Effect of urea-fortified all concentrate corncob diets on serum biochemical and hematological indices of West African dwarf goats

U. M. Kolo1*, A. A. Adeloye2, M. B. Yousuf2

1Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
2Department of Animal production, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 24 November 2016; accepted for publication 31 March 2017)

Abstract. The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of urea-fortified all-concentrate corncob diets on hematological indices and serum biochemical parameters of West African dwarf goats. Fifteen (15) West African dwarf goats (divided into 5 groups – one control and 4 experimental) with average weight of 9.33 kg were used for the study, which lasted 70 days. The animals were weighed and randomly assigned to five (5) treatments in a complete randomized design (CRD). The treatments were with different levels (%, 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) of urea in corncob-based concentrate diets. Results of the hematological indices showed that Packed Cell Volume and Red Blood Cell values were significantly different (P<0.05) among treatment groups. Serum biochemistry showed that blood urea and albumen concentration were influenced (P<0.05) by dietary urea level. The other values of the blood biochemical indices and the parameters of hematology were similar (p>0.05) among dietary groups. The incorporation of urea in corncob diets has no negative effect on the animal and a 3% inclusion of urea showed good values for a healthy goat based on the blood biochemical and hematological indices.

Evaluation of chemical composition of raw and processed tropical sickle pod (Senna obtusifolia) seed meal

Augustine C.1*, Kwari I.D.2, Igwebuike J.U.2, Adamu S.B.2

1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 12 April 2017; accepted for publication 2 June 2017)

Abstract. A laboratory analysis was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition of raw and differently processed Senna obtusifolia seed meal. Senna vobtusifolia seeds were processed using boiling, soaking, sprouting and fermentation methods respectively. The processed and raw seed meals were milled and the representative seed meal samples were analysed using standard laboratory methods. The results of the chemical analysis revealed that Senna obtusifolia seed meal possessed good nutritional properties (23.40 – 25.90% crude protein and 2.14 – 2.86 MJ/kg metabolizable energy) and has good amino acid profile as an alternative feed source for livestock. However, the raw seed meal contains 378.5, 247.2, 102.0, 248.6 and 190.0 mg/100.0g of tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins, respectively. The different processing methods were observed to be effective in reducing the level of the antinutrients with fermentation recording the highest reduction levels of 68.25, 66.32, 43.70, 58.07 and 44.30% for tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins followed by boiling with reduction levels of 66.27, 46.97, 46.97, 47.89, 58.66 and 45.78% for tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins, respectively. In conclusion, Senna obtusifolia seed can be effectively process for utilization as feed ingredient using fermentation. Feeding trial should be conducted using Senna obtusifolia seed meal to evaluate the feeding value in livestock especially monogastric animals.

In vitro gas production of different feeds and feed ingredients at ruminants

E. Videv, J. Krastanov*, S. Laleva, Т. Angelova, M. Oblakova, N. Oblakov, D. Yordanova, V. Karabashev

Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 March 2017; accepted for publication 30 May 2017)

Abstract. Investigation for determining the amount of in vitro gas production after feeding different groups of forages was performed at the Agricultural Institute-Stara Zagora. Forages from different regions were collected and analyzed for in vitro gas production at 24 h and 48 h by Ankom Technology®. The following parameters of the tested forages were determinated: Neutral detergent fibre (NDF, %), Acid detergent fibre (ADF, %), Digestibility of dry matter (DDM, %), Dry matter intakе (DMI, %) and Relative Feed Value (RFV, %). RFV was calculated on the base of DDM and DMI in comparison with alfalfa biomass in flowering stage. Collected feeds (46 samples) were divided in 11 groups on the base of their composition and structure – fibre component content. Depending on the amount of gas production forages can be divided in 3 groups: 1) Grain feeds generating the highest amount of gas – average 387.93 ml/g DM; 2) Combined feeds, fresh forages, complete feed mixtures – average 213.87- 245.15 ml/g DM; 3) Hay, silage, straw, complete feed mixtures + bioadditives – average 115.06 – 208.34 ml/g DM. Intensity of gas production in grain feeds was higher at 24 h, while on the opposite, was higher at 48 h in roughage feeds due to the different speed of degradation of feeds – concentrated had a very intensive and quick degradation, roughages – slow degradation. Supplementation of combined feeds with bioadditives Rumanol, Biolife, Bibor decreased the amount of gas production by 9.87% – 29.05%.

Haematological investigations upon acute intoxication with carbofuran in dogs

R. Binev*, I. Valchev, R. Russenov, Y. Nikolov

Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 7 September 2016; accepted for publication 19 December 2016)

Abstract. Experiments for monitoring of changes in haematological parameters were carried out in dogs after acute intoxication with the carbamate insecticide carbofuran (Carbosan 35 ST). The studies involved one control and 6 experimental groups of dogs (total n=42), treated once orally with increasing doses of the preparation via oesophageal probe: 0.525 mg/kg (experimental group I), 1.05 mg/kg (experimental group II), 2.1 mg/kg (experimental group III), 3.5 mg/kg (experimental group IV), 5.25 mg/kg (experimental group V) and 10.5 mg/kg (LD50), (experimental group VI), corresponding to 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/3, 1/2 and LD50, oral doses for albino rats. Blood samples were obtained from v. antebrachi cephalica or v. jugularis in the course of 3 consecutive days prior to the treatment (hours -48, -24 and 0) and on post treatment hours 1, 3, 5, 7, 24 and 48 from all groups for analysis of blood cell counts (RBC), white blood cell counts (WBC), haemoglobin content (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), differential white cell counts (DWC) erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). It was established that the tested carbamate insecticide caused decrease RBC, HGB and LYM, and increased the levels of WBC and banded neutrophils between post treatment hours 1 and 24; afterwards, the studied parameters regained the respective control values.

Clinical toxicological investigations on acute carbofuran intoxication in quails (Coturnix coturnix)

R. Binev1*, I. Valchev1, R. Mihaylov2, Y. Nikolov1

1Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Animal Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 September 2016; accepted for publication 19 October 2016)

Abstract. The present studiy was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of the carbamate insecticide carbofuran (Carbosan 35 ST) after experimental acute intoxication in quails (Coturnix coturnix). Experiments for monitoring of changes in clinical indices and some haematological parameters. Quails were divided into 5 groups: one control and 4 experimental. They were treated by increasing single doses of the tested pesticide: 1.05 mg/kg (experimental group I), 2.1 mg/kg (experimental group II), 5.25 mg/kg (experimental group III) and 10.5 mg/kg (experimental group IV), corresponding to 1/10 LD50, 1/5 LD50, 1/2 LD50 and LD50 oral doses for albino rats, respectively. In three consecutive days prior to the treatment (hours –48, –24 and 0) and 1, 3, 5, 7, 24 and 48 hours thereafter, the clinical status was registered to evaluate rectal body temperature, faeces excretion, locomotion, perception etn. and were obtained blood samples from v. subcutanea ulnaris or v. metatarsea ulnaris for analysis of haemoglobin content (HGB). It was found out that the tested carbamate insecticide had some toxic effects manifested clinically with hyperaemia, arexia, difficulty in focusing the eyes, salivation with thick saliva discharge, diarrhoea, generalised tremor, clonic tonic spasms (especially of cervical muscles), depression and hypochromaemia. The described changes were the most obvious between post treatment hours 1 and 3, and then the studied parameters regained their control values. The tolerated dose of carbofuran was 1.05 mg/kg (1/10 LD50 for albino rats), the minimum toxic dose was 2.1 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 for albino rats), and minimum lethal dose – 10.5 mg/kg, equal to LD50 for albino rats.

Reproductive performance of breeding rabbits fed by graded levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf meal

T. Ahemen1*, I.I. Bitto1, O.I.A. Oluremi2

1Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 12 March 2016; accepted for publication 21 September 2016)

Abstract. Twenty breeding does and 4 rabbit bucks aged 28 weeks, weighing between 1622 to 1746g ,were used to investigate the reproductive performance of breeding does fed by graded levels of cassava leaf meal (CLM). The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments viz: T1 (control), T2, T3 and T4 with CLM inclusion levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively, after balancing for live weight. Each rabbit was individually caged and served as a replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 17 weeks. The results showed that does on diet T2 (100%) achieved the highest conception rate, followed by T3 (75%) and T4 (75%) and the least in T1 (66.67%). Average daily weight change and change in weight during pregnancy were the highest (p<0.05) in T4. Litter size at birth was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T4 (2.67), while litter size at weaning was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 (3.67). Average birth and weaning weights were significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatment T4. Percentage of still birth was higher in T2 (60%) while pre-weaning mortality was the highest in T1 (5). It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 30% of CLM in rabbit diet may support reproductive performance in female rabbits. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potential of cassava leaf meal at higher levels of inclusion on reproductive performance be investigated.

Lysozyme levels in haemolymph of worker bees (Apis mellifera L.) from bee colonies with different degree of expression of hygienic behaviour

S. Lazarov1, I. Zhelyazkova1*, D. Salkova2, R. Shumkova3, S. Takova4

1Department of Animal Science-Non-ruminants and other Animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Fauna and circulation of parasites, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria 3Experimental Station in Animal Husbandry and Farming, 4700 Smolyan, Bulgaria
4National Diagnostic Scientific Research Veterinary Medical Institute, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 June 2016; accepted for publication 10 August 2016)

Abstract. A total of 24 bee colonies of apiaries with different business orientation were tested for the degree of expression of hygienic behaviour by modified method, different from the traditionally used for this purpose method. To outline the test field a square sized 5 x 5 cm was used, stuck onto a section of a honey comb with sealed worker brood (the area bounded by the stencil is equal to 100 worker bee cells). The brood in the outlined square is killed by a thin entomological needle by jabbing the sealed cells, without destroying their caps. Depending on the time and extent of cleaning bee colonies are divided into 3 groups: super hygienic – colonies which of the 24th hour after the jabbing have uncovered and cleaned over 95% of the outlined area; hygienic – colonies which on the 48th hour after the jabbing have uncovered and cleaned over 95% of the outlined area; non- hygienic – colonies which have cleaned less than 95% of the cells in the area on the 48th hour. From each bee colony samples of worker bees (200-250 pcs.) have been taken and haemolymph obtained. The amount of lysozyme has been defined at the Reference Laboratory “Honeybee health” at the National Diagnostic Scientific Research Veterinary Medical Institute – Sofia by the method of Motavkina et al. (1979), modified by Kostov et al. (1983). The results obtained show different values for the amount of lysozyme in haemolymph of worker bees, depending on the degree of expression of their hygienic behaviour – 10.49 ± 1.86 μg/ml for the group of super hygienic colonies; 9.11 ± 1.37 μg/ml for the group of hygienic ones; 15.22 ± 2.37 μg/ml for the group of non-hygienic bee colonies, respectively. The established values range from 4.59 μg/ml to 38.28 μg/ml, the greatest variation being in the group of non-hygienic colonies. The data suggests that in positive direction compared to the average for the model is the deviation of LS-means of bee colonies with low level of hygiene (non-hygienic). The reported LS-estimates suggest that in the non- hygienic bee colonies there is a tendency of increase the lysozyme content in the haemolymph.

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Plastid pigments quantity and some physiological parameters related to photosyntetic processes in triticale grown for green biomass

H. Nedeva*, R. Ivanova, H. Yancheva

Crop Science Department, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 20 May 2016; accepted for publication 6 June 2016)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to establish the amount of plastid pigments and some physiological parameters related to photosynthetic processes in two triticale cultivars, grown for biomass under different nitrogen fertilization rates and harvesting stages in the region of Southern Bulgaria. The research was carried out in the field of Crop Science Department at the Agricultural University, Plovdiv, during the period 2013 – 2015. The experiment was set after the block method with four replications, and 20m2 for each experimental plot. Two triticale cultivars – Musala and Attila grown for green biomass at different fertilizer rates (N , N , N , N , N ) have been tested. The two cultivars are harvested in heading formation and milk maturity stages. The physiological parameters – 0 120 160 200 240 intensity of transpiration, photosynthesis rate and the amount of plastid pigments (Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B, Carotene) have been observed at different cultivars and harvesting stages. In both tested cultivars in heading stage the transpiration intensity was higher when rates of N were used, while in milk 200 maturity stage the highest values were in variant with N . The photosynthesis rate at both cultivars in heading stage was increased with increase of the 240 nitrogen rate. In the stage of milk maturity the values of some indices decreased in both cultivars. The lowest content of plastid pigments in leaves of Musala cultivar was received in the control variant. It was observed that the increase of the nitrogen rate leads to increasing the pigments content. The highest content of pigments in Attila cultivar was received when N was applied.
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Optimization of formulations with balanced biochemical composition and possibilities for their extrusion

M. Ruskova1*, T. Petrova1, I. Bakalov1, N. Penov2, A. Simitchiev2

1Food Research and Development Institute, 154 V. Aprilov, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Department of Canning and Refrigeration Technology, Technological Faculty, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 10 June 2015; accepted for publication 9 May 2016)

Abstract. Combinations of different raw materials (beans, einkorn wheat, and buckwheat) for obtaining formulations with high protein content and balanced amino acid composition were studied using simplex centroid design. The target functions for optimization were content of protein, sulfur-containing amino acid methionine and cysteine, lysine, and tryptophan. The optimal area of combinations of raw materials in the food formulas with balanced biochemical composition was obtained. Optimized ternary mixture consisting of 50% bean, 40% einkorn wheat, and 10% buckwheat with different moisture content (16, 22, and 28%) has been extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany). Extrusion parameters were as follows: feed screw speed 50 rpm, die diameter 3 mm, screw compression ratio 2:1, temperature profile 100/140/160ºC, screw speed 160 rpm. The three extrudates with different initial moisture were evaluated by sectional expansion index, water absorption index, water solubility index, and density, with the aim of choosing the best treatment. The results demonstrated that the 22% initial moisture content yielded an extrudate with good physicochemical characteristics overall but an optimization study is needed to confirm this.
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Influence of mineral nitrogen and organic fertilization on the productivity of grain sorghum

S. Enchev*, G. Kikindonov

Agricultural Institute, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

Abstract. The production of grain sorghum has increased in recent years. The modern varieties are hybrids with high productivity potential appropriate for application of intensive forage grain production technologies. The increased requirements for ecological production necessitate optimization of the nutrition parameters in the conditions of unstable agriculture with unbalanced soil nutrient substance accumulation. The effect of nutrition with mineral nitrogen fertilizer and organic fertilizer Humustim on the productivity of 6 varieties of Euralis Semences, popular in the practice, was tested during 2011 – 2013. In the various climatic conditions fertilization is a highly effective factor for productivity increase. The use of organic fertilizers such as Humustim widens the possibilities of the ecological production.

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