Variability and grain yield potential of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under irrigated condition in central Sudan

M.B. Alhussein1, S.H. Suliman2, A.A. Mohammed3


1Maize research program, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan

2Crop sciences section, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan

3Maize research program, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.038

(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 27 August 2018)


Abstract. These experiments were conducted in two different sites to study the genetic variability and the mean performance of the elite different origin maize genotypes under irrigated condition in central region of Sudan during rainy season of 2015. The experiments were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates, the data were collected on days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter and grain yield. The analysis of variance for each site and cross sites showed a significant variability among tested genotypes for grain yield, days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter. Also significant differences were observed for genotypes, site and a cross site for most of the studied traits such as for grain yield, days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter. The combined results for genotypic coefficients of variability and broad sense heritability estimates grain yield, ear length and ear diameter varied significantly among the tested genotypes.

Sources of resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei)

  1. Koleva1, Y. Stanoeva2, I. Kiryakov2, A. Ivanova1


1Department of Crop Science and Plant protection, College Dobrich, University Bishop Konstantin Preslavski-Shumen, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria

2Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.037

(Manuscript received 4 June 2018; accepted for publication 3 August 2018)


Abstract. Ascochyta blight is the major biotic stress that causes significant yield losses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) all over the world. The disease is caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab (telemorph Dydimella rabiei = Mycosphaerella rabiei (Kovachevski) v. Arx. The use of resistant cultivars is widely acknowledged as the most economic and environmentally friendly method for disease control. The aim of this study is to screen chickpea cultivars and lines for resistance to ascochyta blight with a view for using them in a breeding program. The investigations were carried out during 2012-2017 in Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI) – General Toshevo. Twenty chickpea accessions were inoculated under field and greenhouse conditions with 30 Ascochyta rabiei isolates. Disease reaction was estimated after 14 days by using 9-degree scale. Disease incidence (DI) was calculated according to the Mc Kinney index. Cluster analysis was used to group the accessions and isolates according to the DI. Nine accessions showed middle resistance under field conditions during the three years of investigations. No immune or resistant accession to all 30 isolates was found under greenhouse conditions. The cluster analysis grouped the accessions into two major classes. One of the classes consists of two accessions (XOOC01CA0490B0223D and XOOC01CA0490B2140D) which showed middle resistance to 12 and 13 of the isolates, respectively. The cluster analysis grouped the isolates into classes, subclasses and sub sub classes according to their virulence to the 20 chickpea accessions. The highest virulence showed five isolates (AR 883, AR 061, AR R1, AR 1013, AR 1015) with DI from 5.40 to 9.00 in all accessions. Differences in field and greenhouse results were expected and they were due to the strong dependence of disease development to climatic conditions. The results in this investigation showed that two chickpea accessions can be used in a breeding program for ascochyta blight resistance.

Knezha 560 – a new mid-late maize hybrid

  1. V. Valkova, N. Petrovska


Maize Research Institute, 5835 Knezha, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.036

(Manuscript received 14 May 2018; accepted for publication 29 June 2018)


Abstract. Тhe article presents a short characteristic of morphological, biological and economic qualities of a new maize hybrid Knezha (Kn) 560. The hybrid is a single cross, from mid-late group – FAO 500-599. It is recognized in 2017 by the Expert Commission of Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control (EAVTFISC). At the points of ecological variety trails (EVT) and EAVTFISC it was compared with the American hybrid PR 35 P 12 and the Bulgarian hybrid – Knezha 509. During the testing period in the experimental field of the Maize Research Institute (MRI) – town of Knezha, the three-year average grain yield of hybrid Knezha 560 exceeded the standard PR 35 Р 12 hybrid by 19.3% and Knezha 509 hybrid by 37.3%. In the EAVTFISC system, the new hybrid exceeds the middle standard by 0.8%. The hybrid is stress-tolerant and resistant to economically important diseases and pests of maize. With this high-yielding and competitive maize hybrid, the group of mid-late maize hybrids offered on the Bulgarian seed market is being filled.

Usability of metadata analysis of goat genetic resources among five countries from Africa, Asia and Europe: Metadata analysis of goat genetic

M.M. Musthafa1, T. Hussain2, M.E. Babar2, R.S. Aljumaah3, M.A. Alshaikh3, I. Muritala4, V. Landi4, A. Martinez4, M. Amills4, O. Dadi5, J.V. Delgado4, A.B.J. Aina5, A.A. Onasoga5, O.A. Adebambo5, C. Visser4,  E. Van Marle-Köster4, A.O. Adebambo5, F.M.M.T. Marikar6


1Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Department of Molecular Biology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan

3Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

4Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, Private Bag x 20, Hatfield, 0028, South Africa

5Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

6General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, 10390 Ratmalana, Sri Lanka


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.035

(Manuscript received 15 May 2018; accepted for publication 16 July 2018)


Abstract. Goats play a variety of roles all around the globe due to their capability to acclimatize different environmental conditions quite quickly since they have been regarded as one of the first sets of animals domesticated by the human. Even though domestic goats harbor precious genetic materials, research funding among developing countries is a major drawback for thorough study on them. Therefore, microsatellite markers seem to be affordable and informative. Genotypic data from different goat breeds across five countries (Nigeria, South Africa, Pakistan, France and Spain) was generated using eleven microsatellite markers for a comparative study in order to evaluate the usefulness of the available data for genetic characterization and identify the shortcomings of meta-analyses for combined data. The mean number of alleles (MNA) per population range from 6.44±2.83 alleles for Spanish to 10.25±0.96 for Pakistani goats, with an overall mean of 13.55±7.28. Observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranges from 0.61±0.02 to 0.83±0.01 for Spanish goats and Pakistani goats, respectively with an overall mean of 0.65. Ho of the markers used ranged from 0.569 (INRA5) to 0.793 (MM12). Highest and least polymorphic information content (PIC) was observed in loci MM12 (0.925) and MAF209 (0.489), respectively. All the populations showed significant change from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05) indicating a low level of inbreeding. The genetic distance of each country’s goat populations ranged from 0.151 to 4.245. The highest genetic distance (4.245) was observed between Spanish and Pakistani goats while the lowest were observed between Spanish and French goats. Spanish and French goats are from a common ancestor while South African, Nigerian and Pakistani goats came from another ancestor or cluster. A lot of genetic admixture in the Nigerian ecotypes has been observed whereas France and Saudi Arabian breeds have been subjected to high amount of selection pressure.

Sexual dimorphism in growth and feeding of Japanese quails in Northern Guinea Savanah

  1. N. Molokwu1, H. Y. Abbaya2,


1Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University (ADSU), Mubi, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 February 2018; accepted for publication 2 May 2018)


Abstract. The study was conducted to determine effect of sex on growth, feed consumption and reproductive pattern of Japanese quails over 16 weeks of age in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. A total of 206 (84 males and 122 females) quails were used for the study and some of the traits measured were body weight, average daily gain, growth rate, feed intake, feed cost, feed cost to gain ratio, age at sexual differentiation and weight at sexual differentiation. There was significant (p<0.05-0.01) difference in all the parameters measured except in feed consumption and feed cost (p>0.05) at 0-3 weeks, body weight, weight gain and growth rate (p>0.05) at 13-16 weeks. There is also no significant difference in the sex differentiation traits of the age at sexual differentiation (p>0.05). It is, therefore, concluded that sexual dimorphism was observed for growth and reproductive traits with the females having more response than the males; also, the Japanese quail used for this study showed a good variation for growth and reproduction traits, thus these traits can be used as basis for selection to develop highly efficient and direct, improved lines of Japanese quails.

In vitro propagation of white oil-bearing rose (Rosa alba L.)

V. Badzhelova1, V. Bozhanova2, G. Chokov3,

1Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Cultures, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

2Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

3Industrial plants company, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 22 June 2018)


Abstract. The influence of major factors such as explant sterilization, plant growth regulators in the multiplication and rooting media and the genotype on the in vitro multiplication of White Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa alba L.) was studied. Explants used in the experiment were 1.0 to 1.5 cm long nodal segments from specially cultivated mother plants. The combination of two disinfectants in the following order: 0.2% HgCl2 solution for 3 min followed by treatment with 0.5% NaClO solution for 20 min and 0.25% NaClO for 30 min was determined as the most suitable sterilization scheme. The best results of multiplication were obtained in basic MS medium with added BAP in concentration of 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The analysis of the variance reveals that the genotype, media variants and interactions between them have a statistically significant influence on the variation of the total number of induced adventive shoots. The highest percentage of successfully rooted young plants (97.5% on average for both genotypes) was obtained in ex vitro conditions by direct rooting in a soil mixture.


Exterior traits of a male parental form for production of autosexing Easter eggers

  1. Lukanov, A. Genchev, E. Halil


Department of Animal Science – monogastric and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.


(Manuscript received 13 March 2018; accepted for publication 2 May 2018)


Abstract. The aim of the present study was to perform exterior evaluation of a newly created male parental form for production of autosexing Easter egger crosses. The main exterior traits and measurements were conducted along with phenotype evaluation of hens and roosters of the XL male parental form at 6 and 12 months of age. The average live weight of 6-month-old roosters and hens was 2.62±0.03 kg and 1.77±0.028 kg, respectively. One-year-old roosters and hens weighed 2.8±0.027 kg and 2.03±0.04 kg, respectively, on average. The ratio between the main exterior measurements of males and females was preserved for both age groups. Hens exhibited lower massiveness index than roosters. The compactness index in hens at 6 and 12 months of age was higher than that of roosters. Six-month-old roosters demonstrated higher long-leggedness index values as compared to year-old males and hens of both studied ages. Phenotypically, birds resembled productive type Rhode Island Red chickens except for the presence of pea combs and small wattles.

Registration of a new sunflower hybrid – Sevar

  1. Peevska1*, M. Drumeva2, G. Georgiev1

(Manuscript received  2017; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

 Abstract. The aim of the present article was to introduce the new Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Sevar, which since 2015 has been included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties. Sunflower hybrid Sevar was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI), General Toshevo. The hybrid is male sterile, two-linear and was obtained by interlinear hybridization. The parental components are line 807А, which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father line is 509R, a branched fertility restorer line developed through in vitro methods. The two lines demonstrated very good combining ability. Sevar is an early maturing hybrid, with duration of the vegetation period of 107–110 days. Plant height is within the range of 155-160cm, and the head diameter is 26–29cm. The seeds have absolute weight 48–57g and oil content 49–50%. The oil is of linoleic type. The percent of kernel in the seed is 75 – 76%, and the protein in the whole seed is 19–20%. The weight of seeds per plant is 69-80g, and the number of seeds is 1150-1300. The duration of flowering is 10–12 days. The maximum seed yield obtained in the experimental fields of DAI is 4300 kg/ha, and in the neighboring Romania – 6406 kg/ha. In the breeding fields of DAI, the hybrid was tested three years according to a scheme approved for this crop. During the testing period, Sevar exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 2.7–11.8%. By oil yield, the exceeding during the three years was within 3.5 – 19.1%. The highest yield was observed in 2010 – 4002 kg/ha seed yield and 1985 kg/ha oil yield. The oil content of this hybrid reached 49.6% and was higher than the standards San Luka and Brio. Sevar is resistant to the economically important diseases downy mildew (up to race 731) and the parasite Orobanche (up to race F). Hybrid Sevar was registered in Romania with certificate No. 4934/09.06.2015 and was included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties.

Evaluation of lentil cultivars and lines for resistance toFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis

  1. Koleva1*, Y. Stanoeva2, I. Kiryakov2, A. Ivanova1, P. Chamurlyiski1


1Shumen University “Bishop Konstantin Preslavski”, College Dobrich, Department of Crop Science and Plant protection, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria

2 Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute, 9500 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 July 2017; accepted for publication 18 January 2018)


Abstract. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is one of the most important food legume crops in the farming and food systems of many countries, including Bulgaria. In recent years lentil fields increased in our country. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis (F.o. f.sp. lentis) is a key yield-limiting factor worldwide. The major approach to control the disease is through resistance breeding. The aim of this investigation was to screen lentil cultivars and lines for resistance to F.o. f.sp. lentis. The investigations were carried out during 2013-2015. Thirty two lentil accessions were sown in 1m rows, in three replications. Barley grains (100g/m) inoculated with mix of four isolates of F.o. f.sp. lentis were used as inoculum. Disease reaction was estimated during flowering and pod filling stage according to 9 degree scale. The disease incidence (DI) of every accession was calculated according to McKinney index. Cluster analysis was used to group the accessions according to DI. ‘Genotype’ x ‘Year’ interaction was estimated by Two-way ANOVA. The results showed that middle disease incidence (MDI) was the highest in 2014 and the lowest in 2015. Our investigation confirms the results of many authors that disease incidence of F.o. f.sp. lentis on lentil was determined by the interaction of the factors ‘Genotype’x‘Year’. The cluster analysis grouped the accessions into two major classes. No resistant accessions were found. Six accessions showed MDI from 48.59 to 58.11 and they can be used in a genetic-improvement breeding program for fusarium wilt resistance.

Evaluation of rye specimens in maturity stage on the base of mathematical – statistical analysis

  1. Kuneva1*, E. Valchinova2, A. Stoyanova3


1*Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria,

2Institute of Plant Genetic Resources “К. Malkov”- Sadovo, Bulgaria

3Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 June 2017; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)


Abstract. The aim of the study is to evaluate comprehensively the rye collection and the possibilities for the specimen usage in selection on the basis of mathematical approaches. The study was carried out during 2009-2012 in the experimental field of the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (IRGD) – town of Sadovo on cinnamon-forest soils with 54 specimens collected (16 samples from expeditions in Bulgaria and 38 samples from abroad). As standard, the Bulgarian variety “Millennium” (current standard in IASAS) was used. The Danae variety has been used as a former 30-year standard for the country. Evaluation of the impact of the examined specimens was made on the basis of the following biometrical indicators: spike length (cm); tillering – productive and non-productive tillering; plant weight (g); ears weight (g); weight of the main spike(g); weight of the main ear`s grain (g); number of the spikelets in the spike; grain weight of the main spike (g); crop index (%). The correlation analysis made allows determination of the dependence of the complexity impact on the rye performance indicators. The established correlations show the degree of impact of each indicator in yield formation. Based on the correlation coefficients derived, the established dependencies between plant seed yield and maturation yield elements, a mathematical model of the plant with high productive potential was obtained. Rye specimens of the highest yield are characterized by high value of the crop index.