Evaluation of some technological properties of Caucasian ram wool

D. Pamukova1*, G. Staykova2, N. Stancheva2, D. Panayotov1

1Department of Animal Science – Ruminant Animals and Dairy Science, Faculty of Agriculture,Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Agricultural Institute, 3 Simeon Veliki, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 September 2017; accepted for publication 17 November 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to establish the levels of the main selection traits which determine the technological wool production in the rams from the breed of Caucasian merino sheep. The study included a total of 126 rams at 18 months of age from Caucasian merino breed. To determine the fibre diameter, a total of 252 wool samples from two parts of the body (sideandleg) were analyzed.For laboratory examination of staple lengt handcrimp of wool, a total 36 wool samples (from the side and the leg) were studied. The rams from Caucasian breed had a very good topographic equality of fiber thickness and staple length. The average fiber diameter of the side was 21.98μm (with variation from 21.71μm to 22.30 μm) and the leg was 23.05μm (with variation from 22.76μm to 23.34μm).The wool`s fineness in the fleecewas 64’s quality in 76.98% of the samples, which characterized it as a fine merinowool.The number of crimps per 1 cm in the rams was an average of 5.07 nrs. on the side and 4.46 nrs. on the leg and in the rams at 18 months of age – 5.26 nrs. and 4.82 nrs., respectively.

Effect of the herbicide treatment dose on the weed infestation in common winter wheat

Z. Petrova*

Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 10 June 2017; accepted for publication 24 October 2017)

Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of the treatment dose of herbicides on the weed infestation in common winter wheat. The investigations were carried out during 2015 –2016 at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI) – General Toshevo. The following herbicides were used: Derby super WG (33 g/ha; 66 g/ha; 132 g/ha), Secator ОD (100 ml/ha; 200 ml/ha; 400 ml/ha), Ergon WG (50 g/ha; 100 g/ha; 200 g/ha), Granstar super 50SG (40 g/ha; 80 g/ha; 160 g/ha), Lintur 70WG (150 g/ha; 300 g/ha; 600 g/ha) and Mustang 306.25 СК (800 ml/ha; 1600 ml/ha; 3200 ml/ha) from the group of sulfunylureas with various mechanism of action. The preparations were applied at three doses – optimal, double and quadruple, at stage 29 (according to Zadoks et al., 1974) of common winter wheat cultivars Dragana, Zlatitsa and Kalina. The herbicide effect was determined by the quantitative weight method and evaluated by the EWRS scale. Regardless of the used dose and the cultivar, Derby super WG, Secator OD, Lintur 70WG and Mustang 306.25СК had highest efficiency (100%) against the following investigated weeds: Sinapis arvensis L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Anthemis arvensis L., Galium tricorne (Stock.), Consolida orientalis (J. Gay) and Cirsium arvensis L. Ergon WG and Granstar super 50SG had 100% efficiency against Sinapis arvensis L., Matricaria chamomilla L. and Anthemis arvensis L. and lower effect (90-94%) on Galium tricorne (Stock), Consolida orientalis (J. Gay) and Cirsium arvensis L.

Productivity of durum wheat cultivar Predel at nitrogen-phosphorous fertilization

L. Plescuta*

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 June 2017; accepted for publication 10 October 2017)

Abstract. The effect of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilization at nitrogen rates 0, 80, 120 and 160 kg.ha-1 and 0, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 for phosphorus has been studied in durum wheat Predel cultivar, grown on leached vertisol soil type during the period 2012-2014 in the field of the Field Crops Institute – Chirpan. The results show that at alone nitrogen fertilization grain yield reaches 3,75 t.ha-1 at moderate N120, while at alone phosphorus fertilization the increase compared to the non- fertilized control (2,50 t.ha-1) is insignificant. At combined N120P120 the highest grain yield was obtained during the period – 4.50 t.ha-1, with 57.41% above the control. The harvest index of durum wheat grain variety Predel is 0.353 on average. Good HI results are formed at fertilization with P120 and N80P80.


Length of the growing season and yield in Triticum monococcum L., in accordance with the growing conditions

S. Stamatov*, E. Valchinova, G. Desheva, K. Uzundzhalieva, P. Chavdarov, T. Cholakov, B. Kyosev, R. Ruseva, N. Velcheva

Institute of Plant genetic resources „Konstantin Malkov”, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 7 June 2017; accepted for publication 1 September 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the current study is to trace the changes in the length of the growing season in accordance with the accumulated effective temperatures, rains and plant nutrition during the vegetation period, as well as the influence of these indices on the grain yield. The study was conducted in the period 2015 – 2016 in the experimental field of Institute of Plant Genetic Resources – Sadovo with the local variety B3E0025 from the National Genebank in Sadovo. The experiment was made in block method in four repetitions. Three sowing times were made – autumn, winter and early spring and two options of N fertilization – without additional N and 3 kg/da input of active N substance in tillеring phase. The beginning of the basic phenophases has been observed. As a result of the study it was established that the vegetation period in T. monococcum L. has 114-238 days’ duration and accumulation of effective temperature of 2266.0- 2714.71°C. The length of the growing season and the necessary accumulated temperature depends on the sowing period, the predecessor, the amount of nutrient substances and soil moisture. The extension of the critical phases of autumn sowing favours the obtaining of higher yield. The significance of the effective temperatures decreases with additional N input.

Study on the emptying time of grain harvester hoppers

K. Trendafilov1, N. Delchev2, B. Kolev3, G. Tihanov21Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technics and Technologies – Yambol, Trakia University,
6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
3Department of Agricultural Machinery, Agrarian and Industrial Faculty, “Angel Kanchev” University of Ruse, 7017 Ruse, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 4 January 2017; accepted for publication 11 April 2017)

Abstract. When unloading grain harvester hoppers at a standstill the emptying time has an effect on the grain harvester performance. A study has been conducted on the actual emptying time of harvester grain hoppers on various farms in Bulgaria and the actual flow rate of the unloading auger has been determined. The results obtained have been compared to the designed ones. It has been established that when unloading at a standstill the full rate of the unloading auger is not in use, but only 73.14% of it, with which the hopper emptying time is 1.4 times greater than the theoretical one.

Lucrative status of improved dual purpose cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp) in Damboa, Borno State, North-Eastern Nigeria

B.H. Gabdo*

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria (Manuscript received 22 May 2017; accepted for publication 27 October 2017)

Abstract.Thisstudydivulgedthecost-returnsanalysisbetweenimproveddualpurposecowpea (IDPC)varietiesandothernon-IDPC/localcowpeavarieties in Azir, Damboa town, Kuboa and Sabongari villages of Damboa local council, Borno State, Nigeria. Socio-economic stratification of the villages into Low Population Low Market (LPLM) and Low Population High Market (LPHM) on the basis of human demographic profile and proximity to wholesale market were the criteria adopted for selecting the villages for this study. A total of 150 cowpea farmers responded to the questionnaire instrument; administered between December, 2006 and February, 2007. Results of the budgetary techniques used show that adopters of IDPC varieties generate $386.01ha-1 as net income as against $248.37ha-1 for the non-IDPC adopters; proportional to 55.42% rise in net income per hectare of cowpea resulting from the impact factor of IDPC adoption alone. Similarly, farmers in Sabongari village realized the highest net income of $491.99ha-1 as against Azir the lowest net income of $247.21ha-1 across the four villages owing to demand factor; interplay between human population and proximity to wholesale market; both in favour of Sabongari but none in favour of Azir. In terms of ratios, farmers in Sabongari were adjudged as more lucrative across adopters’ category, socio-economic domain and villages respectively owing to higher return on sale ratio and lower operating ratio. Azir and Sabongari villages were found to exhibit potentiality for comparative cost advantage and comparative sales advantage respectively. Thus, the research concludes that an expansion path for cowpea is feasible if cultivation and sales are premised on cost and sales advantages.

Present status of Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola /Fuckel/ Schroter) of the wheat cultures in the Republic of Macedonia

I. Karov*, E. Arsov

Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Goce Delcev University, Krste Misirkov, 2000 Stip, Republic of Macedonia (Manuscript received 6 July 2017; accepted for publication 31 August 2017)

Abstract. In the Republic of Macedonia, wheat is a very important crop and it is grown on an area of around 250.000 ha. The most important regions for wheat growing are: Bitola, Kumanovo, Sveti Nikole, Skopje, Probistip, Kocani, Veles and Stip. The most important deseases on wheat are: Tapesia yallundae Wallwork and Spooner with its anamorphic stage Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron) Deighton causer of the desease „eyespot“ on barley and wheat; Puccinia graminis f. spp. tritici; Puccinia racondita f. spp. tritici; Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici; Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker; Blumeria graminis var. tritici and Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola (Fuckel) Schroter). Many new diseases on wheat causing significant economic damage to producers are observed in Macedonia. The main aim of this article is to present the symptoms, morphology and protective measures of Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola), the most widely spread fungal pathogens on wheat in the Republic of Macedonia. In the period between 2014 and 2016, the pathogen fungi on wheat with the highest intensity were: Zymoseptoria tritici, Tapesia yallundae, Puccinia graminis, Puccinia recondita, Gaeumannomyces graminis, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Blumeria graminis. The intensity of the diseases and the damages – yield losses of wheat, differed from year to year and between regions, depended on the sensitivity of the wheat varieties. The smallest yield loss was identified in wheat producers who treated the wheat with pesticides at least twice for vegetation season.

Mathematical approaches for assessment and classification of the European Union member states based on the average yield of vegetables for the period 1961-2014

N. Keranova*

Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 May 2017; accepted for publication 27 July 2017)

Abstract. The objective of this work is to analyze the statistical data on the average yield of vegetables in the European Union member states for the period 1961 – 2014. The EU countries are classified and grouped through hierarchical cluster analysis based on the average yield of vegetables. A mathematical model for evaluation of the received data is composed through a single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that the countries with the highest yields are Belgium (33.81 t/ha), Austria (29.39 t/ha) and the Netherlands (27.76 t/ha), while the lowest yields are in Bulgaria (4.05 t/ha) and Luxembourg (0.19 t/ha). Dependencies have been identified between the change in the average yields in Bulgaria, Greece and Romania and time. It was found that they were modeled by polynomial regression models of second degree.

Justification of a method for determining the moment for switching on the level one signaling of filled grain harvester hoppers

G. Tihanov1*, B. Kolev2, K. Trendafilov3, N. Delchev1, Y. Stoyanov1

1Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Agricultural Machinery, Agrarian and Industrial Faculty, “Angel Kanchev” University of Ruse, 7017 Ruse, Bulgaria 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technics and Technologies – Yambol, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 4 January 2017; accepted for publication 11 April 2017)

Abstract. The main issue in the joint operation of a grain harvester and a transport vehicle is determining the moment when the vehicle has to start travelling to the harvester, so that it will arrive at it when the hopper is full. The result of the incorrect determining of that moment is that the productivity of the transport vehicle is not efficiently used and in the case when the hopper is unloaded at a harvester stantstill position, the harvester productivity is also reduced due to more frequent stops. The article proposes a method for determining the part of the grain harvester hopper volume after the filling of which the signalling shall be switched on indicating to the vehicle driver when to start moving toward the harvester. The results of real measurements are shown on different farms of the time of movement of the vehicle to the harvester for unloading. An analysis of the results has been made on the basis of the developed method as well and recommendations have been made to regulate the time of switching on the signalling. A nomogram has been proposed for determining the part of the grain hopper volume after the filling of which the signalling is to be switched on depending on the ratio between the time for moving of the vehicle and the time for filling the grain harvester hopper to the top.

Reclamation of soil excavated from construction and mine searching areas in Turkey

F. Apaydın

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Yalova University, Çınarcık Yolu, Yalova, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 April 2017; accepted for publication 02 June 2017)

Abstract. Soil fundamental for life is a strategic entity for our country like other countries and both the government and institutions and society should make an effort to protect it. On fertile lands for different purposes construction is made and mines are searched and soil on these lands are called excavated soil and in most times lost. In this paper, the main purpose is to analyze the situation of fertile excavation soil and develop suggestions which are believed to be bases for academicians and practitioners. Another significant purpose of this paper is to make suggestions for reclamation of excavated soil. Methods used are observation of construction areas, content analysis of legal arrangements and comprehensive literature review. As a conclusion it is suggested that the mentioned soil should be reclaimed and earned for agriculture by carrying it and spreading it over unfertile land in other parts. In order to put this into practice, it is suggested that “soil protection plan” should be made compulsory for the project owners before starting any kind of construction and mine searching activities to reclaim fertile excavated soil. Some amendments are needed to be done by the politicians.