Effect of rations with fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea on some reproductive parameters of rabbit bucks

O. Pius1*, T. Ahemen1, A.H. Abu2

1Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, College of Animal Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
2Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 27 August 2018; accepted for publication 14 January 2019)

Abstract. Thirty (30) rabbit bucks of mixed breeds (New Zealand white x Chinchilla) with average live weight of 852g, aged between 12 and 14 weeks were subjected to a feeding trial for 14 weeks, to determine the effects of diets with different ratio concentrate to fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea (FLGA) on semen characteristics, testicular and epididymal morphometry of rabbit bucks. The rabbits were randomly allocated into five treatments: Treatment 1-T1 (100g concentrate /C/: 0g FLGA), Treatment 2-T2 (75g C: 25g FLGA), Treatment-T3 3 (50g C: 50g FLGA), Treatment 4-T4 (25g C: 75g FLGA), Treatment 5-T5 (00g C: 100g FLGA). The results obtained showed that sperm motility, concentration and percentage of live sperm cells showed significant effects (P<0.05), while semen volume and percentage of normal sperm cells were not significantly affected by the test diets. Rabbits on T4 did not ejaculate within the experimental period. Mean testis density was not significantly affected, while paired testes weight, mean testis length, paired testes volume, paired epididymal weight and mean epididymal length were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. The results revealed that rabbit bucks on T2 and T3 performed better, rabbits on T4 performed least, while rabbit bucks in T5 could not survive beyond two weeks. Concentrate to FLGA at the ratios of 75g C: 25g FLGA (T2) and 50g C: 50g FLGA (T3) are therefore recommended as the best combinations for rabbit breeding bucks.

Effects of aflatoxin B1 on histopathological structure of immunocompetent organs in mulard ducks

N. Groseva1, I. Valchev2*, Ts. Hristov2, L. Lazarov2, D. Kanakov2, R. Binev2

1Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 21 August 2018; accepted for publication 28 January 2019)

Abstact. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin В1 (AFB1) on immunocompetent organs (thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius) morphology. Also, the possibility for prevention of toxic effects of AFB1 by feed supplementation of a mycosorbent (Mycotox NB) was studied. The experiments were conducted with 4 groups of 20 10-day-old mulard ducks: group I – control, fed a standard compound feed according to the species and the age; group II – experimental, whose feed was supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg. AFB1, group III – experimental, supplemented with 0.8 mg/kg AFB1 and group IV – experimental, supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 2 g/kg Mycotox NG. The duration of the experiments was 42 days. Atrophy and degenerative changes were observed in immunocompetent organs of birds from groups ІІ and III. The supplementation of the feed with 2 g/kg Mycotox NG resulted in partial neutralisation of deleterious effects of AFB1 on severity of histological lesions (considerably slighter lymphoid follicle rarefaction).

Effect of diets with raw garlic flour on growth performance and blood parameters in rabbits

M.U. Onyekwere1, P.C. Jiwuba1*, U.N. Egu2

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2Department of Agriculture, Abia State University, P.M.B. 7010 Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 6 August 2018; accepted for publication 16 October 2018)

Abstract. Ninety-six growing New Zealand rabbit bucks (male) and does (female) were randomly assigned to four treatment diets for a period of ninety (90) days. The treatments which contained 0% (T1) control, 5% (T2), 10% (T3) and 15% (T4) raw garlic flour meal were fed to the rabbits in a completely randomized design (CRD) to determine the growth performance, haematology and serum chemistry of the rabbits. The results on growth performance in both sexes showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the treatment groups except for final body weights. T4 recorded the best values in weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for both sexes. Results of hematological parameters (haemoglobin – Hb, Packed Cell Volume – PCV, Red Blood Cell – RBC, White Blood Cell –WBC, Mean Cell Volume – MCV, Mean Cell Haemoglobin – MCH and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration – MCHC) showed significant (p<0.05) difference for all the parameters evaluated except for red blood cells in both sexes. Haemoglobin values for both sexes were higher and better for the treatment groups in comparison with the control. For the serum chemistry (Total serum protein, Albumin, Globulin, Urea, Creatinine and Cholesterol) all the parameters showed significant (p<0.05) difference among the parameters examined except albumin for both sexes. However, globulin was also similar (p>0.05) for the male rabbits. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood cholesterol was recorded in rabbits fed the treatment diets. The study indicated that raw garlic floor could effectively be added to rabbit ration to improve the quality of the feed and the physiological condition of the animals.

Laying performance and cost-benefits of feeding brown laying hens with raw or processed tropical sickle pod (Senna obtusifolia) seed meal based-diets

C. Augustine1*, I.D. Kwari2, J.U. Igwebuikwe2, S.B. Adamu2, C.I. Medugu2, D.I. Mojaba1

1Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 22 December 2017; accepted for publication 15 August 2018)

Abstract. . A feeding trial was conducted for 16 weeks to evaluate the effects and cost-benefits of feeding raw or processed Senna obtusifolia (S. obtusifolia) seed meal based-diets on the laying performance of ISA brown laying hens. Six experimental diets were compounded to contain 0% S. obtusifolia seed meal (T1) and 20% each of the raw, boiled, soaked, sprouted and fermented S. obtusifolia seed meals designated as T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively. One hundred and eighty (180) ISA brown laying hens aged 36 weeks were housed in battery cages (5 birds/0.95m2) and assigned to the six (6) dietary treatments in groups of thirty (30) birds in a completely randomized design. Each replicate cage contains 10 laying hens. Data were collected on feed intake, hen-day egg production (HDEP), hen-house egg production (HHEP), egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed cost per kilogram, feed cost per egg mass and mortality. The results indicated that the group of laying hens fed raw S. obtusifolia seed meal based diet recorded the lowest HDEP (52.42%), egg weight (53.08g) and egg mass (2782.45g). Among the hens fed the processed S. obtusifolia seed meal based diets, the laying hens fed the fermented S. obtusifolia seed meal based diet indicated significantly (p<0.05) better HDEP (64.05%), egg weight (58.45g) and egg mass (3743.72g). On economic grounds, the use of raw S. obtusifolia is not cost effective because feed cost per kilogram egg was relatively high (N317.47 or $0.82) in the group of laying hens fed raw S. obtusifolia seed meal based diet. However, the processed S. obtusifolia seed meal based diets showed some economic advantage. In conclusion, 20% of fermented S. obtusifolia seed meal can be incorporated in the diets of laying hens with little or no depreciation in laying performance and economic-benefits.

Effect of dietary phytoextracts supplementation on the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss w.), cultivated in recirculation system

  1. Georgieva, G. Zhelyazkov, Y. Staykov, D. Georgiev

 

Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6014 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.041

(Manuscript received 7 June 2018; accepted for publication 28 August 2018)

 

Abstract. The present research aimed to examine the effect of dietary phytoextracts supplementation on the chemical composition and fatty acid profile in the meat of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), cultivated in a recirculation system. The fish were divided into 6 groups: one control (C) and five experimental groups in the food of which phytoextracts of curcumin (EC), paprika (EP), thyme (ET), oregano (EO) and garlic (EG) were added. The inclusion of phytoextracts had no significant effect on growth parameters of fish from EC, EP, ET, EO and EG groups (P>0.05). No statistical differences on water content, protein and lipids were observed in the meat of fish from the control and the experimental groups (P>0.05). Statistically significantly higher value of the dry matter was established in ET group in comparson with C, EC, EP, EO and EG groups (P≤0.001). The values of ash were significantly lower in fish from all experimental groups compared to the control group. The inclusion of phytoextracts did not affect the fatty acid profile of fish from EP, EO and EG groups (P>0.05). Exceptions are EC and ET groups, which had the lowest value of C18:3n-3 α-linolenic compared to those from the control group (P≤0.05, P≤0.001).

Effect of experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on haematological parameters and bone marrow morphology in mulard ducks

  1. Valchev1, N. Groseva2, D. Kanakov1, Ts. Hristov1, L. Lazarov1, R. Binev1

1Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria,

2Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.040

(Manuscript received 12 June 2018; accepted for publication 20 August 2018)

 

Abstract. In this experiment, the toxic effects of AFB1 on some haematological parameters were investigated in mulard ducks, namely red blood cell counts (RBC), haemoglobin content (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), platelet counts (PLT), white blood cell counts (WBC), differential white blood cell counts (WBC %), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Experiments were conducted with 4 groups of 20 10-day-old mulard ducks each. The groups were as followed: group I – control, fed a standard compound feed according to the species and the age; group II – experimental, whose feed was supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB1, group III – experimental, supplemented with 0.8 mg/kg AFB1 and group IV – experimental, supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 2 g/kg Mycotox NG. The duration of the experiment was 42 days. Haematological analysis performed on the 21st day of the trial showed reduction in RBC, HCT, HGB and PLT and increased total WBC in groups II and III. The percentages of the different leukocyte classes (differential leukocyte counts) demonstrated increased proportion of heterophils and lower percentages of lymphocytes. The observed changed tended to become more pronounced on the 42nd day of the experiment. There were no statistically significant changes in MCV, MCH, and MCHC, as well as in eosinophil, basophil, and monocyte percentages between control and treated groups (р>0.05). The supplementation of the feed with mycosorbent – Mycotox NG (experimental group IV) reduced partly the harmful effect of AFB1 on the studied haematological indices.

Effect of monosodium glutamate dietary supplementation on some productive traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), cultivated in net cages

  1. G. Zhelyazkov*

 

Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6014 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.039

(Manuscript received 30 May 2018; accepted for publication 15 August 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a monosodium glutamate dietary supplementation on the survival rate, growth performance, feed conversion ratio and economic efficiency of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), cultivated in net cages. Two hundred carps were allotted into two experimental variants, each of them comprising two replications (Control groups – CG and CG1; Experimental groups – EG and EG1), with 50 fish in a group. The average initial live weight of fish from the control and experimental groups was 1141.62±79.62g and 1129.54±71.47g, respectively (P>0.05). The carps were cultivated in net cages with a size 3.0/3.0/2.0m. The fish were fed with extruded feed Aqua garant VITAL, a product of Garant-Tiernahrung Gesellschaft m.b.H. – Austria, with 6mm size of pellets. Monosodium glutamate in amount of 1% was added to the feed of carps from the experimental groups. The fish from the control groups received no monosodium glutamate supplementation of the diet. The feed given to the fish was 2% of the total biomass. The trial period was 60 days, control catch at 30th day were done in order to study the influence of the monosodium glutamate supplementation on the weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the common carp, cultivated in net cages. The initial (1st day), control (30th day) and final (60th day) live weights (g) were determined by individual weighing. The final live weight of the fish from both replications of the experimental and the control groups was as follows: 1699.36±78.43g and 1597.27±74.66g, the differences were significant (P<0.001). The survival rate of carps from both control and experimental group replications was 100%. The average individual weight gain of fish from the two replications (supplemented with 1% monosodium glutamate) was 569.82±3.75g which was higher than that of controls by 20.04%, the differences were significant (P<0.001). At the end of the trial, the analysis of consumed feed amount showed that feed conversion ratio in the group supplemented with 1% monosodium glutamate was 1.76±0.12, i.e. by 25.57% lower than that of control carps (P<0.001). The economic efficiency in the experimental groups exhibited better economic conversion ratio (0.936), by 22.65% lower than that of the non-supplemented groups.

Effect of pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf meal on productive parameters of growing rabbits

P.C. Jiwuba

 

Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 

(Manuscript received 25 December 2017; accepted for publication 9 March 2018)

 

Abstract. A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the productive performance, carcass yield and organ characteristics of growing rabbits fed diets containing pawpaw leaf meal (PLM). A total of forty-eight (48) growing rabbits with an average body weight range of 477.01g were randomly divided into four experimental groups of twelve animals each, with four rabbits constituting a replicate. Four experimental diets were formulated and designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 to contain PLM at 0%, 15%, 30% and 45%, respectively. The four treatment groups were assigned the four diets in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each rabbit received an assigned diet for 56 days. The determined chemical composition of the experimental diets ranges from 90.46-92.91% dry matter (DM), 16.70-17.44% crude protein (CP), 15.40-16.45% crude fibre (CF), 3.29-8.09% ash, 2.30-3.11 ether extract (EE), 49.34-52.89% nitrogen free extract (NFE) and 2550.05-2604.10 Kcal/kg metabolisable energy (ME). The proximate analysis of the PLM revealed 87.67% DM, 17.30% CP, 12.86% CF, 8.88% ash, 0.81% EE 47.82% NFE and 2348.05 Kcal/kg ME. The results on productive performance showed significant (p<0.05) improvement with the inclusion of PLM in the diets for final body weight, daily weight gain, total feed intake and daily feed intake. Similarly, the live weight at slaughter, dressing percentage, loin, back cut and gastro intestinal weight (GIT) were significantly (p<0.05) better and higher for the treatment groups in comparison with the control. It was concluded therefore that PLM is rich in essential nutrients and therefore suitable for inclusion in rabbit ration up to 45% for improved live weight, weight gain, feed intake and carcass and organ yields.

Blood count in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma

Ts. Hristov*, R. Binev

 

Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 26 June 2017; accepted for publication 21 January 2018)

 

Abstract. Haematological studies were conducted in 19 dogs (8 from small and 8 from medium-size breeds, 15 of which over 8 years of age) with mammary gland carcinoma at different stages of development. Blood samples were collected after a single venipucture of v. cephalica antebrachii in tubes with EDTA as anticoagulant. Complete blood count parameters: haemoglobin (g/L), haematocrit (%), erythrocytes (T/L), mean corpuscular volume (MCV, fL), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, pg), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, g/L), red cell distribution width (RDW, %), leukocytes (G/L), thrombocytes (G/L) were determined. Differential white blood cell counts were evaluated on blood smears stained with Hemacolor. The results showed anemia with erythropenia, without significant changes in erythrocyte indices, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, and slight variations in differential white blood cell count.

Slaughter traits of Pharaoh Japanese quails

А. Genchev1, H. Lukanov1*, I. Penchev2

 

1Department of Animal Science – monogastric and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

2Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

(Manuscript received 29 November 2017; accepted for publication 23 January 2018)

 

Abstract. Slaughter traits and possibilities for production of manually deboned meat were investigated in Japanese quails. The study was conducted at the Poultry breeding unit of the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University – Stara Zagora. Slaughter yield and relative shares of the different cuts with bones and deboned breast and thigh meat were determined in 35-day-old Pharaoh Japanese quails. It was found out that the grill percentage (carcass without skin and giblets) was 58-64.5% of live weight. Breast with bone comprised 36.5-49.9% of grill weight, and thighs: 23.2-32.4%. From one quail, about 75.6-110 g deboned breast and thigh meat could be produced, e.g. 50-67% of grill weight. Breast meat yield was 47-72 g from one bird equal to 31.2-42.8% of grill weight. At 35 days of age, abdominal fat percentage was relatively low (0.8% of grill weight) with bird-to-bird variation of 0.12 and 2.1%. It could be concluded that Japanese quails are a promising species that could be marketed both as whole-body carcass (grill) or as manually deboned cuts (breast with bone and thighs). The ratio of deboned meat and bones plus remaining muscle tissue was 5.9 and 4.5 for breast and thighs, respectively.