Effect of dietary phytoextracts supplementation on the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss w.), cultivated in recirculation system

  1. Georgieva, G. Zhelyazkov, Y. Staykov, D. Georgiev


Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6014 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.041

(Manuscript received 7 June 2018; accepted for publication 28 August 2018)


Abstract. The present research aimed to examine the effect of dietary phytoextracts supplementation on the chemical composition and fatty acid profile in the meat of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), cultivated in a recirculation system. The fish were divided into 6 groups: one control (C) and five experimental groups in the food of which phytoextracts of curcumin (EC), paprika (EP), thyme (ET), oregano (EO) and garlic (EG) were added. The inclusion of phytoextracts had no significant effect on growth parameters of fish from EC, EP, ET, EO and EG groups (P>0.05). No statistical differences on water content, protein and lipids were observed in the meat of fish from the control and the experimental groups (P>0.05). Statistically significantly higher value of the dry matter was established in ET group in comparson with C, EC, EP, EO and EG groups (P≤0.001). The values of ash were significantly lower in fish from all experimental groups compared to the control group. The inclusion of phytoextracts did not affect the fatty acid profile of fish from EP, EO and EG groups (P>0.05). Exceptions are EC and ET groups, which had the lowest value of C18:3n-3 α-linolenic compared to those from the control group (P≤0.05, P≤0.001).

Effect of experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on haematological parameters and bone marrow morphology in mulard ducks

  1. Valchev1, N. Groseva2, D. Kanakov1, Ts. Hristov1, L. Lazarov1, R. Binev1

1Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria,

2Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.040

(Manuscript received 12 June 2018; accepted for publication 20 August 2018)


Abstract. In this experiment, the toxic effects of AFB1 on some haematological parameters were investigated in mulard ducks, namely red blood cell counts (RBC), haemoglobin content (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), platelet counts (PLT), white blood cell counts (WBC), differential white blood cell counts (WBC %), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Experiments were conducted with 4 groups of 20 10-day-old mulard ducks each. The groups were as followed: group I – control, fed a standard compound feed according to the species and the age; group II – experimental, whose feed was supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB1, group III – experimental, supplemented with 0.8 mg/kg AFB1 and group IV – experimental, supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 2 g/kg Mycotox NG. The duration of the experiment was 42 days. Haematological analysis performed on the 21st day of the trial showed reduction in RBC, HCT, HGB and PLT and increased total WBC in groups II and III. The percentages of the different leukocyte classes (differential leukocyte counts) demonstrated increased proportion of heterophils and lower percentages of lymphocytes. The observed changed tended to become more pronounced on the 42nd day of the experiment. There were no statistically significant changes in MCV, MCH, and MCHC, as well as in eosinophil, basophil, and monocyte percentages between control and treated groups (р>0.05). The supplementation of the feed with mycosorbent – Mycotox NG (experimental group IV) reduced partly the harmful effect of AFB1 on the studied haematological indices.

Effect of monosodium glutamate dietary supplementation on some productive traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), cultivated in net cages

  1. G. Zhelyazkov*


Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6014 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.039

(Manuscript received 30 May 2018; accepted for publication 15 August 2018)


Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a monosodium glutamate dietary supplementation on the survival rate, growth performance, feed conversion ratio and economic efficiency of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), cultivated in net cages. Two hundred carps were allotted into two experimental variants, each of them comprising two replications (Control groups – CG and CG1; Experimental groups – EG and EG1), with 50 fish in a group. The average initial live weight of fish from the control and experimental groups was 1141.62±79.62g and 1129.54±71.47g, respectively (P>0.05). The carps were cultivated in net cages with a size 3.0/3.0/2.0m. The fish were fed with extruded feed Aqua garant VITAL, a product of Garant-Tiernahrung Gesellschaft m.b.H. – Austria, with 6mm size of pellets. Monosodium glutamate in amount of 1% was added to the feed of carps from the experimental groups. The fish from the control groups received no monosodium glutamate supplementation of the diet. The feed given to the fish was 2% of the total biomass. The trial period was 60 days, control catch at 30th day were done in order to study the influence of the monosodium glutamate supplementation on the weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the common carp, cultivated in net cages. The initial (1st day), control (30th day) and final (60th day) live weights (g) were determined by individual weighing. The final live weight of the fish from both replications of the experimental and the control groups was as follows: 1699.36±78.43g and 1597.27±74.66g, the differences were significant (P<0.001). The survival rate of carps from both control and experimental group replications was 100%. The average individual weight gain of fish from the two replications (supplemented with 1% monosodium glutamate) was 569.82±3.75g which was higher than that of controls by 20.04%, the differences were significant (P<0.001). At the end of the trial, the analysis of consumed feed amount showed that feed conversion ratio in the group supplemented with 1% monosodium glutamate was 1.76±0.12, i.e. by 25.57% lower than that of control carps (P<0.001). The economic efficiency in the experimental groups exhibited better economic conversion ratio (0.936), by 22.65% lower than that of the non-supplemented groups.

Effect of pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf meal on productive parameters of growing rabbits

P.C. Jiwuba


Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 25 December 2017; accepted for publication 9 March 2018)


Abstract. A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the productive performance, carcass yield and organ characteristics of growing rabbits fed diets containing pawpaw leaf meal (PLM). A total of forty-eight (48) growing rabbits with an average body weight range of 477.01g were randomly divided into four experimental groups of twelve animals each, with four rabbits constituting a replicate. Four experimental diets were formulated and designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 to contain PLM at 0%, 15%, 30% and 45%, respectively. The four treatment groups were assigned the four diets in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each rabbit received an assigned diet for 56 days. The determined chemical composition of the experimental diets ranges from 90.46-92.91% dry matter (DM), 16.70-17.44% crude protein (CP), 15.40-16.45% crude fibre (CF), 3.29-8.09% ash, 2.30-3.11 ether extract (EE), 49.34-52.89% nitrogen free extract (NFE) and 2550.05-2604.10 Kcal/kg metabolisable energy (ME). The proximate analysis of the PLM revealed 87.67% DM, 17.30% CP, 12.86% CF, 8.88% ash, 0.81% EE 47.82% NFE and 2348.05 Kcal/kg ME. The results on productive performance showed significant (p<0.05) improvement with the inclusion of PLM in the diets for final body weight, daily weight gain, total feed intake and daily feed intake. Similarly, the live weight at slaughter, dressing percentage, loin, back cut and gastro intestinal weight (GIT) were significantly (p<0.05) better and higher for the treatment groups in comparison with the control. It was concluded therefore that PLM is rich in essential nutrients and therefore suitable for inclusion in rabbit ration up to 45% for improved live weight, weight gain, feed intake and carcass and organ yields.

Blood count in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma

Ts. Hristov*, R. Binev


Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 26 June 2017; accepted for publication 21 January 2018)


Abstract. Haematological studies were conducted in 19 dogs (8 from small and 8 from medium-size breeds, 15 of which over 8 years of age) with mammary gland carcinoma at different stages of development. Blood samples were collected after a single venipucture of v. cephalica antebrachii in tubes with EDTA as anticoagulant. Complete blood count parameters: haemoglobin (g/L), haematocrit (%), erythrocytes (T/L), mean corpuscular volume (MCV, fL), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, pg), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, g/L), red cell distribution width (RDW, %), leukocytes (G/L), thrombocytes (G/L) were determined. Differential white blood cell counts were evaluated on blood smears stained with Hemacolor. The results showed anemia with erythropenia, without significant changes in erythrocyte indices, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, and slight variations in differential white blood cell count.

Slaughter traits of Pharaoh Japanese quails

А. Genchev1, H. Lukanov1*, I. Penchev2


1Department of Animal Science – monogastric and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

2Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 29 November 2017; accepted for publication 23 January 2018)


Abstract. Slaughter traits and possibilities for production of manually deboned meat were investigated in Japanese quails. The study was conducted at the Poultry breeding unit of the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University – Stara Zagora. Slaughter yield and relative shares of the different cuts with bones and deboned breast and thigh meat were determined in 35-day-old Pharaoh Japanese quails. It was found out that the grill percentage (carcass without skin and giblets) was 58-64.5% of live weight. Breast with bone comprised 36.5-49.9% of grill weight, and thighs: 23.2-32.4%. From one quail, about 75.6-110 g deboned breast and thigh meat could be produced, e.g. 50-67% of grill weight. Breast meat yield was 47-72 g from one bird equal to 31.2-42.8% of grill weight. At 35 days of age, abdominal fat percentage was relatively low (0.8% of grill weight) with bird-to-bird variation of 0.12 and 2.1%. It could be concluded that Japanese quails are a promising species that could be marketed both as whole-body carcass (grill) or as manually deboned cuts (breast with bone and thighs). The ratio of deboned meat and bones plus remaining muscle tissue was 5.9 and 4.5 for breast and thighs, respectively.

Effect of dietary garlic powder and probiotics supplementation on growth performance of male classic broilers

  1. Lukanov1*, I. Pavlova2, A. Genchev1


1Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 6 December 2017; accepted for publication 24 January 2018)


Abstract. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of male classic broiler chickens whose feed was supplemented with either garlic powder, probiotics or both. A total of 120 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups: first group – control; second group: fed feed supplemented with Lactobacillus spp. probiotic combination; third group: fed feed supplemented with 0.4% garlic powder and fourth group: fed both 0.4% garlic powder and Lactobacillus spp. The experiment lasted until the 35th day of age. The results showed that the highest live weight at the end of the experiment was established in the group supplemented with probiotic+garlic powder (2257.51±3.87g), and the lowest – in the control group (2171.37±4.71g). The group supplemented with probiotic+garlic powder exhibited the highest average weekly weight gain during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of life and the highest total weight gain (2211.58±3.91g). The groups fed probiotic and probiotic+garlic powder had the most efficient feed conversion ratios (1.43±0.2). During the study period, there was no substantial decline in the consumption of feed containing 0.4% garlic powder. The supplementation of feed with garlic powder+Lactobacillus spp., had a beneficial effect on the growth performance of broiler chickens. Our data, in line with those of other research studies, suggested that the addition of 0.4% garlic powder combined with Lactobacillus spp. to poultry feed increased meat production in broiler chickens.

The effect of novel xylanase on feeding value of diet containing cereal by-products for broilers

J.M. Abdulla, S.P. Rose, V. Pirgozliev*


The National Institute of Poultry Husbandry, Harper Adams University, Shropshire, TF10 8NB, UK

(Manuscript received 23 November 2017; accepted for publication 31 January 2018)


Abstract. Effects of exogenous xylanase on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility (FD), and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development were examined. Birds’ growth performance was also measured. Birds were fed one of two mash diets. A control diet was prepared that had major ingredients of 404.2 g/kg wheat and a mixture of important home produced cereal by-products (including 145.0 g/kg wheat DDGS, 90.0 g/kg oat feed, 60.3 g/kg wheat feed), and contained 213 g/kg CP and 12.64 MJ/kg metabolisable energy. Each diet was fed to sixteen pens with two Ross 308 male broilers following randomisation. Xylanase supplemented diet had higher (P<0.05) N-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), and also higher (P<0.001) DMR and NR. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance, although feeding xylanase decreased (P<0.05) the weights of the total GIT of the birds. It can be concluded that supplementary xylanase gave a small improvement (3.5% increase in AMEn) in the feeding value of the cereal by-product diet but this did not result in an improvement in growth performance.

Body condition score, nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in goats with subclinical ketosis

V. Marutsova*, R. Binev

Department of Internal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 29 May 2017; accepted for publication 31 October 2017)

Abstract. Studies were conducted to establish the influence of the values of β-hydroxybutyric acid (ВНВА) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood on the assessment of body condition score (BCS) of goats with subclinical ketosis (SCK). A total of 113 dairy goats with yearly milk yield of 680 L, in their 2nd to 3rd lactation and average body weight 50-60 кg were included in the study. The goats were divided in three groups: І group (n=27) – pregnant (from pre-partum days 15 to 0); ІІ group (n=28) – recently kidded (from postpartum days 0 to 15) and ІІІ group (n=58) – lactating (from postpartum days 30 to 45). It was established that the quantity of BHBA in goats from control groups I, II and III were between 0.17±0.11 mmol/l and 0.56±0.11 mmol/l. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood BHBA was statistically significantly elevated vs control goats – from 0.88±0.11 mmol/l to 1.2±0.42 mmol/l (р<0.001). Blood ВНВА <0.8 mmol/l in goats are indicative a good transition from pregnancy to lactation, whereas an amount between 0.8 mmol/l and 1.6 mmol /l are indicative of the SCK. Blood BHBA concentrations indicative for clinical ketosis were not established in goats from the three groups (ВНВА <1.6 mmol/l). The body condition scores (BCS) of goats from the control groups was within the reference range – 2.45±0.3 – 2.85±0.2, whereas in goats with SCK – declines of varying degrees of reliability. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood NEFA was statistically significantly elevated vs control groups.

Comparative study of rapeseed, monofloral types and multifloral honey by some physico- chemical parameters

I. Zhelyazkova*, S. Lazarov

*Department of Animal Science – non-ruminants and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakiа University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 5 September 2017; accepted for publication 27 October 2017)

Abstract. The objective of the present study is to make a comparative analysis of some basic qualitative parameters of rapeseed (Brassica napus) honey, monofloral (acacia Robinia pseudoacacia, sunflower Helianthus annuus, coriander Coriandrum sativum, lime Tilia sp.,) and multifloral honey. The study uses 26 samples of bee honey from different regions in the country. The physicochemical study was carried out at the Scientific Research Laboratory of Trakia University according to the harmonized methods of the International Honey Commission and the methods described in Bulgarian State Standard (BSS) 3050- 80 and Regulation No. 48/2003. The following indicators have been investigated: water, glucose, fructose and sucrose content (%); hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, mg/kg); electrical conductivity (mS/cm). Based on the results obtained for glucose (G) and fructose (F) content in the honey samples, the sum total of G + F has been calculated. It has been found that the average values of the studied physico-chemical parameters in all analyzed honey samples (incl. rapeseed honey) are within the tolerable limits according to national regulations. The established deviations from the requirements concerning HMF content in rapeseed honey samples can be explained by technological errors rather than by plant origin. By glucose content the analyzed rapeseed honey samples have values close to those of sunflower honey (over 30%). These results can explain the rapid crystallization of rapeseed and sunflower honey. The lowest average electrical conductivity values have been established for rapeseed and acacia honey, which is a characteristic feature of light coloured honey types. Rapeseed and multifloral honey have higher average active acidity value (pH) compared to the average for the monofloral honey types. Based on the results, it can be concluded that rapeseed bee honey (Brassica napus) is of quality, does not differ from the monofloral and multifloral types produced in our country, complies with national and international regulatory documents and can be used by humans for food and as preventive agent.