Ecological analysis of the flora in the ‘Chinarite’ protected area – Rodopi municipality, Bulgaria

L. Dospatliev1*, M. Lacheva2

1Department of Pharmacology, Animal Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria;
2Department of Botany, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 June 2016; accepted for publication 21 August 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to make an ecological analysis of the floristic composition in the protected area ‘Chinarite’ Rodopi municipality, Bulgaria in terms of its biological spectrum, biological types and phytogeographic elements and an assessment of the anthropogenic effect on it. In studied protected area were identified 147 species of vascular plants, of them 8 species included in the Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 73 medicinal species, 55 nectariferous plants and 10 tertiary relicts were recorded. The anthropogenic impact on the protected area is obvious and it has affected to the greatest degree the species composition of vascular plants, which encompasses a large number of weeds – 28 species,ruderals-29species,alien -5speciesandinvasive-6species.

Avifauna abundance and diversity in Jos wildlife park, Nigeria

B.T. Kwaga1, D. Iliya1, A. Ali1, D. Khobe2*

1Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 1 June 2017; accepted for publication 30 August 2017)

Abstract. There is a great need to determine the abundance and diversity of any ecosystems biodiversity through its species composition and richness. This study compared the diversity and abundance of bird (avifauna) species in three habitats of the Wildlife Park, Plateau State, Nigeria. The three vegetation types (Gallery, Savannah and the Rocky areas) were surveyed. Fifteen (15) line transects (five in each of the habitats) were laid in the morning and evening hours. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics (mean and percentages). Simpson’s diversity index was also employed in assessing the diversity of avifauna species in the study area. The result obtained indicated that a total of 616, 569 and 363 birds were recorded in the morning hours while a total of 117, 140 and 115 were identified in the evening. The results of birds species diversity (morning and evening) indicated that transects II (0.5956) and I (0.7407) for Gallery forests, transects II (0.6946) and III (1.000) for Savannah V (0.0784) and I (0.0752) for Rocky habitats, respectively, had the highest birds diversity. It is recommended that pastoralists and Plateau State Government should liaise and provide alternative grazing reserves to minimize the encroachment of the pastoralists into the Park and other protected areas.

Influence of basic agrotechnical activities on the productivity and yield of Triticum monococcum L.

S. Stamatov*, K. Uzundzhalieva, E. Valchinova, G. Desheva, P. Chavdarov, B. Kyosev, T. Cholakov, R. Ruseva, N. Velcheva

Institute of Plant genetic Resources „Konstantin Malkov”, 2 Druzhba, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 7 June 2017; accepted for publication 25 August 2017)

Abstract. The study was conducted during the period 2014 – 2016 in the experimental field of Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Sadovo. The influence of the period of sowing, the predecessor and the fertilization on the elements of productivity and grain yield per hectare in einkorn wheat were studied. It was established that the structural elements of productivity – number of productive tillers, length of the spike, number of spikelets per spike, mass of central spike, number of grains in central spike, weight of the grains from the central spike are with the highest values in plants grown after predecessor peas, sown in autumn and fertilized with extra nitrogen. With least developed productive capabilities are the plant variants sown in spring after sunflower and without additional fertilization with nitrogen. With proved the biggest impact on grain yield per hectare is the date of sowing. The sources of variation: predecessor and combined effect of factors predecessor x fertilization show equal share of influence on the productivity of einkorn. The results from the study give science-based information on the most favorable time of sowing, fertilizing and predecessor in einkorn.

Animal hygiene assessment of microclimate in semi open free-stall barns for dairy cows

D. Dimov1*, Tch. Miteva1, I. Marinov2, Zh. Gergovska2, Т. Penev1, A. Enchev3

1Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Animal Science – Ruminants and Dairy Farming, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 3Enfo Agro LTD, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 December 2016; accepted for publication 16 February 2017)

Abstract. The study was conducted in three semi open free-stall barns (B1, B2, and B3) for dairy cows with capacities for 120, 120 and 500 cows, respectively, from three different dairy farms (F-1, F-2 and F-3), situated in Central Southern Bulgaria. The investigated farms had the same production system – loose housing in semi open free-stall dairy barn. For each of the farms the main microclimatic parameters – air temperature, relative humidity and speed of airflow were recorded twice a month at 10.00 h 12.00 h, 14.00 h, 16.00 h and 18.00 h of the day inside the barns in three main technological zones – above the stalls, above manure and feed alleys and outside the buildings. It was found that: a) Microclimatic parameters (air temperature, air relative humidity and speed of airflow) in technological zones (above the stalls, the manure and feed alleys) of three semi open free-stall dairy barns meet the animal hygienic requirements for all seasons according to Regulation No. 44 (2006). Exceptions are some values of relative humidity in B1 and B2 in the spring, and in B1 in winter and summer, which are lower than the minimum humidity (50%) according to the standard. b) The investigated barns are characterized with poor insulation and do not provide enough isolation from the external ambient temperatures. With the exception of winter, the temperature of the air inside the buildings was lower than that outside, with minor differences for all seasons. The fans in the barns have no effect on the inside air temperature, especially in summer. There was a risk of higher temperatures mainly during the summer period. c) There is no significant difference between the average temperatures, air humidity and speed of airflow in all technological zones of the investigated barns. d) The largest and statistically significant is the difference between the relative air humidity outside and inside the building in Farm 3, followed by buildings in Farm 1 and 2, where the differences are smaller and statistically insignificant. e) Factor analysis revealed a significant effect: of the farm on temperature in the different technological zones in the barns (P <0.05-0.01); of the farm in the zones of manure and feed alleys (P <0.001) and less effect in the zone of stalls (P <0.05) on speed of airflow, the factor season on speed of airflow in all zones (P <0.001), the time of recording in the zone of manure alley on speed of airflow (P <0.05); the farm, season and time of recording on the humidity in the three technological zones (P <0.001).

Screening of cucurbitaceous rootstocks against root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and soilborne pathogens (Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp.)

V. Yankova*, D. Markova, N. Velkov, S. Masheva

Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 22 August 2016; accepted for publication 30 January 2017)

Abstract. One of the main problems in cucumber greenhouse production is control of soil-borne pathogens and root-knot nematodes. Grafting cucumber plants represent an alternative method to control that is safety and does not pollute the environment. Immune forms to these pests are not established, but in some studies are found sources belong to Cucurbitaceae family that possesses resistant or tolerant response. The aim of this study was to screening cucurbitaceous rootstock genotypes to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp. During the period 2014-2015 in the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv thirteen breeding materials belonging to Cucurbitaceae family were tested: Gergana, Kiara F1, TG, TD (Cucumis sativus); CM 720, SB-2, SB-3, Turban (C. maxima); Muskatna 51-17, Carotina, (C. moschata); Turban × Muskatna 51-17, CM 720 × Carotina (C. maxima × C. moschata F1); Local (Lagenaria siceraria). Two parallel trials were performed in greenhouse conditions. Local isolates of pests were used for the screening tests. Plants were grown in pots and inoculated with mixed infection of Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp. In trial with root-knot nematodes the plants were inoculated with 6000 second stage juveniles (J2). The response was recorded 60 days after inoculation. Results indicated that Carotina was resistant when the pots were inoculated with Meloidogyne spp. Resistant response to soil-borne pathogens possesses cucumber lines TG and TD and Lagenaria. Tested cucurbitaceous material can be used directly for grafting cucumber plants, and also be able to used as a basis for starting breeding program for rootstocks with tolerance to Meloidogyne spp., Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp.

Agro-ecological assessment of manure from different farm animals by content of biogenic elements

D. Dermendzhieva1*, G. Kostadinova1, G. Petkov1, D. Dimov1, T. Dinev2, T. Penev1, Tch. Miteva1, J. Mitev1

1Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physics, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 November 2016; accepted for publication 23 January 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to investigate and to make agro-ecological assessment of fresh (excreted up to 24 h) and stored (for 6 months) manure from different farm animals (dairy cows, pigs, laying hens and turkeys) by biogenic elements content (N, P, K) for a period of one year. Samples of fresh and stored manure were collected and analyzed monthly for total N, total P and total K content. It was found that: a) biogenic elements in fresh and stored manure decreased in the following gradation by average values for the studies period: turkeys – total N (13.9 – 9.16 g/kg DM), total P (9.94 – 8.67 g/kg DM) and total K (5.02 – 3.74 g/kg DM); laying hens – total N (13.6-9.95 g/kg DM), total P (9.27- 7.94 g/kg DM) and total K (5.56 – 4.60 g/kg DM); pigs – total N (8.30 -6.77 g/kg DM), total P (6.08-4.65 g/kg DM) and total K (3.56 – 1.61 g/kg DM); dairy cows – total N (5.62 -4.76 g/kg DM), total P (1.72 – 1.48 g/kg DM) and total K (2.99 – 1.72 g/kg DM); b) the change in nutrients content of different types of manures by seasons both in fresh and in stored manure are divergent; c) coefficients of variation values determined surveyed manures by content of nutrients from minor to significant variable (Cv = 9.30-37.5%); d) during the storage of the tested manures nutrient losses are the greatest for potassium (17.3-54.8%), followed by nitrogen (15.3-34.1%) and phosphorus (12.8-23.5%); e) the average losses of biogenic elements in manure by kind of animal species are in varying degrees: dairy cows (total N 15.3%, total P 14.0%, total K 42.5%); pigs (total N 18.4%, total P 23.5%, total K 54.8%); laying hens (total N 26.8%, total P 14.3%, total K 17.3%) and turkeys (total N 34.1%, total P 12.8%, total K 25.5%); f) the ratio between nutrients (N:P:K), both in fresh and in stored manure from different animal species vary in relatively wide limits both by seasons (12.6%N:18.1%P:56.3%K – 41.5%N:16.0%P:39.7%K) and by average of the studied period (15.3%N:14.0%P:42.5%K – 34.1%N:12.8%P:25.5%K).

Reclamation of lands disturbed by mining activities in Bulgaria

I. Kirilov, M. Banov*

Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, 7 Shousse Bankya, 1080 Sofia, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 5 August 2016; accepted for publication 7 November 2016)

Abstract. Disturbed by the mining industry area in Bulgaria is about 24.113 ha of which only 8.253 ha are reclaimed. Reclamation of disturbed areas covers a complex of engineering, technical, ameliorative, agricultural, forestry and other activities, which aim at restoration of the disturbed terrains and their re-entry into economic turnover in accordance with environmental conditions and area landscape. All disturbed lands as well as their adjacent areas that have completely or partially lost productivity as a result of the negative impact of mining activities and land damage are subject to reclamation. Land reclamation is a two-step process which includes: technical reclamation and biological reclamation. Technical reclamation is performed by the land owner and covers cleaning and preparation of the terrain, leveling, final formation and laying a humus soil layer on site by adding appropriate “improvers” (e.g. fertilizers, texture enhancers, etc.). Biological reclamation covers restoration of the productivity of the disturbed areas. Reclamation technologies applied in Bulgaria as a whole have led to a state of these territories that requires both maintenance and search for new ways of integration of the reclaimed landscapes with modern economic activities. The aim of the study is analysis and applying reliable modern practices that ensure good results in visual qualities of landscape and more options for future use of the reclaimed land.


Effect of green manure cover crops on tomato greenhouse production

I. Tringovska, V. Yankova, D. Markova

Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 22 August 2016; accepted for publication 27 September 2016)

Abstract. Cover crops are an important component in sustainable vegetable production with main purpose to reduce the use of synthetic inputs, especially nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops as hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) on (i) greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality and (ii) root-knot nematodes infestation. The experiment was carried out during two consecutive years (2014 – 2015) in an unheated greenhouse at Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute. Cover crops were grown before the main crop and plowed under and incorporated into the soil a week before transplanting the tomato plants. Control plots did not receive green manures. Two variants of fertigation were applied – optimal and 50% reduced amount of nitrogen fertilizer. Green manures did not change significantly the yield of tomato plants as well as did not influence on fruit quality parameters as brix, total sugars and titrable acidity. A slight negative effect was observed on Vitamin C content in tomato fruits. By green manuring with hairy vetch a reduction of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer used for fertigation could be achieved. Hairy vetch and white mustard as green manures suppressed to some extent the development of Meloidogyne spp.

Selectivity and stability of herbicides and their tank mixtures for the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

G. Delchev1*, T. Barakova2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 16 May 2016; accepted for publication 11 August 2016)

Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation were 4 sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.): hybrid Bacardy (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField plus technology), hybrid Estiva (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField technology), hybrid Sumico (a tribenuron-methyl tolerant hybrid by ExpessSun technology) and hybrid Arizona (a hybrid by conventional technology). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B, herbicides and tank mixtures, included 20 rates. It includes 3 variants by ClearField plus technology, 5 variants by ClearField technology, 5 variants by ExpessSun technology and 7 variants by conventional technology. All variants are on herbicide Gardoprim plus gold 500 SC (S- metolachlor + terbuthylazine) – 3.5 l/ha, which treated after sowing before emergence of the sunflower. It is found that the highest seed yield is obtained at herbicide tank mixture Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua by ClearField plus technology. Tank mixture Listego + Dash + Sharpen by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super by ExpressSun technology also lead to obtaining high seed yields. The most unstable are secondary weed infested checks by the fourth technologies for sunflower growing which are treated with soil-applied herbicide Gardoprim plus gold only. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua and herbicide Pulsar by ClearField plus technology, tank mixtures Listego + Dash + Sharpen and Listego + Dash by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super and Express + Lactofol B + Select super by ExpressSun technology. Tank mixtures of herbicides Smerch, Pendigan, Wing, Raft, Pledge and Modown with Amalgerol premium by conventional technology have low estimates due to insufficient control of some weeds in sunflower crops.

Panthaleus major /Duges/ of cereals in Bulgaria

V. Maneva*, D. Atanasova

Institute of Agriculture, 1 Industrialna Str., 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 30 June 2016; accepted for publication 19 September 2016)

Abstract. Until recently, Penthaleus major (Dugès) has not been recognized as an economically significant pest for the cereal crops. After climatic changes, its population began to grow and inflict damages around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate its distribution in Bulgaria and establish whether it presents a danger to the cereal crops. In the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a monitoring survey was conducted to establish Penthaleus major (Dugès) with the cereal crops in Bulgaria. Over 60 sowed fields were investigated from all around the country. Samples were taken to identify the pest. It was established that Penthaleus major (Dugès) inflicted harm to the wheat in north-eastern (12-14 mites per stem) and south-eastern Bulgaria (6-8 mites per stem). Its density was under the threshold of economic harm. There was not found infestation of barley, rye, oat and triticale. On the field boundaries bordering the areas attacked by the mite were reported the following weeds: Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medic, Descurania sophia (L.) Welb. et Berth, Senecio spp., Sisymbrium orientale Torn., Taraxsacum officinale Weber, Anthemis spp., Bromus arvensis L., Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P.B. Lolium temulentum L., which can be habitat for Penthaleus major (Dugès).