Influence of organic nitrogen amendment, containing amino acids on the cellulase and xylanase, produced by Trichoderma spp. isolates

D. Draganova*, I. Valcheva, Y. Kuzmanova, M. Naydenov

Department of Microbiology and Ecological Biotechnologies, Faculty of Plant Protection and Agroecology, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 14 June 2017; accepted for publication 8 August 2017)

Abstract. Cellulases and hemicellulases are amount the main hydrolytic enzymes, involved in the bioconversion of lignocellulose material by microorganisms. Filamentous fungi of the genus Trichoderma are one of the most studied and good producer of cellulases and hemicellulases. The nutrients balance, especially carbon to nitrogen ratio, is one of the main factors of the biodegradation. The ability of 37 local isolates of Trichoderma sp. to produce cellulases and xylanase were tested in solid state cultivation on wheat straw as a substrate whit two variants: 1. the straw was only moistured with destilated water (CN 80:1); 2. the C:N ratio of the straw was adjusted to 30:1 using organic nitrogen amendment. There is a significant difference in the enzymatic activity of the isolates in their cultivation on straw with CN 80 and CN 30. The highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activity at CN 80 showed T1T (110.19U/ml), and in the variant at CN 30 – TD (369.07U/ml). The highest β-glucosidase activity on both variants CN 80 and CN 30 was established for TG (2743.1U/ml – 12679.9U/ml). The highest xylanase activity at CN 80 and CN 30 was measured on T4I (21311.5U/ml – 47937.5U/ml). After ONA addition, all enzymes activities have increased several times, indicating the enhancing effect of the additive. The average activity of CMCase increased 6.1 times, the average β – glucosidase activity increased 5.1 times, while the xylanase activity increased 4.9 times for all tested isolates. The increase in activity of the investigated enzymes showed different patterns.

Prey size selectivity of pikeperch (Sander Lucioperca L.) fed with topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora Parva Temminck & Schlegel)

M. Gevezova-Kazakova*, M. Yankova, T. Hubenova, A. Zaikov, G. Rusenov

Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 4003, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 29 May 2017; accepted for publication 29 July 2017)

Abstract. The aim of this study is to examine the size selectivity of the pikeperch fed with one of the most widespread weed fish in fish farms, such as topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Temminck & Schlegel). Topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Temminck & Schlegel), separated in two size groups: large – group 1 (body weight of the specimens 8.63 ± 2.68 g, total length 9.58 ± 0.92 cm, and height of the body 2.06 ± 0.33 cm) and small – group 2 (body weight of the specimens 1.10 ± 0.36 g, average total body length of 5 ± 0.62 cm, and height of 0.85 ± 0.13 cm), were used for prey. The experiment was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions, in the course of 40 days, in 7 tanks. One pikeperch and 10 topmouth gudgeons from both size groups, in total 20 preys were placed in each tank. During the experimental period it was observed that pikeperch preferred to feed on smaller individuals, the difference in the number of consumed small and large fish is approximately 2 times (70 to 34, respectively).

Haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed raw sickle pod (Senna obtusifolia) seed meal

C. Augustine1*, I.D. Kwari2., J.U. Igwebuike2, S.B. Adamu2

1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 12 April 2017; accepted for publication 20 June 2017)

Abstract. A feeding trial was conducted for sixty three (63) days (9 weeks) to evaluate the effects of feeding raw Senna obtusifolia seed meal (RSOSM) on haematological indices and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. Six experimental diets were compounded for both the starter (23% crude protein – CP) and finisher (20% CP) phases of growth. The diets were formulated to contain 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% level of raw Senna obtusifolia seed meal replacing roasted soya bean weight for weight in T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively. The 0% replacement level (T1) served as the control diet. The broiler chickens were managed on deep litter pens of 30 birds/2.22 m2, weighed and randomly allotted to the six (6) dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment group consisted of thirty (30) broiler chicks replicated three times with ten (10) broiler chicks per replicate. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein at the end of the experiment using standard procedure and were analysed for haematological and biochemical profile. The outcome of this study revealed that the haematological indices were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. However, the blood chemistry was significantly (P<0.05) affected by the experimental diets. The total protein, albumin, globulin, and some electrolytes components were observed to be significantly (P<0.05) depressed as the level of RSOSM increased in the experimental diets. For instance, total protein was observed to reduce from 6.24g/dl in T1 to 3.6g/dl in T6. Electrolyte constituents such as calcium were similarly observed to reduce from 6.01 mmol/l in T1 to 1.15 mmol/l in T6. The serum enzymes and bilirubin were elevated as the level of RSOSM increases in the experimental diets. Aspartate amino transferase (AST) for instance increased from 8.27U/l in T1 to 23.18 U/l in T6. It can be concluded that incorporation of RSOSM beyond 5% in the diets of broiler chickens has adverse effects on blood parameters especially the biochemical parameters.

Variation in the chemical composition and physical characteristics of grain from winter barley varieties

B. Dyulgerova*, N. Dyulgerov, D. Dimova

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 4 July 2017; accepted for publication 28 August 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the range of variation in chemical composition and in physical parameters of grain associated with feed quality of barley under the conditions of Southeast Bulgaria. A set of 21 winter six-rowed barley varieties from different geographic origins were investigated. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, during the period 2013/2014 – 2014/2015. Grain samples of the studied varieties were analysed for crude protein, lysine, starch, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, hectoliter weight and 1000 grains weight. The coefficient of variation was the highest in crude fat (21.52%) followed by lysine (9.52%). Low variation among varieties was found in nitrogen-free extract (CV=1.56%) and hectoliter weight (CV=2.77%). Correlations of crude protein with lysine, starch and crude fiber were negative. Starch content was positively associated with crude fat and hectoliter weight. Significant negative correlation of nitrogen-free extract with crude fat and crude fiber was found. Differences in chemical composition and physical parameters of grain indicated that the studied varieties can provide a source of germplasm for breeding winter barley varieties with improved feed quality.

Effect of urea-fortified all concentrate corncob diets on serum biochemical and hematological indices of West African dwarf goats

U. M. Kolo1*, A. A. Adeloye2, M. B. Yousuf2

1Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
2Department of Animal production, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 24 November 2016; accepted for publication 31 March 2017)

Abstract. The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of urea-fortified all-concentrate corncob diets on hematological indices and serum biochemical parameters of West African dwarf goats. Fifteen (15) West African dwarf goats (divided into 5 groups – one control and 4 experimental) with average weight of 9.33 kg were used for the study, which lasted 70 days. The animals were weighed and randomly assigned to five (5) treatments in a complete randomized design (CRD). The treatments were with different levels (%, 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) of urea in corncob-based concentrate diets. Results of the hematological indices showed that Packed Cell Volume and Red Blood Cell values were significantly different (P<0.05) among treatment groups. Serum biochemistry showed that blood urea and albumen concentration were influenced (P<0.05) by dietary urea level. The other values of the blood biochemical indices and the parameters of hematology were similar (p>0.05) among dietary groups. The incorporation of urea in corncob diets has no negative effect on the animal and a 3% inclusion of urea showed good values for a healthy goat based on the blood biochemical and hematological indices.

Evaluation of chemical composition of raw and processed tropical sickle pod (Senna obtusifolia) seed meal

Augustine C.1*, Kwari I.D.2, Igwebuike J.U.2, Adamu S.B.2

1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 12 April 2017; accepted for publication 2 June 2017)

Abstract. A laboratory analysis was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition of raw and differently processed Senna obtusifolia seed meal. Senna vobtusifolia seeds were processed using boiling, soaking, sprouting and fermentation methods respectively. The processed and raw seed meals were milled and the representative seed meal samples were analysed using standard laboratory methods. The results of the chemical analysis revealed that Senna obtusifolia seed meal possessed good nutritional properties (23.40 – 25.90% crude protein and 2.14 – 2.86 MJ/kg metabolizable energy) and has good amino acid profile as an alternative feed source for livestock. However, the raw seed meal contains 378.5, 247.2, 102.0, 248.6 and 190.0 mg/100.0g of tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins, respectively. The different processing methods were observed to be effective in reducing the level of the antinutrients with fermentation recording the highest reduction levels of 68.25, 66.32, 43.70, 58.07 and 44.30% for tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins followed by boiling with reduction levels of 66.27, 46.97, 46.97, 47.89, 58.66 and 45.78% for tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins, respectively. In conclusion, Senna obtusifolia seed can be effectively process for utilization as feed ingredient using fermentation. Feeding trial should be conducted using Senna obtusifolia seed meal to evaluate the feeding value in livestock especially monogastric animals.

In vitro gas production of different feeds and feed ingredients at ruminants

E. Videv, J. Krastanov*, S. Laleva, Т. Angelova, M. Oblakova, N. Oblakov, D. Yordanova, V. Karabashev

Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 March 2017; accepted for publication 30 May 2017)

Abstract. Investigation for determining the amount of in vitro gas production after feeding different groups of forages was performed at the Agricultural Institute-Stara Zagora. Forages from different regions were collected and analyzed for in vitro gas production at 24 h and 48 h by Ankom Technology®. The following parameters of the tested forages were determinated: Neutral detergent fibre (NDF, %), Acid detergent fibre (ADF, %), Digestibility of dry matter (DDM, %), Dry matter intakе (DMI, %) and Relative Feed Value (RFV, %). RFV was calculated on the base of DDM and DMI in comparison with alfalfa biomass in flowering stage. Collected feeds (46 samples) were divided in 11 groups on the base of their composition and structure – fibre component content. Depending on the amount of gas production forages can be divided in 3 groups: 1) Grain feeds generating the highest amount of gas – average 387.93 ml/g DM; 2) Combined feeds, fresh forages, complete feed mixtures – average 213.87- 245.15 ml/g DM; 3) Hay, silage, straw, complete feed mixtures + bioadditives – average 115.06 – 208.34 ml/g DM. Intensity of gas production in grain feeds was higher at 24 h, while on the opposite, was higher at 48 h in roughage feeds due to the different speed of degradation of feeds – concentrated had a very intensive and quick degradation, roughages – slow degradation. Supplementation of combined feeds with bioadditives Rumanol, Biolife, Bibor decreased the amount of gas production by 9.87% – 29.05%.

Haematological investigations upon acute intoxication with carbofuran in dogs

R. Binev*, I. Valchev, R. Russenov, Y. Nikolov

Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 7 September 2016; accepted for publication 19 December 2016)

Abstract. Experiments for monitoring of changes in haematological parameters were carried out in dogs after acute intoxication with the carbamate insecticide carbofuran (Carbosan 35 ST). The studies involved one control and 6 experimental groups of dogs (total n=42), treated once orally with increasing doses of the preparation via oesophageal probe: 0.525 mg/kg (experimental group I), 1.05 mg/kg (experimental group II), 2.1 mg/kg (experimental group III), 3.5 mg/kg (experimental group IV), 5.25 mg/kg (experimental group V) and 10.5 mg/kg (LD50), (experimental group VI), corresponding to 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/3, 1/2 and LD50, oral doses for albino rats. Blood samples were obtained from v. antebrachi cephalica or v. jugularis in the course of 3 consecutive days prior to the treatment (hours -48, -24 and 0) and on post treatment hours 1, 3, 5, 7, 24 and 48 from all groups for analysis of blood cell counts (RBC), white blood cell counts (WBC), haemoglobin content (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), differential white cell counts (DWC) erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). It was established that the tested carbamate insecticide caused decrease RBC, HGB and LYM, and increased the levels of WBC and banded neutrophils between post treatment hours 1 and 24; afterwards, the studied parameters regained the respective control values.

Clinical toxicological investigations on acute carbofuran intoxication in quails (Coturnix coturnix)

R. Binev1*, I. Valchev1, R. Mihaylov2, Y. Nikolov1

1Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Animal Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 September 2016; accepted for publication 19 October 2016)

Abstract. The present studiy was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of the carbamate insecticide carbofuran (Carbosan 35 ST) after experimental acute intoxication in quails (Coturnix coturnix). Experiments for monitoring of changes in clinical indices and some haematological parameters. Quails were divided into 5 groups: one control and 4 experimental. They were treated by increasing single doses of the tested pesticide: 1.05 mg/kg (experimental group I), 2.1 mg/kg (experimental group II), 5.25 mg/kg (experimental group III) and 10.5 mg/kg (experimental group IV), corresponding to 1/10 LD50, 1/5 LD50, 1/2 LD50 and LD50 oral doses for albino rats, respectively. In three consecutive days prior to the treatment (hours –48, –24 and 0) and 1, 3, 5, 7, 24 and 48 hours thereafter, the clinical status was registered to evaluate rectal body temperature, faeces excretion, locomotion, perception etn. and were obtained blood samples from v. subcutanea ulnaris or v. metatarsea ulnaris for analysis of haemoglobin content (HGB). It was found out that the tested carbamate insecticide had some toxic effects manifested clinically with hyperaemia, arexia, difficulty in focusing the eyes, salivation with thick saliva discharge, diarrhoea, generalised tremor, clonic tonic spasms (especially of cervical muscles), depression and hypochromaemia. The described changes were the most obvious between post treatment hours 1 and 3, and then the studied parameters regained their control values. The tolerated dose of carbofuran was 1.05 mg/kg (1/10 LD50 for albino rats), the minimum toxic dose was 2.1 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 for albino rats), and minimum lethal dose – 10.5 mg/kg, equal to LD50 for albino rats.

Reproductive performance of breeding rabbits fed by graded levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf meal

T. Ahemen1*, I.I. Bitto1, O.I.A. Oluremi2

1Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 12 March 2016; accepted for publication 21 September 2016)

Abstract. Twenty breeding does and 4 rabbit bucks aged 28 weeks, weighing between 1622 to 1746g ,were used to investigate the reproductive performance of breeding does fed by graded levels of cassava leaf meal (CLM). The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments viz: T1 (control), T2, T3 and T4 with CLM inclusion levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively, after balancing for live weight. Each rabbit was individually caged and served as a replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 17 weeks. The results showed that does on diet T2 (100%) achieved the highest conception rate, followed by T3 (75%) and T4 (75%) and the least in T1 (66.67%). Average daily weight change and change in weight during pregnancy were the highest (p<0.05) in T4. Litter size at birth was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T4 (2.67), while litter size at weaning was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 (3.67). Average birth and weaning weights were significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatment T4. Percentage of still birth was higher in T2 (60%) while pre-weaning mortality was the highest in T1 (5). It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 30% of CLM in rabbit diet may support reproductive performance in female rabbits. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potential of cassava leaf meal at higher levels of inclusion on reproductive performance be investigated.