Sexual dimorphism in growth and feeding of Japanese quails in Northern Guinea Savanah

  1. N. Molokwu1, H. Y. Abbaya2,


1Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University (ADSU), Mubi, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 February 2018; accepted for publication 2 May 2018)


Abstract. The study was conducted to determine effect of sex on growth, feed consumption and reproductive pattern of Japanese quails over 16 weeks of age in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. A total of 206 (84 males and 122 females) quails were used for the study and some of the traits measured were body weight, average daily gain, growth rate, feed intake, feed cost, feed cost to gain ratio, age at sexual differentiation and weight at sexual differentiation. There was significant (p<0.05-0.01) difference in all the parameters measured except in feed consumption and feed cost (p>0.05) at 0-3 weeks, body weight, weight gain and growth rate (p>0.05) at 13-16 weeks. There is also no significant difference in the sex differentiation traits of the age at sexual differentiation (p>0.05). It is, therefore, concluded that sexual dimorphism was observed for growth and reproductive traits with the females having more response than the males; also, the Japanese quail used for this study showed a good variation for growth and reproduction traits, thus these traits can be used as basis for selection to develop highly efficient and direct, improved lines of Japanese quails.

In vitro propagation of white oil-bearing rose (Rosa alba L.)

V. Badzhelova1, V. Bozhanova2, G. Chokov3,

1Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Cultures, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

2Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

3Industrial plants company, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 22 June 2018)


Abstract. The influence of major factors such as explant sterilization, plant growth regulators in the multiplication and rooting media and the genotype on the in vitro multiplication of White Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa alba L.) was studied. Explants used in the experiment were 1.0 to 1.5 cm long nodal segments from specially cultivated mother plants. The combination of two disinfectants in the following order: 0.2% HgCl2 solution for 3 min followed by treatment with 0.5% NaClO solution for 20 min and 0.25% NaClO for 30 min was determined as the most suitable sterilization scheme. The best results of multiplication were obtained in basic MS medium with added BAP in concentration of 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The analysis of the variance reveals that the genotype, media variants and interactions between them have a statistically significant influence on the variation of the total number of induced adventive shoots. The highest percentage of successfully rooted young plants (97.5% on average for both genotypes) was obtained in ex vitro conditions by direct rooting in a soil mixture.


Exterior traits of a male parental form for production of autosexing Easter eggers

  1. Lukanov, A. Genchev, E. Halil


Department of Animal Science – monogastric and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.


(Manuscript received 13 March 2018; accepted for publication 2 May 2018)


Abstract. The aim of the present study was to perform exterior evaluation of a newly created male parental form for production of autosexing Easter egger crosses. The main exterior traits and measurements were conducted along with phenotype evaluation of hens and roosters of the XL male parental form at 6 and 12 months of age. The average live weight of 6-month-old roosters and hens was 2.62±0.03 kg and 1.77±0.028 kg, respectively. One-year-old roosters and hens weighed 2.8±0.027 kg and 2.03±0.04 kg, respectively, on average. The ratio between the main exterior measurements of males and females was preserved for both age groups. Hens exhibited lower massiveness index than roosters. The compactness index in hens at 6 and 12 months of age was higher than that of roosters. Six-month-old roosters demonstrated higher long-leggedness index values as compared to year-old males and hens of both studied ages. Phenotypically, birds resembled productive type Rhode Island Red chickens except for the presence of pea combs and small wattles.

Registration of a new sunflower hybrid – Sevar

  1. Peevska1*, M. Drumeva2, G. Georgiev1

(Manuscript received  2017; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

 Abstract. The aim of the present article was to introduce the new Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Sevar, which since 2015 has been included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties. Sunflower hybrid Sevar was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI), General Toshevo. The hybrid is male sterile, two-linear and was obtained by interlinear hybridization. The parental components are line 807А, which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father line is 509R, a branched fertility restorer line developed through in vitro methods. The two lines demonstrated very good combining ability. Sevar is an early maturing hybrid, with duration of the vegetation period of 107–110 days. Plant height is within the range of 155-160cm, and the head diameter is 26–29cm. The seeds have absolute weight 48–57g and oil content 49–50%. The oil is of linoleic type. The percent of kernel in the seed is 75 – 76%, and the protein in the whole seed is 19–20%. The weight of seeds per plant is 69-80g, and the number of seeds is 1150-1300. The duration of flowering is 10–12 days. The maximum seed yield obtained in the experimental fields of DAI is 4300 kg/ha, and in the neighboring Romania – 6406 kg/ha. In the breeding fields of DAI, the hybrid was tested three years according to a scheme approved for this crop. During the testing period, Sevar exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 2.7–11.8%. By oil yield, the exceeding during the three years was within 3.5 – 19.1%. The highest yield was observed in 2010 – 4002 kg/ha seed yield and 1985 kg/ha oil yield. The oil content of this hybrid reached 49.6% and was higher than the standards San Luka and Brio. Sevar is resistant to the economically important diseases downy mildew (up to race 731) and the parasite Orobanche (up to race F). Hybrid Sevar was registered in Romania with certificate No. 4934/09.06.2015 and was included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties.

Evaluation of lentil cultivars and lines for resistance toFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis

  1. Koleva1*, Y. Stanoeva2, I. Kiryakov2, A. Ivanova1, P. Chamurlyiski1


1Shumen University “Bishop Konstantin Preslavski”, College Dobrich, Department of Crop Science and Plant protection, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria

2 Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute, 9500 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 July 2017; accepted for publication 18 January 2018)


Abstract. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is one of the most important food legume crops in the farming and food systems of many countries, including Bulgaria. In recent years lentil fields increased in our country. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis (F.o. f.sp. lentis) is a key yield-limiting factor worldwide. The major approach to control the disease is through resistance breeding. The aim of this investigation was to screen lentil cultivars and lines for resistance to F.o. f.sp. lentis. The investigations were carried out during 2013-2015. Thirty two lentil accessions were sown in 1m rows, in three replications. Barley grains (100g/m) inoculated with mix of four isolates of F.o. f.sp. lentis were used as inoculum. Disease reaction was estimated during flowering and pod filling stage according to 9 degree scale. The disease incidence (DI) of every accession was calculated according to McKinney index. Cluster analysis was used to group the accessions according to DI. ‘Genotype’ x ‘Year’ interaction was estimated by Two-way ANOVA. The results showed that middle disease incidence (MDI) was the highest in 2014 and the lowest in 2015. Our investigation confirms the results of many authors that disease incidence of F.o. f.sp. lentis on lentil was determined by the interaction of the factors ‘Genotype’x‘Year’. The cluster analysis grouped the accessions into two major classes. No resistant accessions were found. Six accessions showed MDI from 48.59 to 58.11 and they can be used in a genetic-improvement breeding program for fusarium wilt resistance.

Evaluation of rye specimens in maturity stage on the base of mathematical – statistical analysis

  1. Kuneva1*, E. Valchinova2, A. Stoyanova3


1*Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria,

2Institute of Plant Genetic Resources “К. Malkov”- Sadovo, Bulgaria

3Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 June 2017; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)


Abstract. The aim of the study is to evaluate comprehensively the rye collection and the possibilities for the specimen usage in selection on the basis of mathematical approaches. The study was carried out during 2009-2012 in the experimental field of the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (IRGD) – town of Sadovo on cinnamon-forest soils with 54 specimens collected (16 samples from expeditions in Bulgaria and 38 samples from abroad). As standard, the Bulgarian variety “Millennium” (current standard in IASAS) was used. The Danae variety has been used as a former 30-year standard for the country. Evaluation of the impact of the examined specimens was made on the basis of the following biometrical indicators: spike length (cm); tillering – productive and non-productive tillering; plant weight (g); ears weight (g); weight of the main spike(g); weight of the main ear`s grain (g); number of the spikelets in the spike; grain weight of the main spike (g); crop index (%). The correlation analysis made allows determination of the dependence of the complexity impact on the rye performance indicators. The established correlations show the degree of impact of each indicator in yield formation. Based on the correlation coefficients derived, the established dependencies between plant seed yield and maturation yield elements, a mathematical model of the plant with high productive potential was obtained. Rye specimens of the highest yield are characterized by high value of the crop index.

Phenotypic diversity in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum sativum L.) varieties

  1. Dyulgerov, B. Dyulgerova


Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)


Abstract. The objective of this investigation was to study the phenotypic diversity among six-rowed winter barley varieties. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, during the period 2014/2015-2015/2016. The diversity among 22 barley varieties was estimated using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Maximum variation was found for grain weight per a spike and grain number per a spike. The presence of significant variation among the evaluated six-rowed winter barley varieties suggests an opportunity for improvement of grain yield through using promising genotypes as parents in the winter barley improvement program.

Agronomic performance of mutant lines of winter two-rowed barley

  1. Dyulgerova, D. Valcheva, N. Dyulgerov


Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)


Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to study agronomic and morphological traits of winter two-rowed barley mutant lines in the M6 and M7 generations. Eight mutant lines, their parent – breeding line 244D and national standard cultivars – Obzor and Emon were evaluated in Complete Block Design with four replications. The research was conducted in the 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 growing seasons in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria. The characters studied included days to heading, plant height, lodging, peduncle length, spike length, awn length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, protein content, extract content and grading (>2.5mm). Mutant lines M1/3, M1/5 and M1/217 produced a significantly greater grain yield than the parent and standard cultivars. The improvement of grain yield was associated with increasing of spike length and grain weight per spike. The studied mutant lines were characterized with a high yield ability combined with other valuable agronomic traits and can be used in a breeding program for developing winter malting  barley varieties.

Yield and coefficient of ecological valence of spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat, Bulgaria

  1. Neykov, T. Mokreva


1Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria

2Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 April 2017; accepted for publication 21 September 2017)


Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the yield and the coefficient of ecological valence of spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat. Seven spring barley cultivars were planted in the first and second ten days of March, in comparative cultivars trials on the block method in four repetitions of an area of 10 m2, with sowing rate of 450 germinating seeds per m2. They were assessed on the standard for the French cultivar Josefin used of the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control. The statistical processing of the results was carried out by ANOVA. The coefficient of ecological valence (W) is calculated.  Cultivars grown in the region of Sadovo showed better ecological plasticity, but gave lower yields, in the region of Karnobat were more productive but difficult to adapt to environmental conditions. Suitable cultivars for growing spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat are Barke, Scarlett and Bodega. They exceed the standard variety Josefin in yield with proven differences at both test sites.

Нordein polymorphism between spring barley cultivars by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis

N. Neykov1*, S. Doneva2

1Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria 2Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9521 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 April 2017; accepted for publication 28 September 2017)

Abstract. In this study reserve endosperm proteins, hordeins of seven spring barley cultivars with different origin: Zernogradskii (Russia), Bodega, Fink, Scarlett and Barke (Germany), Josefin and Astoria (France) were fractionated and characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. On the basis of the obtained spectra 19 bands (D + C + B) with different relative electrophoretic mobility and intensity were identified. The electrophoresis profiles of the groups D-, C- and B- hordein are designated as separate types (models) using the index corresponding to hordein blocks. We have established one profile type for D-hordein (D1), two- for C-hordein (C1, C2), and five – for B-hordein (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5). Based on these results hordein formulas (configurations) of accessions are constructed, which enable the expression of specific varietal characteristics and prove the existence of the inter allelic variation (hordein polymorphism) due to the presence or absence of protein components and their different electrophoretic mobility in the profiles of D-, C- and B-hordein.