Agro-ecological assessment of manure from different farm animals by content of biogenic elements

D. Dermendzhieva1*, G. Kostadinova1, G. Petkov1, D. Dimov1, T. Dinev2, T. Penev1, Tch. Miteva1, J. Mitev1

1Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physics, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 November 2016; accepted for publication 23 January 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to investigate and to make agro-ecological assessment of fresh (excreted up to 24 h) and stored (for 6 months) manure from different farm animals (dairy cows, pigs, laying hens and turkeys) by biogenic elements content (N, P, K) for a period of one year. Samples of fresh and stored manure were collected and analyzed monthly for total N, total P and total K content. It was found that: a) biogenic elements in fresh and stored manure decreased in the following gradation by average values for the studies period: turkeys – total N (13.9 – 9.16 g/kg DM), total P (9.94 – 8.67 g/kg DM) and total K (5.02 – 3.74 g/kg DM); laying hens – total N (13.6-9.95 g/kg DM), total P (9.27- 7.94 g/kg DM) and total K (5.56 – 4.60 g/kg DM); pigs – total N (8.30 -6.77 g/kg DM), total P (6.08-4.65 g/kg DM) and total K (3.56 – 1.61 g/kg DM); dairy cows – total N (5.62 -4.76 g/kg DM), total P (1.72 – 1.48 g/kg DM) and total K (2.99 – 1.72 g/kg DM); b) the change in nutrients content of different types of manures by seasons both in fresh and in stored manure are divergent; c) coefficients of variation values determined surveyed manures by content of nutrients from minor to significant variable (Cv = 9.30-37.5%); d) during the storage of the tested manures nutrient losses are the greatest for potassium (17.3-54.8%), followed by nitrogen (15.3-34.1%) and phosphorus (12.8-23.5%); e) the average losses of biogenic elements in manure by kind of animal species are in varying degrees: dairy cows (total N 15.3%, total P 14.0%, total K 42.5%); pigs (total N 18.4%, total P 23.5%, total K 54.8%); laying hens (total N 26.8%, total P 14.3%, total K 17.3%) and turkeys (total N 34.1%, total P 12.8%, total K 25.5%); f) the ratio between nutrients (N:P:K), both in fresh and in stored manure from different animal species vary in relatively wide limits both by seasons (12.6%N:18.1%P:56.3%K – 41.5%N:16.0%P:39.7%K) and by average of the studied period (15.3%N:14.0%P:42.5%K – 34.1%N:12.8%P:25.5%K).

Reclamation of lands disturbed by mining activities in Bulgaria

I. Kirilov, M. Banov*

Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, 7 Shousse Bankya, 1080 Sofia, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 5 August 2016; accepted for publication 7 November 2016)

Abstract. Disturbed by the mining industry area in Bulgaria is about 24.113 ha of which only 8.253 ha are reclaimed. Reclamation of disturbed areas covers a complex of engineering, technical, ameliorative, agricultural, forestry and other activities, which aim at restoration of the disturbed terrains and their re-entry into economic turnover in accordance with environmental conditions and area landscape. All disturbed lands as well as their adjacent areas that have completely or partially lost productivity as a result of the negative impact of mining activities and land damage are subject to reclamation. Land reclamation is a two-step process which includes: technical reclamation and biological reclamation. Technical reclamation is performed by the land owner and covers cleaning and preparation of the terrain, leveling, final formation and laying a humus soil layer on site by adding appropriate “improvers” (e.g. fertilizers, texture enhancers, etc.). Biological reclamation covers restoration of the productivity of the disturbed areas. Reclamation technologies applied in Bulgaria as a whole have led to a state of these territories that requires both maintenance and search for new ways of integration of the reclaimed landscapes with modern economic activities. The aim of the study is analysis and applying reliable modern practices that ensure good results in visual qualities of landscape and more options for future use of the reclaimed land.


Effect of green manure cover crops on tomato greenhouse production

I. Tringovska, V. Yankova, D. Markova

Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 22 August 2016; accepted for publication 27 September 2016)

Abstract. Cover crops are an important component in sustainable vegetable production with main purpose to reduce the use of synthetic inputs, especially nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops as hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) on (i) greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality and (ii) root-knot nematodes infestation. The experiment was carried out during two consecutive years (2014 – 2015) in an unheated greenhouse at Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute. Cover crops were grown before the main crop and plowed under and incorporated into the soil a week before transplanting the tomato plants. Control plots did not receive green manures. Two variants of fertigation were applied – optimal and 50% reduced amount of nitrogen fertilizer. Green manures did not change significantly the yield of tomato plants as well as did not influence on fruit quality parameters as brix, total sugars and titrable acidity. A slight negative effect was observed on Vitamin C content in tomato fruits. By green manuring with hairy vetch a reduction of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer used for fertigation could be achieved. Hairy vetch and white mustard as green manures suppressed to some extent the development of Meloidogyne spp.

Selectivity and stability of herbicides and their tank mixtures for the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

G. Delchev1*, T. Barakova2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 16 May 2016; accepted for publication 11 August 2016)

Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation were 4 sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.): hybrid Bacardy (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField plus technology), hybrid Estiva (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField technology), hybrid Sumico (a tribenuron-methyl tolerant hybrid by ExpessSun technology) and hybrid Arizona (a hybrid by conventional technology). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B, herbicides and tank mixtures, included 20 rates. It includes 3 variants by ClearField plus technology, 5 variants by ClearField technology, 5 variants by ExpessSun technology and 7 variants by conventional technology. All variants are on herbicide Gardoprim plus gold 500 SC (S- metolachlor + terbuthylazine) – 3.5 l/ha, which treated after sowing before emergence of the sunflower. It is found that the highest seed yield is obtained at herbicide tank mixture Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua by ClearField plus technology. Tank mixture Listego + Dash + Sharpen by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super by ExpressSun technology also lead to obtaining high seed yields. The most unstable are secondary weed infested checks by the fourth technologies for sunflower growing which are treated with soil-applied herbicide Gardoprim plus gold only. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua and herbicide Pulsar by ClearField plus technology, tank mixtures Listego + Dash + Sharpen and Listego + Dash by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super and Express + Lactofol B + Select super by ExpressSun technology. Tank mixtures of herbicides Smerch, Pendigan, Wing, Raft, Pledge and Modown with Amalgerol premium by conventional technology have low estimates due to insufficient control of some weeds in sunflower crops.

Panthaleus major /Duges/ of cereals in Bulgaria

V. Maneva*, D. Atanasova

Institute of Agriculture, 1 Industrialna Str., 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 30 June 2016; accepted for publication 19 September 2016)

Abstract. Until recently, Penthaleus major (Dugès) has not been recognized as an economically significant pest for the cereal crops. After climatic changes, its population began to grow and inflict damages around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate its distribution in Bulgaria and establish whether it presents a danger to the cereal crops. In the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a monitoring survey was conducted to establish Penthaleus major (Dugès) with the cereal crops in Bulgaria. Over 60 sowed fields were investigated from all around the country. Samples were taken to identify the pest. It was established that Penthaleus major (Dugès) inflicted harm to the wheat in north-eastern (12-14 mites per stem) and south-eastern Bulgaria (6-8 mites per stem). Its density was under the threshold of economic harm. There was not found infestation of barley, rye, oat and triticale. On the field boundaries bordering the areas attacked by the mite were reported the following weeds: Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medic, Descurania sophia (L.) Welb. et Berth, Senecio spp., Sisymbrium orientale Torn., Taraxsacum officinale Weber, Anthemis spp., Bromus arvensis L., Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P.B. Lolium temulentum L., which can be habitat for Penthaleus major (Dugès).

Phytosanitary conditions of the organic field and boundary

D. Atanasova1*, V. Maneva1, N. Grozeva2

1Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, Bulgaria
2Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 July 2016; accepted for publication 11 August 2016)

Abstract. In the field and boundary of certificated field for organic farming in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat have been observed and described diseases, pests and weeds in wild and cultivated plants and dependencies between them are reported. The cultural plant diversity at the certified field for organic farming is significant and amounts to 32 species and varieties of cereals. The weeds in crops and in the free areas significantly differed. In crops, the annual broadleaf weeds had greater diversity of species (Anthemis arvensis L., Lathyrus aphaca L., Papaver phoeas L., Polygonum aviculare L., Polygonum convolvulus L.) and at the boundaries – the cereal weeds (Аpera spica-venti L., Hordeum murinum L., Bromus tectorum L., Poa pratensis L.). At the adjacent areas the perennial broadleaf weeds – Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and Convolvulus arvensis L. were not found. At the boundaries less pest species and types of diseases were registered than in the crop fields. In cereals the most common pests are Sitobion avenae L., Aelia acuminate L., Eurygaster austriaca Schr. Beneficial insects are Coccinella septempunctata L. The most common diseases are Erysiphe graminis and Rhynchosporium secalis (Oudem.) Davis.


Effect of some soil herbicides on vegetative habits of almond trees of ‘Nonpareil’ cultivar grown in a second-year nursery field

Z. Rankova1*, M. Tityanov2

1Fruit Growing Institute, 4004 Plovdiv, 12 Ostromila, Bulgaria 2University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ohridski, 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 31 May 2016; accepted for publication 26 July 2016)

Abstract. The study was carried out in the period 2010 – 2012 in a nursery field established on the territory of the Fruit-Growing Institute, Plovdiv. The effect of the combined soil-applied herbicide metolachlor + oxyfluorfen (Metofen) and the contact soil herbicide with foliar activity flumioxazine (Pledge 50 WP) on the vegetative habits of ‘Nonpareil’ almond cultivar grafted on almond seedling rootstock was evaluated. In the period 15-25 March, before beginning of vegetation, soil herbicides were applied in the row strip in the second-year nursery field. The following variants were included in the study: 1. Control (untreated, hand- weeded); 2. Metofen – 120 ml/da; 3. Metofen – 240 ml/da; 4. Pledge 50 WP – 8.0 g/da; 5. Pledge 50 WP – 20.0 g/da. The effect of the herbicides on weed infestation and on the vegetative habits of the cultivar/rootstock combination ‘Nonpareil’/almond seedling rootstock was followed up. The results showed that the herbicides applied at the tested rates had a good control on weed infestation and the herbicide activity continued for 3.5-4 months. That makes it possible to eliminate the competitive impact of weeds on the development of the grafted trees for 4-5 months after beginning of vegetation. Visual symptoms of phytotoxicity (chlorosis or necrosis in the leaves and shoots) or an obvious suppression of the development of the grafted trees in the treated variants were not established. A depressing effect on growth of the grafted trees was reported after treatment with Metofen. The contact herbicide with soil and foliar activity Pledge 50 WP – 8.0 g/da can be applied for weed control in a second-year nursery field of almond trees grafted on bitter almond seedling rootstock.


Selectivity and stability of herbicides and herbicide combinations for the grain yield of maize (Zea Mays L.)

G. Delchev1*, T. Barakova2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 16 May 2016; accepted for publication 9 August 2016)

Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was cycloxydim tolerant maize hybrid Ultrafox duo (Zea mays L.). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check and 3 soil-applied herbicides – Adengo 465 SC (isoxaflutol + tiencarbazon) – 440 ml/ha, Wing P (pendimethalin + dimethenamid) – 4 l/ha and Lumax 538 SC (S-metolachlor + terbuthylazine + mesotrione) – 4 l/ha. Factor C included no treated check and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Stellar 210 SL (topramezon + dicamba) – 1 l/ha, Principal plus (nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron + dicamba) – 380 g/ha, Ventum WG (foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron) – 150 g/ha, Monsun active OD (foramsulfuron + tiencarbazon) – 1.5 l/ha and Laudis OD (tembotrione) – 2 l/ha. In addition to these variants by conventional technology for maize growing one variant by Duo system technology is also included in the experiment. It includes soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex 480 SC (isoxaflutole) – 420 g/ha and tank mixture of antigraminaceous herbicide Focus ultra (cycloxydim) – 2 l/ha + antibroadleaved herbicide Kalam (tritosulfuron + dicamba) – 300 g/ha. It is found that herbicide combination of soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex with tank mixture Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology leads to obtaining high grain yield. High yields of maize grain are also obtained by herbicide combinations Lumax + Principal plus, Lumax + Laudis and Wing + Principal plus. The most unstable are the non-treated check and single use of soil- applied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Merlin flex + Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology, followed by combinations of foliar-applied herbicides Principal plus and Laudis with soil-applied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax by conventional technology. Single use of herbicides has low estimate due to must to combine soil-applied with foliar-applied herbicides for full control of weeds in maize crops


Influence of foliar herbicides treatment on malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) productivity of Emon, Vanessa and Vicky varieties

D. Atanasova*, V. Maneva

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 1 July 2016; accepted for publication 26 August 2016)

Abstract. During the period 2012 – 2014 in the Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat a field experiment was conducted with winter malting barley varieties Emon, Vanessa and Vicky. The influence of broadleaf (dicotyledonous) herbicides alone and in their combination with wild oat (monocotyledonous) in tillering stage of the crop was studied in optimal and double doses. The herbicide selectiveness was assessed according to the EWRS scale. Yields were reported after harvest. In variety Vanessa during the treatment with Derby Super, Granstar Super, Sekator OD and combination of Puma Super 7.5 EW + Sekator OD in optimal doses, the yield does not differ from the weed control. Variety Vicky endures well the treatment with optimal doses in all of the tested herbicides, except Husar Max. In treatment with double doses, only Granstar Super does not affect negatively the yield of grain. Comparing the data from ANOVA about the role of herbicides and year conditions on the malting barley varieties it can be concluded that the yield of variety Emon is the most stable in regard to herbicides applied in optimal doses (5%), followed by Vanessa (17%) and Vicky (18%). At application of the herbicides in double doses, their influence is increased – in variety Emon up to 15%, and in varieties Vanessa and Vicky – up to 23%.


Effect of some herbicides on weeds and vines in mother plantation of Cabernet sauvignon

N. Prodanova – Marinova*

Institute of Viticulture and Enology, 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 1630 May 2016; accepted for publication 17 August 2016)

Abstract. To maintain soil surface clean of weeds in the parent vineyard for producing cuttings for scions, the efficiency and selectivity of Gardoprim plus Gold (312.5 g/l s-metolachlor + 187.5 g/l terbuthylazine), Wing P (pendimethalin 250 g/l + dimethenamid P 212.5 g/l) and Lumax 538 SC (375 g/l s-metolachlor + 125 g/l terbuthylazine + 337.5 g/l mesotrione) at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da was studied. Lumax 538 SC, Wing P and Gardoprim Plus Gold controlling efficiently annual weeds established in parent vineyard, except Xanthium strumarium L.. Lumax 538 SC and Gardoprim plus Gold showed long-term (90 days) activity. Wing P activity decreases after the thirtieth day. The tested herbicides do not damage the buds and do not lead to a reduction of shoots developed from them. Lumax 538 SC and Gardoprim plus Gold at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da and Wing P at dose of 0.4 l/da do not inhibit the growth of shoots. The largest number of cuttings for scions were obtained after treatment with Lumax 538 SC.