Effect of pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf meal on productive parameters of growing rabbits

P.C. Jiwuba

 

Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 

(Manuscript received 25 December 2017; accepted for publication 9 March 2018)

 

Abstract. A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the productive performance, carcass yield and organ characteristics of growing rabbits fed diets containing pawpaw leaf meal (PLM). A total of forty-eight (48) growing rabbits with an average body weight range of 477.01g were randomly divided into four experimental groups of twelve animals each, with four rabbits constituting a replicate. Four experimental diets were formulated and designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 to contain PLM at 0%, 15%, 30% and 45%, respectively. The four treatment groups were assigned the four diets in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each rabbit received an assigned diet for 56 days. The determined chemical composition of the experimental diets ranges from 90.46-92.91% dry matter (DM), 16.70-17.44% crude protein (CP), 15.40-16.45% crude fibre (CF), 3.29-8.09% ash, 2.30-3.11 ether extract (EE), 49.34-52.89% nitrogen free extract (NFE) and 2550.05-2604.10 Kcal/kg metabolisable energy (ME). The proximate analysis of the PLM revealed 87.67% DM, 17.30% CP, 12.86% CF, 8.88% ash, 0.81% EE 47.82% NFE and 2348.05 Kcal/kg ME. The results on productive performance showed significant (p<0.05) improvement with the inclusion of PLM in the diets for final body weight, daily weight gain, total feed intake and daily feed intake. Similarly, the live weight at slaughter, dressing percentage, loin, back cut and gastro intestinal weight (GIT) were significantly (p<0.05) better and higher for the treatment groups in comparison with the control. It was concluded therefore that PLM is rich in essential nutrients and therefore suitable for inclusion in rabbit ration up to 45% for improved live weight, weight gain, feed intake and carcass and organ yields.

Blood count in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma

Ts. Hristov*, R. Binev

 

Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 26 June 2017; accepted for publication 21 January 2018)

 

Abstract. Haematological studies were conducted in 19 dogs (8 from small and 8 from medium-size breeds, 15 of which over 8 years of age) with mammary gland carcinoma at different stages of development. Blood samples were collected after a single venipucture of v. cephalica antebrachii in tubes with EDTA as anticoagulant. Complete blood count parameters: haemoglobin (g/L), haematocrit (%), erythrocytes (T/L), mean corpuscular volume (MCV, fL), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, pg), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, g/L), red cell distribution width (RDW, %), leukocytes (G/L), thrombocytes (G/L) were determined. Differential white blood cell counts were evaluated on blood smears stained with Hemacolor. The results showed anemia with erythropenia, without significant changes in erythrocyte indices, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, and slight variations in differential white blood cell count.

Slaughter traits of Pharaoh Japanese quails

А. Genchev1, H. Lukanov1*, I. Penchev2

 

1Department of Animal Science – monogastric and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

2Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

(Manuscript received 29 November 2017; accepted for publication 23 January 2018)

 

Abstract. Slaughter traits and possibilities for production of manually deboned meat were investigated in Japanese quails. The study was conducted at the Poultry breeding unit of the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University – Stara Zagora. Slaughter yield and relative shares of the different cuts with bones and deboned breast and thigh meat were determined in 35-day-old Pharaoh Japanese quails. It was found out that the grill percentage (carcass without skin and giblets) was 58-64.5% of live weight. Breast with bone comprised 36.5-49.9% of grill weight, and thighs: 23.2-32.4%. From one quail, about 75.6-110 g deboned breast and thigh meat could be produced, e.g. 50-67% of grill weight. Breast meat yield was 47-72 g from one bird equal to 31.2-42.8% of grill weight. At 35 days of age, abdominal fat percentage was relatively low (0.8% of grill weight) with bird-to-bird variation of 0.12 and 2.1%. It could be concluded that Japanese quails are a promising species that could be marketed both as whole-body carcass (grill) or as manually deboned cuts (breast with bone and thighs). The ratio of deboned meat and bones plus remaining muscle tissue was 5.9 and 4.5 for breast and thighs, respectively.

Effect of dietary garlic powder and probiotics supplementation on growth performance of male classic broilers

  1. Lukanov1*, I. Pavlova2, A. Genchev1

 

1Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 6 December 2017; accepted for publication 24 January 2018)

 

Abstract. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of male classic broiler chickens whose feed was supplemented with either garlic powder, probiotics or both. A total of 120 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups: first group – control; second group: fed feed supplemented with Lactobacillus spp. probiotic combination; third group: fed feed supplemented with 0.4% garlic powder and fourth group: fed both 0.4% garlic powder and Lactobacillus spp. The experiment lasted until the 35th day of age. The results showed that the highest live weight at the end of the experiment was established in the group supplemented with probiotic+garlic powder (2257.51±3.87g), and the lowest – in the control group (2171.37±4.71g). The group supplemented with probiotic+garlic powder exhibited the highest average weekly weight gain during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of life and the highest total weight gain (2211.58±3.91g). The groups fed probiotic and probiotic+garlic powder had the most efficient feed conversion ratios (1.43±0.2). During the study period, there was no substantial decline in the consumption of feed containing 0.4% garlic powder. The supplementation of feed with garlic powder+Lactobacillus spp., had a beneficial effect on the growth performance of broiler chickens. Our data, in line with those of other research studies, suggested that the addition of 0.4% garlic powder combined with Lactobacillus spp. to poultry feed increased meat production in broiler chickens.

The effect of novel xylanase on feeding value of diet containing cereal by-products for broilers

J.M. Abdulla, S.P. Rose, V. Pirgozliev*

 

The National Institute of Poultry Husbandry, Harper Adams University, Shropshire, TF10 8NB, UK

(Manuscript received 23 November 2017; accepted for publication 31 January 2018)

 

Abstract. Effects of exogenous xylanase on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility (FD), and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development were examined. Birds’ growth performance was also measured. Birds were fed one of two mash diets. A control diet was prepared that had major ingredients of 404.2 g/kg wheat and a mixture of important home produced cereal by-products (including 145.0 g/kg wheat DDGS, 90.0 g/kg oat feed, 60.3 g/kg wheat feed), and contained 213 g/kg CP and 12.64 MJ/kg metabolisable energy. Each diet was fed to sixteen pens with two Ross 308 male broilers following randomisation. Xylanase supplemented diet had higher (P<0.05) N-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), and also higher (P<0.001) DMR and NR. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance, although feeding xylanase decreased (P<0.05) the weights of the total GIT of the birds. It can be concluded that supplementary xylanase gave a small improvement (3.5% increase in AMEn) in the feeding value of the cereal by-product diet but this did not result in an improvement in growth performance.

Body condition score, nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in goats with subclinical ketosis

V. Marutsova*, R. Binev

Department of Internal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 29 May 2017; accepted for publication 31 October 2017)

Abstract. Studies were conducted to establish the influence of the values of β-hydroxybutyric acid (ВНВА) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood on the assessment of body condition score (BCS) of goats with subclinical ketosis (SCK). A total of 113 dairy goats with yearly milk yield of 680 L, in their 2nd to 3rd lactation and average body weight 50-60 кg were included in the study. The goats were divided in three groups: І group (n=27) – pregnant (from pre-partum days 15 to 0); ІІ group (n=28) – recently kidded (from postpartum days 0 to 15) and ІІІ group (n=58) – lactating (from postpartum days 30 to 45). It was established that the quantity of BHBA in goats from control groups I, II and III were between 0.17±0.11 mmol/l and 0.56±0.11 mmol/l. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood BHBA was statistically significantly elevated vs control goats – from 0.88±0.11 mmol/l to 1.2±0.42 mmol/l (р<0.001). Blood ВНВА <0.8 mmol/l in goats are indicative a good transition from pregnancy to lactation, whereas an amount between 0.8 mmol/l and 1.6 mmol /l are indicative of the SCK. Blood BHBA concentrations indicative for clinical ketosis were not established in goats from the three groups (ВНВА <1.6 mmol/l). The body condition scores (BCS) of goats from the control groups was within the reference range – 2.45±0.3 – 2.85±0.2, whereas in goats with SCK – declines of varying degrees of reliability. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood NEFA was statistically significantly elevated vs control groups.

Comparative study of rapeseed, monofloral types and multifloral honey by some physico- chemical parameters

I. Zhelyazkova*, S. Lazarov

*Department of Animal Science – non-ruminants and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakiа University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 5 September 2017; accepted for publication 27 October 2017)

Abstract. The objective of the present study is to make a comparative analysis of some basic qualitative parameters of rapeseed (Brassica napus) honey, monofloral (acacia Robinia pseudoacacia, sunflower Helianthus annuus, coriander Coriandrum sativum, lime Tilia sp.,) and multifloral honey. The study uses 26 samples of bee honey from different regions in the country. The physicochemical study was carried out at the Scientific Research Laboratory of Trakia University according to the harmonized methods of the International Honey Commission and the methods described in Bulgarian State Standard (BSS) 3050- 80 and Regulation No. 48/2003. The following indicators have been investigated: water, glucose, fructose and sucrose content (%); hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, mg/kg); electrical conductivity (mS/cm). Based on the results obtained for glucose (G) and fructose (F) content in the honey samples, the sum total of G + F has been calculated. It has been found that the average values of the studied physico-chemical parameters in all analyzed honey samples (incl. rapeseed honey) are within the tolerable limits according to national regulations. The established deviations from the requirements concerning HMF content in rapeseed honey samples can be explained by technological errors rather than by plant origin. By glucose content the analyzed rapeseed honey samples have values close to those of sunflower honey (over 30%). These results can explain the rapid crystallization of rapeseed and sunflower honey. The lowest average electrical conductivity values have been established for rapeseed and acacia honey, which is a characteristic feature of light coloured honey types. Rapeseed and multifloral honey have higher average active acidity value (pH) compared to the average for the monofloral honey types. Based on the results, it can be concluded that rapeseed bee honey (Brassica napus) is of quality, does not differ from the monofloral and multifloral types produced in our country, complies with national and international regulatory documents and can be used by humans for food and as preventive agent.

Influence of organic nitrogen amendment, containing amino acids on the cellulase and xylanase, produced by Trichoderma spp. isolates

D. Draganova*, I. Valcheva, Y. Kuzmanova, M. Naydenov

Department of Microbiology and Ecological Biotechnologies, Faculty of Plant Protection and Agroecology, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 14 June 2017; accepted for publication 8 August 2017)

Abstract. Cellulases and hemicellulases are amount the main hydrolytic enzymes, involved in the bioconversion of lignocellulose material by microorganisms. Filamentous fungi of the genus Trichoderma are one of the most studied and good producer of cellulases and hemicellulases. The nutrients balance, especially carbon to nitrogen ratio, is one of the main factors of the biodegradation. The ability of 37 local isolates of Trichoderma sp. to produce cellulases and xylanase were tested in solid state cultivation on wheat straw as a substrate whit two variants: 1. the straw was only moistured with destilated water (CN 80:1); 2. the C:N ratio of the straw was adjusted to 30:1 using organic nitrogen amendment. There is a significant difference in the enzymatic activity of the isolates in their cultivation on straw with CN 80 and CN 30. The highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activity at CN 80 showed T1T (110.19U/ml), and in the variant at CN 30 – TD (369.07U/ml). The highest β-glucosidase activity on both variants CN 80 and CN 30 was established for TG (2743.1U/ml – 12679.9U/ml). The highest xylanase activity at CN 80 and CN 30 was measured on T4I (21311.5U/ml – 47937.5U/ml). After ONA addition, all enzymes activities have increased several times, indicating the enhancing effect of the additive. The average activity of CMCase increased 6.1 times, the average β – glucosidase activity increased 5.1 times, while the xylanase activity increased 4.9 times for all tested isolates. The increase in activity of the investigated enzymes showed different patterns.

Prey size selectivity of pikeperch (Sander Lucioperca L.) fed with topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora Parva Temminck & Schlegel)

M. Gevezova-Kazakova*, M. Yankova, T. Hubenova, A. Zaikov, G. Rusenov

Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 4003, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 29 May 2017; accepted for publication 29 July 2017)

Abstract. The aim of this study is to examine the size selectivity of the pikeperch fed with one of the most widespread weed fish in fish farms, such as topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Temminck & Schlegel). Topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Temminck & Schlegel), separated in two size groups: large – group 1 (body weight of the specimens 8.63 ± 2.68 g, total length 9.58 ± 0.92 cm, and height of the body 2.06 ± 0.33 cm) and small – group 2 (body weight of the specimens 1.10 ± 0.36 g, average total body length of 5 ± 0.62 cm, and height of 0.85 ± 0.13 cm), were used for prey. The experiment was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions, in the course of 40 days, in 7 tanks. One pikeperch and 10 topmouth gudgeons from both size groups, in total 20 preys were placed in each tank. During the experimental period it was observed that pikeperch preferred to feed on smaller individuals, the difference in the number of consumed small and large fish is approximately 2 times (70 to 34, respectively).

Haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed raw sickle pod (Senna obtusifolia) seed meal

C. Augustine1*, I.D. Kwari2., J.U. Igwebuike2, S.B. Adamu2

1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 12 April 2017; accepted for publication 20 June 2017)

Abstract. A feeding trial was conducted for sixty three (63) days (9 weeks) to evaluate the effects of feeding raw Senna obtusifolia seed meal (RSOSM) on haematological indices and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. Six experimental diets were compounded for both the starter (23% crude protein – CP) and finisher (20% CP) phases of growth. The diets were formulated to contain 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% level of raw Senna obtusifolia seed meal replacing roasted soya bean weight for weight in T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively. The 0% replacement level (T1) served as the control diet. The broiler chickens were managed on deep litter pens of 30 birds/2.22 m2, weighed and randomly allotted to the six (6) dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment group consisted of thirty (30) broiler chicks replicated three times with ten (10) broiler chicks per replicate. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein at the end of the experiment using standard procedure and were analysed for haematological and biochemical profile. The outcome of this study revealed that the haematological indices were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. However, the blood chemistry was significantly (P<0.05) affected by the experimental diets. The total protein, albumin, globulin, and some electrolytes components were observed to be significantly (P<0.05) depressed as the level of RSOSM increased in the experimental diets. For instance, total protein was observed to reduce from 6.24g/dl in T1 to 3.6g/dl in T6. Electrolyte constituents such as calcium were similarly observed to reduce from 6.01 mmol/l in T1 to 1.15 mmol/l in T6. The serum enzymes and bilirubin were elevated as the level of RSOSM increases in the experimental diets. Aspartate amino transferase (AST) for instance increased from 8.27U/l in T1 to 23.18 U/l in T6. It can be concluded that incorporation of RSOSM beyond 5% in the diets of broiler chickens has adverse effects on blood parameters especially the biochemical parameters.