Influence of foliar herbicides treatment on malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) productivity of Emon, Vanessa and Vicky varieties

D. Atanasova*, V. Maneva

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 1 July 2016; accepted for publication 26 August 2016)

Abstract. During the period 2012 – 2014 in the Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat a field experiment was conducted with winter malting barley varieties Emon, Vanessa and Vicky. The influence of broadleaf (dicotyledonous) herbicides alone and in their combination with wild oat (monocotyledonous) in tillering stage of the crop was studied in optimal and double doses. The herbicide selectiveness was assessed according to the EWRS scale. Yields were reported after harvest. In variety Vanessa during the treatment with Derby Super, Granstar Super, Sekator OD and combination of Puma Super 7.5 EW + Sekator OD in optimal doses, the yield does not differ from the weed control. Variety Vicky endures well the treatment with optimal doses in all of the tested herbicides, except Husar Max. In treatment with double doses, only Granstar Super does not affect negatively the yield of grain. Comparing the data from ANOVA about the role of herbicides and year conditions on the malting barley varieties it can be concluded that the yield of variety Emon is the most stable in regard to herbicides applied in optimal doses (5%), followed by Vanessa (17%) and Vicky (18%). At application of the herbicides in double doses, their influence is increased – in variety Emon up to 15%, and in varieties Vanessa and Vicky – up to 23%.


Effect of some herbicides on weeds and vines in mother plantation of Cabernet sauvignon

N. Prodanova – Marinova*

Institute of Viticulture and Enology, 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 1630 May 2016; accepted for publication 17 August 2016)

Abstract. To maintain soil surface clean of weeds in the parent vineyard for producing cuttings for scions, the efficiency and selectivity of Gardoprim plus Gold (312.5 g/l s-metolachlor + 187.5 g/l terbuthylazine), Wing P (pendimethalin 250 g/l + dimethenamid P 212.5 g/l) and Lumax 538 SC (375 g/l s-metolachlor + 125 g/l terbuthylazine + 337.5 g/l mesotrione) at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da was studied. Lumax 538 SC, Wing P and Gardoprim Plus Gold controlling efficiently annual weeds established in parent vineyard, except Xanthium strumarium L.. Lumax 538 SC and Gardoprim plus Gold showed long-term (90 days) activity. Wing P activity decreases after the thirtieth day. The tested herbicides do not damage the buds and do not lead to a reduction of shoots developed from them. Lumax 538 SC and Gardoprim plus Gold at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da and Wing P at dose of 0.4 l/da do not inhibit the growth of shoots. The largest number of cuttings for scions were obtained after treatment with Lumax 538 SC.


Stone marten (Martes foina, Erxl., 1777) and villagers: human-wildlife social conflict

S. Peeva* , E. Raichev

Department of Animal Production, Monogastric and Other Animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 16 May 2016; accepted for publication 8 June 2016)

Abstract. The “Human-wildlife conflict” refers to the interaction between wild animals and humans and the negative impact on their resources or wildlife and their habitats. One of the reasons for its occurrence is the entry of wild animals in urban environment. Stone marten often enters into settlements and its activity provokes conflict with humans. To clarify the attitude towards coexistence with this species a survey among 132 residents of villages in the region of Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountain was conducted in the period 01.12.2015-31.03.2016. The opinion of people familiar with stone marten’s biology (hunters) and other people (retired and active) was explored. The differences between men and women were examined. In settlements stone marten is considered to be a pest, attacking smaller livestock. Its presence disturbs humans by- displacing tiles on the roofs, noise, faeces etc., and consequently Human-wildlife conflict emerges. More than half of people are not convinced to take ultimate measures against martens. Human-stone marten conflict in Bulgarian villages is still at the tolerance level.


Investigation of the biota of Burgas Bay, Black Sea

D. Klisarova*, E. Petrova, D. Gerdzhikov, S. Stoykov

Institute of Fish Resources, 4 Primorski, 9000 Varna, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 23 March 2016; accepted for publication 30 May 2016)

Abstract. Burgas Bay is the largest one on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Industrial plants along the coast as well as ports for liquid and solid cargoes create conditions of anthropogenic pressure on hydrobionts in that area. Macrozoobenthos and phytoplankton samples were collected under a specific scheme in connection with the construction of the Burgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline, at stations located around the designated places for unloading tankers. During the study period (2009 – 2010), 88 phytoplankton species distributed in 13 classes were identified and over 50 species of benthic species distributed in four main groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and the mixed group Diversa.


Indicator polychlorinated biphenyl residues in muscle tissue of fish from Black Sea coast of Bulgaria

S. Georgieva*, M. Stancheva

Department of Chemistry, Medical University, Marin Drinov 55, 9002 Varna, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 25 April 2016; accepted for publication 30 May 2016)

Abstract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are characterized by high lipophilicity and persistence in the environment and will therefore bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PCBs were determined in muscle tissue of four fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus), horse mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus ponticus), shad (Alosa pontica pontica) and turbot (Psetta maxima maeotica). Samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast during 2007- 2011. The PCBs were analyzed in order to examine the time trends of PCB concentrations in fish from Black Sea. The six individual PCBs congeners were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. PCBs were found in all fish species at concentrations ranging between 2.32 ng/g ww (wet weight) and 32.87 ng/g ww in goby and shad, respectively. PCB profiles have been found to be similar in all the fish species tested. The most abundant PCB congeners in fish species were hexa- and heptachlorinated PCBs 138, 153 and 180. PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all fish studied and were found in the range from 0.95 ng/g ww (horse mackerel 2011) to 11.67 ng/g ww (shad 2010). The sum of six indicator PCBs in all fish species did not exceed the European maximum limit of 75 ng/g ww. The levels of PCBs in fish from Bulgarian Black Sea coast were found lower than in fish species from other seas – the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.


Application of up-to-date environmental indices for assessment of seawater

D. Klisarova*, D. Gerdzhikov, E. Petrova

Institute of Fish Resources, 4 Primorski, 9000 Varna, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 23 March 2016; accepted for publication 26 May 2016)

Abstract. The paper discusses the indices for assessment of the ecological status of seawater which are applied in the studies of algae and macrozoobenthic communities in the Bulgarian Black Sea territorial waters. They are applicable to contemporary environmental assessments in accordance with the European directives on environmental protection. Presented are also studies carried out in recent years on marine plants and bottom organisms and the resulting conclusions. The result was that we identified the ecological status of the marine ecosystem on BQE phytoplankton, macrophytobenthos and macrozoobentos from “moderate” to “good” in the period of investigation.


Productivity and quality of open field tomato after application of bio-fertilizers

H. Botеva*

Vegetable Crops Research Institute Maritsa, 32 Bezovsko shoose, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 27 April 2016; accepted for publication 31 May 2016)

Abstract. Field experiments for the effect of bio-fertilizers: Labin, Bio One, Tecamin, Agriful, Humustim and Biohumus on productivity and fruit quality of determinant tomato, variety Trapezitsa were performed on strongly leached meadow cinnamonic soil at the experimental field of the Vegetable Crops Research Institute Maritsa during the period 2008 – 2010. The fruit number per tomato plant increased up to 38.2% towards the control (without fertilization) by using bio-fertilizers Tecamin and Agriful. Similar were the results for the mass of fruits per plant, where the increase was up to 33.3% towards the control. After mineral fertilization the total tomato yield is the highest on average for the period of study. An increase of the yield in tomato with reduced mineral fertilization is established after application of bio-fertilizers 12.1% on average from 7.8% /after fertilization with Labin/ to 18.3% /after fertilization with Tecamin/ towards the control. A positive effect by fertilization with Tecamin (38.8%) and Agriful (36.3%) is established on early production. In mineral fertilization this index is lower (23.7%). Bio-fertilizers Tecamin and Agriful have a positive effect on the content of vitamin C and dry matter.


Comparative analysis for macro and trace elements content in goji berries between varieties from China and R. Macedonia

B. Balabanova*, I. Karov, S. Mitrev

Faculty of Agriculture, Goce Delčev University, 2000 Štip, Republic of Macedonia (Manuscript received 8 December 2015; accepted for publication 16 February 2016)

Abstract. The goji fruits (Licyum barbarum L.) are known for their high mineral content: Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, P, Se, etc., with a positive incidence of high importance on the human body. Considering these, the present paper summarizes data for 16 macro and trace elements contents (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Ge, Pb, Ni, Cd, As, Bi and Hg) in Licyum barbarum L. planted in China and in R. Macedonia. The collected samples were totally digested with application of microwave digestion system. Total concentration of the selected elements was determined using inductively coupled plasma with mass spectrometry (ICP- MS). The major elements content (Ca, K, P and Mg) ranges from 507 mg/kg to 3877 mg/kg for samples from R. Macedonia and from 269 mg/kg to 5047 mg/kg for Chinese samples. Statistically, significant differences for the analyzed elements between Macedonian and Chinese variety were obtained for Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Se, Cd and Pb. Multivariate statistic was applied for revealing the dominant element association: F1 (Na-Mg-Fe-Ni-Se-Bi), F2 (Zn-Hg-Pb), F3 (P-K), F4 (Ca-Ge-Cu) and F5 (As-Cd). The total elements content for the analyzed elements dominates in Chinese samples (7965 mg/kg) vs. Macedonian samples (7661 mg/kg). The content of the potentially toxic elements (As, Bi, Cd and Pb) doesn’t exhibit the maximum allowed limit for these kind of foodstuff. Multivariate assessment for elements content reveals a significant correlation within the geographical origin of samples. Two dominant components (Ca-Mg-P-K-Na-Fe- Zn-Cu-Se and Na-Ni) were extracted for Chines samples vs. Cd-Pb-As-Bi-Hg dominant for the Macedonian goji berries samples.


Variability in the resistance to bacterial spot causal agents Xanthomonas euvesicatoria P and Xanthomonas vesicatoria PT2 among Bulgarian and introduced pepper varieties

T. Vancheva1, S. Masheva2*, D. Ganeva2, N. Bogatzevska3

1Biological Faculty, Sofia University, 8 Dragan Tsankov, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
2Vegetable Crops Research Institute Maritsa, 32 Brezovsko shose, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
3Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, Nikola Pushkarov, 7 Shosse Bankya, 1331 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 8 September 2015; accepted for publication 26 January 2016)

Abstract. Bacterial spot in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. The natural Bulgarian population of X. vesicatoria belongs to pepper-tomato pathotypes (PT), whereas Macedonian population of X. euvesicatoria refers to pepper pathotypes (P). Bacterial spot of pepper caused by X. vesicatoria and X. euvesicatoria has become a very serious disease in Bulgaria during the past few years. The use of resistant pepper cultivars is the most economically and technically efficient method for control. Pepper varieties with immune and/or resistant reaction were not found in this study. Moderately susceptible to both pathogens were the following varieties: Kapia UV-Vertus, Sofijska kapia and Familiya of Kapia type, Quadrato D”Asti Giallo of Dolma type and Chorbadzhiyski of long pungent fruits. All varieties with cone-shaped fruits and the ones for sweet powder performed with highly susceptible reaction to X. еuvesicatoria.


Investigation of some energy characteristics of pig farm

P. Kostov1, K. Atanasov1, I. Ivanov1*, К. Peychev2, R. Georgiev2

1Department of Mechanics, Machine Building and Thermal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Pedagogy, Sliven, Technical University Sofia, Bulgaria 2Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 8 August 2015; accepted for publication 13 January 2016)

Abstract. Energy characteristics obtained as a result of project analysis of popular building structures designed for raising sows with piglets are presented in this study. Setting the energy features is achieved (Ordinance 15 by calculating dry, cooling and humidity load of the studied building). The parameters of the outside air according to the project calculations are temperature 36°C and relative humidity 31% (Livestock sites – design standards). After analysis on the dimensionalities of the values which affect the heat flows of the building, it resulted in the following relation – showing the volume of heat incoming in the building at these particular conditions brought to 1 m3. The results obtained for the total cooling load are 1 m3 in different limited conditions. These results will allow to make a material model of the studied building, which is a premise for receiving dependences that could be used for each building. Data are obtained for specific cooling power and thermal resistances of the components in different constructional versions. The results are directed to the practice of making a suitable microclimate when using renewable energy sources in livestock buildings.