Registration of a new sunflower hybrid – Sevar

  1. Peevska1*, M. Drumeva2, G. Georgiev1

(Manuscript received  2017; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

 Abstract. The aim of the present article was to introduce the new Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Sevar, which since 2015 has been included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties. Sunflower hybrid Sevar was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI), General Toshevo. The hybrid is male sterile, two-linear and was obtained by interlinear hybridization. The parental components are line 807А, which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father line is 509R, a branched fertility restorer line developed through in vitro methods. The two lines demonstrated very good combining ability. Sevar is an early maturing hybrid, with duration of the vegetation period of 107–110 days. Plant height is within the range of 155-160cm, and the head diameter is 26–29cm. The seeds have absolute weight 48–57g and oil content 49–50%. The oil is of linoleic type. The percent of kernel in the seed is 75 – 76%, and the protein in the whole seed is 19–20%. The weight of seeds per plant is 69-80g, and the number of seeds is 1150-1300. The duration of flowering is 10–12 days. The maximum seed yield obtained in the experimental fields of DAI is 4300 kg/ha, and in the neighboring Romania – 6406 kg/ha. In the breeding fields of DAI, the hybrid was tested three years according to a scheme approved for this crop. During the testing period, Sevar exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 2.7–11.8%. By oil yield, the exceeding during the three years was within 3.5 – 19.1%. The highest yield was observed in 2010 – 4002 kg/ha seed yield and 1985 kg/ha oil yield. The oil content of this hybrid reached 49.6% and was higher than the standards San Luka and Brio. Sevar is resistant to the economically important diseases downy mildew (up to race 731) and the parasite Orobanche (up to race F). Hybrid Sevar was registered in Romania with certificate No. 4934/09.06.2015 and was included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties.

Evaluation of lentil cultivars and lines for resistance toFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis

  1. Koleva1*, Y. Stanoeva2, I. Kiryakov2, A. Ivanova1, P. Chamurlyiski1

 

1Shumen University “Bishop Konstantin Preslavski”, College Dobrich, Department of Crop Science and Plant protection, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria

2 Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute, 9500 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 July 2017; accepted for publication 18 January 2018)

 

Abstract. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is one of the most important food legume crops in the farming and food systems of many countries, including Bulgaria. In recent years lentil fields increased in our country. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis (F.o. f.sp. lentis) is a key yield-limiting factor worldwide. The major approach to control the disease is through resistance breeding. The aim of this investigation was to screen lentil cultivars and lines for resistance to F.o. f.sp. lentis. The investigations were carried out during 2013-2015. Thirty two lentil accessions were sown in 1m rows, in three replications. Barley grains (100g/m) inoculated with mix of four isolates of F.o. f.sp. lentis were used as inoculum. Disease reaction was estimated during flowering and pod filling stage according to 9 degree scale. The disease incidence (DI) of every accession was calculated according to McKinney index. Cluster analysis was used to group the accessions according to DI. ‘Genotype’ x ‘Year’ interaction was estimated by Two-way ANOVA. The results showed that middle disease incidence (MDI) was the highest in 2014 and the lowest in 2015. Our investigation confirms the results of many authors that disease incidence of F.o. f.sp. lentis on lentil was determined by the interaction of the factors ‘Genotype’x‘Year’. The cluster analysis grouped the accessions into two major classes. No resistant accessions were found. Six accessions showed MDI from 48.59 to 58.11 and they can be used in a genetic-improvement breeding program for fusarium wilt resistance.

Evaluation of rye specimens in maturity stage on the base of mathematical – statistical analysis

  1. Kuneva1*, E. Valchinova2, A. Stoyanova3

 

1*Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria,

2Institute of Plant Genetic Resources “К. Malkov”- Sadovo, Bulgaria

3Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 June 2017; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of the study is to evaluate comprehensively the rye collection and the possibilities for the specimen usage in selection on the basis of mathematical approaches. The study was carried out during 2009-2012 in the experimental field of the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (IRGD) – town of Sadovo on cinnamon-forest soils with 54 specimens collected (16 samples from expeditions in Bulgaria and 38 samples from abroad). As standard, the Bulgarian variety “Millennium” (current standard in IASAS) was used. The Danae variety has been used as a former 30-year standard for the country. Evaluation of the impact of the examined specimens was made on the basis of the following biometrical indicators: spike length (cm); tillering – productive and non-productive tillering; plant weight (g); ears weight (g); weight of the main spike(g); weight of the main ear`s grain (g); number of the spikelets in the spike; grain weight of the main spike (g); crop index (%). The correlation analysis made allows determination of the dependence of the complexity impact on the rye performance indicators. The established correlations show the degree of impact of each indicator in yield formation. Based on the correlation coefficients derived, the established dependencies between plant seed yield and maturation yield elements, a mathematical model of the plant with high productive potential was obtained. Rye specimens of the highest yield are characterized by high value of the crop index.

Phenotypic diversity in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum sativum L.) varieties

  1. Dyulgerov, B. Dyulgerova

 

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)

 

Abstract. The objective of this investigation was to study the phenotypic diversity among six-rowed winter barley varieties. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, during the period 2014/2015-2015/2016. The diversity among 22 barley varieties was estimated using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Maximum variation was found for grain weight per a spike and grain number per a spike. The presence of significant variation among the evaluated six-rowed winter barley varieties suggests an opportunity for improvement of grain yield through using promising genotypes as parents in the winter barley improvement program.

Agronomic performance of mutant lines of winter two-rowed barley

  1. Dyulgerova, D. Valcheva, N. Dyulgerov

 

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to study agronomic and morphological traits of winter two-rowed barley mutant lines in the M6 and M7 generations. Eight mutant lines, their parent – breeding line 244D and national standard cultivars – Obzor and Emon were evaluated in Complete Block Design with four replications. The research was conducted in the 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 growing seasons in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria. The characters studied included days to heading, plant height, lodging, peduncle length, spike length, awn length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, protein content, extract content and grading (>2.5mm). Mutant lines M1/3, M1/5 and M1/217 produced a significantly greater grain yield than the parent and standard cultivars. The improvement of grain yield was associated with increasing of spike length and grain weight per spike. The studied mutant lines were characterized with a high yield ability combined with other valuable agronomic traits and can be used in a breeding program for developing winter malting  barley varieties.

Yield and coefficient of ecological valence of spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat, Bulgaria

  1. Neykov, T. Mokreva

 

1Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria

2Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 April 2017; accepted for publication 21 September 2017)

 

Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the yield and the coefficient of ecological valence of spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat. Seven spring barley cultivars were planted in the first and second ten days of March, in comparative cultivars trials on the block method in four repetitions of an area of 10 m2, with sowing rate of 450 germinating seeds per m2. They were assessed on the standard for the French cultivar Josefin used of the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control. The statistical processing of the results was carried out by ANOVA. The coefficient of ecological valence (W) is calculated.  Cultivars grown in the region of Sadovo showed better ecological plasticity, but gave lower yields, in the region of Karnobat were more productive but difficult to adapt to environmental conditions. Suitable cultivars for growing spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat are Barke, Scarlett and Bodega. They exceed the standard variety Josefin in yield with proven differences at both test sites.

Нordein polymorphism between spring barley cultivars by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis

N. Neykov1*, S. Doneva2

1Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria 2Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9521 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 April 2017; accepted for publication 28 September 2017)

Abstract. In this study reserve endosperm proteins, hordeins of seven spring barley cultivars with different origin: Zernogradskii (Russia), Bodega, Fink, Scarlett and Barke (Germany), Josefin and Astoria (France) were fractionated and characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. On the basis of the obtained spectra 19 bands (D + C + B) with different relative electrophoretic mobility and intensity were identified. The electrophoresis profiles of the groups D-, C- and B- hordein are designated as separate types (models) using the index corresponding to hordein blocks. We have established one profile type for D-hordein (D1), two- for C-hordein (C1, C2), and five – for B-hordein (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5). Based on these results hordein formulas (configurations) of accessions are constructed, which enable the expression of specific varietal characteristics and prove the existence of the inter allelic variation (hordein polymorphism) due to the presence or absence of protein components and their different electrophoretic mobility in the profiles of D-, C- and B-hordein.

Study on the loss of accuracy of AC-method for milk yield control in sheep

D. Dimov*, P. Zhelyazkova, A. Vuchkov

Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 June 2017; accepted for publication 5 September 2017)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the loss of accuracy of AC-method for milk yield control in sheep under the conditions of threefold milking per day. Test day milk yield records of 113 ewes raised on sheep farm of the Agricultural University in Plovdiv collected according to official A4 method were used. Two breeds were raised at the university experimental farm: White Maritza (49 ewes) and Patch Faced Maritza (64 ewes). Predicted milk yield data on test day were simulated using different prediction coefficients (calculated at morning, noon or evening milk recording). Database includes 2577 predicted milk yield records on test day. The loss of accuracy using AC method is accumulated in two ways: by milk yield prediction coefficients on test day and milk yield calculations during milking period. Loss of accuracy (LA1) in prediction of test day milk yield by prediction coefficients varies from 10.02% to 12.74% according to type of milk recording (morning, noon or evening). Three factors such as level of test day milk yield, type of milk recording and animal have larger influence on LA1, 27.70%, 21.99% and 19.32%, respectively, of total variation. Loss of accuracy (LA2) in the calculated total milked milk per milking period on the basis of predicted test day milk yield according to the morning, noon and evening milk recordings compared with A4 method are 7.04%, 8.03% and 6.05%, respectively. Depending on the type of milk recording on the test day (morning, noon and evening), 46.88% to 56.15 % of the observations of LA2 fall within the scope of ±5%. Rank correlations in the ranking of ewes in all years and different designs of AC method have high values from 0.891 to 1.000.

Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley

N. Dyulgerov, B. Dyulgerova*

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 4 July 2017; accepted for publication 27 October 2017)

Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley. For this purpose, 22 lines from the ICARDA High Input Barley Program for favorable environment and 3 check varieties (Rihane-03, VMorales and Veslets) were tested in an alpha-lattice design with two replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015 growing season. The traits days to heading, plant height, number of tillers per plant, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, spike length, awn length, peduncle length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei), net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) infection were studied. Significant differences between lines for all studied traits were found. The number of fertile tillers per plant was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Lines expressed higher grain yields, shorter stem, better tolerance to net blotch and stripe rust than Bulgarian check variety Veslets were identified. These genotypes can, therefore, be used as parents for the improvement of spring barley.

In vitro propagation of oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill.)

V. Badzhelova*

Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Cultures, Kazanlak, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 12 June 2017; accepted for publication 25 August 2017)

Abstract. The purpose of this research is to develop effective protocol for clonal micro propagation of the oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Explants used in the experiment are 1.0 to 1.5 cm long nodal segments from specially cultivated mother plants. These explants were subjected to a combined method of sterilization with 0.2% solution of HgCI2 for 3 minutes followed by 0.50% solution of NaClO for 20 minutes and 0.25% solution of NaClO for 30 minutes. The best results of multiplication were obtained in basic MS medium with added BAP quantity of 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. After being separated from the mother plants the young shoots are placed directly in compost mixture for rooting and adaptation. Thus the process of multiplication is shortened, avoiding the period of in vitro rooting.