treated variants were not established. A depressing effect on growth of the grafted trees was reported after treatment with Metofen. The contact herbicide with soil and foliar activity Pledge 50 WP – 8.0 g/da can be applied for weed control in a second-year nursery field of almond trees grafted on bitter almond seedling rootstock.

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Selectivity and stability of herbicides and herbicide combinations for the grain yield of maize (Zea Mays L.)

G. Delchev1*, T. Barakova2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 16 May 2016; accepted for publication 9 August 2016)

Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was cycloxydim tolerant maize hybrid Ultrafox duo (Zea mays L.). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check and 3 soil-applied herbicides – Adengo 465 SC (isoxaflutol + tiencarbazon) – 440 ml/ha, Wing P (pendimethalin + dimethenamid) – 4 l/ha and Lumax 538 SC (S-metolachlor + terbuthylazine + mesotrione) – 4 l/ha. Factor C included no treated check and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Stellar 210 SL (topramezon + dicamba) – 1 l/ha, Principal plus (nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron + dicamba) – 380 g/ha, Ventum WG (foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron) – 150 g/ha, Monsun active OD (foramsulfuron + tiencarbazon) – 1.5 l/ha and Laudis OD (tembotrione) – 2 l/ha. In addition to these variants by conventional technology for maize growing one variant by Duo system technology is also included in the experiment. It includes soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex 480 SC (isoxaflutole) – 420 g/ha and tank mixture of antigraminaceous herbicide Focus ultra (cycloxydim) – 2 l/ha + antibroadleaved herbicide Kalam (tritosulfuron + dicamba) – 300 g/ha. It is found that herbicide combination of soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex with tank mixture Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology leads to obtaining high grain yield. High yields of maize grain are also obtained by herbicide combinations Lumax + Principal plus, Lumax + Laudis and Wing + Principal plus. The most unstable are the non-treated check and single use of soil- applied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Merlin flex + Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology, followed by combinations of foliar-applied herbicides Principal plus and Laudis with soil-applied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax by conventional technology. Single use of herbicides has low estimate due to must to combine soil-applied with foliar-applied herbicides for full control of weeds in maize crops

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