А grain harvester performance according to unloading time and modes

G. Tihanov

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 November 2018; accepted for publication 18 February 2019)

Abstract. The paper presents an analysis of the two ways of unloading the harvester grain hopper – unloading at standstill and unloading on the move. A passive experiment has been carried out during wheat harvest by measuring the loading time of a full harvester hopper into the transport vehicle. During its time measurement it has been found that for 237.4s the harvester is stopped and does not reap and does not perform actual output. The actual grain harvester output when unloading at standstill has been determined 17.15t/h (25.22 da/h) and the actually possible output if the harvester runs the same performance and unloads on the move it will reach an output of 20.91t/h (30.74 da/h), i.e. its output will increase by 19%. It has been found out that crop harvesting times can be shortened if the method unloading on the move is used, by about one day in harvesting the crop, respectively.

Effect of off-farm work on agricultural productivity: empirical evidence from northern Ghana

B.T. Anang

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana

(Manuscript received 8 November 2018; accepted for publication 4 February 2019)

Abstract. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of income diversification to agrarian households in developing countries. Empirical evidence of the effect of farm household income diversification on agricultural productivity remains scanty and inconclusive. An important policy question concerns the effect that farmer participation in off-farm work has on agricultural productivity. This paper answers that question by examining the factors that explain the decision of farm household heads to work off-farm and how this impacts farm productivity using a sample of 300 rice producing households in northern Ghana. Endogenous switching regression model supported by a treatment effect model was used to empirically assess the effect of off-farm work on agricultural productivity. Results show that engagement in off-farm work has a robust and positive impact on rice productivity. Farmers’ choice to work outside the farm thus contributed significantly to rice productivity of smallholders, confirming the role of income diversification in contributing to agricultural productivity of agrarian households.

Effect of improved seed technology adoption on small-scale sorghum farmers’ productivity in Kebbi State, Nigeria

M.A. Ojo1*, D.B. Saleh2, A.A.A. Coker1, A.O. Ojo1

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65 Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
2Government Science and Technical College, P.M.B. 1013 Zuru, Kebbi State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 27 September 2018; accepted for publication 20 December 2019)

Abstract. The study examined the effect of improved seed technology adoption on small-scale sorghum farmers’ productivity in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed in determining the sample size from the sample frame, 240 respondents were sampled using proportionate sampling technique. Data for the study were collected using structured questionnaire containing open and closed ended questions. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that the sorghum farmers adopted Samsorg-5, Samsorg-14 and Samsorg-17 improved seeds with Samsorg-5 accounting for 64.6% level of adoption, thus ranking first. The multinomial logit regression model showed that the probability of adopting one or two improved sorghum varieties increased with the farmers’ educational level, sex, farm size and labour usage in the study area. The results further revealed that the average cost of Samsorg seeds was negative and statistically significant at one percent probability level across the groups which implies that the probability of adopting any of the improved sorghum varieties reduced with its cost. The results also indicated that Samsorg-5, Samsorg-14 and Samsorg-17 improved seeds positively affected farmer’s production and productivity at 5% levels of probability. This indicated that a percentage increased in the use of these improved seeds led to an increase in the production and productivity of sorghum farmers in the study area. Also, the influence of farm size and fertilizer on output and productivity were positive and statistically significant at 1% levels of probability. The results further revealed that, the topmost constraints faced were inadequate extension services and low level of formal education at 92.1% and 56.7% ranking 1st and 2nd, respectively. Therefore, the study recommended an action-oriented plan to reach the small scale farmers with adequate information on agricultural practices to promote adoption of improved seeds in order to increase their level of productivity. Agricultural policies should be directed at making inputs available at subsidized rate, on time and at the required level. Credit facilities should be made accessible at single digit interest rate to enable them efficiently utilize inputs in order to increase their productivity level.

Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides.

Gr. Delchev*, S. Angelova

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 July 2018; accepted for publication 1 February 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate the productivity and yield stability at durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) treated with antibroadleaved herbicides during 3-rd stem node stage. The experiment was conducted during 2012-2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Victoria (Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were tested: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat. It was found that during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat the antibroadleaved herbicides Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra and Starane can be used. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable yield is obtained after the treatment with herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 3-rd stem node stage technologically the most valuable are herbicides Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. After the treatment with them high grain yield with high stability with relation to different years is obtained. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Weedmaster, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex, Sanafen, Dicotex and Herby cannot be used during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat.

Effectiveness of Oxalis bee and Ecostop for prophylaxis and control of varroosis in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

I. Zhelyazkova*, S. Lazarov
Department of Animal husbandry – Non-ruminants and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 August 2018; accepted for publication 26 October 2018)

Abstract. The objective of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of Ecostop (plates) and Oxalis Bee – plant-based products for the prevention and control of varroosis in bees (Apis mellifera L.).The study was conducted at the end of the 2017 Beekeeping Season of the Beekeeping Experimental Training Center at the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora. Two products were used: Ecostop containing peppermint oil (2 ml/plate) and timol (5 g/plate), and Oxalis Bee – zootechnical feed additive for bees, including plant extracts, organic acids and invert solution from bio-sugar. The dosing of the products is in accordance with the instructions of the producers Primavet-Sofia Ltd., Bulgaria and the company Vechni pcheli Ltd., Bulgaria. The development and extensinvasion of bee colonies at the beginning and the end of the study and the effectiveness of the applied products were determined. It has been established that the development of bee colonies is normal for the end of the beekeeping season. The comparative analysis of the acaricidal effect of the test products against Varroa destructor shows 98.55±0.30% for Ecostop and 78.15±8.76% for Oxalis Bee. The reported difference in efficacy of both preparations is reliable at p≤0.05.

Effects of nitrogen doses on growth and some nutrient element uptake of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) hybrids

G. Ören1*, H. Çelik2

1Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Institute of Natural Sciences, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey 2Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey

(Manuscript received 14 August 2018; accepted for publication 10 October 2018)

Abstract. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is known as one of the most important and preferred vegetable oil producing plants. In recent years, new cultivars with high oleic acid contents have been developed because of their health effects, extended frying and shelf life. On the other hand, nutrition of the plants is important for healthy growth, high yield, and oil quality and their nutrient needs may differ between the plant species and varieties. We aimed to determine the effects of increasing application doses of nitrogen (N) (0, 16, 32, 48, and 64 mg.kg-1 N) on growth and on some nutrient element uptake of four sunflower hybrids and compare the nutritional differences of linoleic (ESNovamis CL, and LG 5542 CL) and high-oleic (Oliva CL and ESGrafic CL) type sunflower hybrids in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in randomized factorial design with three replicates. Increasing doses of N effected the dry matter and nutrient uptake of sunflower hybrids significantly (p<0.01). Increasing doses of N elevated the dry weight, N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and boron (B) uptake of all tested sunflower hybrids. The increases were found maximum at 32 mg.kg-1 N dose. Significant differences were also established between the hybrids. Among the tested hybrids, ESGrafic CL a high oleic type sunflower has higher nutrient uptake capacity so much more nutrients might be supplied to this new generation sunflower hybrids according to the soil and plant analysis results.

Influence of foliar feeding of common wheat varieties on the nutritional value of the grain

A. Stoyanova1*, G. Ganchev2, V. Kuneva3

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Morphology, Physiology and Animal nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 3Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 29 June 2018; accepted for publication 3 September 2018)

Abstract. . Two years of polls from the field trials of the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria were used for the purpose of the survey. In the period 2015-2016, two varieties of common wheat (Apolon and Bolonga), treated by leaf liquid fertilizers, imported alone and in combinations were tested under field conditions. Main fertilization with ammonium nitrate was done. The variants of the experiments were as follows: 1) Without fertilization (Control); 2) Ammonium nitrate (N140); 3) Lactifrost – l0.0 L/ha; 4) Lactifros + Lactofol base – 10.0 L/ha + 5.0 L/ha; 5) Lactofol base – 5.0 L/ha; 6) Wuxal Grano – 4.0 L/ha; 7) Wuxal Grano – 4.0 L/ha + 2.0 L/ha. It was found that crude protein content ranged from 136.90 to 144.63g/kg DM in the Apolon variety and from 129.98 to 145.12 g/kg DM in the Bologna variety. An increase in CP content was seen as a result of feeding with Lactifrost and Lactofol base, respectively, by 5.6% and 11.7% relative to the control. Treatment of common wheat with liquid leaf fertilizers, however, does not lead to improvements in energy (metabolizable energy, digestible energy, feed unit for milk, feed unit for growth) and protein digestible in (small) intestine nutrition. In both varieties there were many positive and negative correlations between the investigated parameters: CP, CFAT, CF, DEE, FUM, FUG, PDI, Dep, MEp, DEpg and MEpg; in ruminants the same positive correlations for both varieties are between CP and PDI (p<0.01) and negative – between CP and FUM (p<0.05), and between CFAT and PDI (p<0.05); in nonruminants negative correlations exist between CF and the energy values (DEp, MEp, DEpg and MEpg) only in Apolon variety.

Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides II. Influence at treatment during 2-nd stem node stage

Gr. Delchev*, M. Delcheva

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 16 October 2018)

Abstract. Theresearchwasconductedduring2012-2014onpellicvertisolsoiltype.InvestigatedwastheBulgariandurumwheatcultivarVictoria(Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were investigated: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat. During 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat the following antibroadleaved herbicides can be used: Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Mustang, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra, Starane, Dicotex and Herby. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable treatments are with herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 2-nd stem node stage technologically the most valuable are the herbicides Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. Their application provides high and stable grain yield during different years. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Weedmaster, Logran, Eagle and Herbaflex cannot be used during 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat.

Grain yield response of some agronomy practices on contemporary common winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)

M. Nankova*, A. Atanasov
Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 28 June 2018; accepted for publication 5 September 2018)

Abstract. During2014–2017,theinfluenceofsomemainagronomyfactorsonthesizeoftheresultantagronomiceffectfromtheirapplicationtocontemporary common winter wheat cultivars was investigated. The study was carried out in the experimental field (Haplic Chernozems soil type) of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo. The trial was designed by the split plot method, in four replications, on harvest area of 12m2. Cultivars Sadovo 1, Pryaspa, Kami, Kalina, Kiara, Kossara and Katarjina were grown after winter oilseed rape, spring pea, sunflower and grain maize at four levels of nutrition regime. The nutrition regime was differentiated depending on the previous crop. After spring pea, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/ha were used, and after the rest of the previous crops – 60, 120 and 180 kg N/ha. With the exception of the check variant all fertilizer variants were against background fertilization with 60 kg P2O5/ha and 60 kg K2O/ha. The positive reaction from the complex interaction of the tested agronomy factors was best expressed in 2015 – 2409.2 kg/ha, while during the extremely unfavorable year 2016, the effect was only 628.2 kg/ha. The independent and combined action of the mineral fertilization and the year conditions had determining influence on the size of the agronomic effect (AE). The positive effect from the mineral fertilization on the values of AE was accompanied by slight differentiation between the tested fertilization norms. Within this study, the highest mean value of AE was determined after fertilization with N180P60K60 – 2274.2 kg/ha. The variation in the mean size of AE depending on the type of previous crop was high – from 900.6 kg/ha (pea) to 2031.2 kg/ha (oilseed rape). The applied agronomy practices caused differentiation in the mean values of AE according to the type of cultivar. The cultivars Kiara (1796.1 kg/ha) and Kalina (1704.5 kg/ha) were with the highest size of AE. They exceeded the AE values of the two standard cultivars Sadovo 1 and Pryaspa by 30.26% and 23.62%, respectively. Averaged for the research, it was found that AE was in positive statistically significant correlation with grain yield and its physical properties.

Application of herbicides on common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different doses and their reflection on the structural elements of spike

  1. Z. Petrova, Nankova

 

Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.046

(Manuscript received 13 June 2018; accepted for publication 25 July 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of the application dose of herbicides on structural elements of spike in common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The investigations were carried out during 2015–2017 at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI) – town of General Toshevo. The following herbicides were used: Derby super WG (33 g/ha; 66 g/ha; 132 g/ha), Secator ОD (100 mL/ha; 200 mL/ha; 400 mL/ha), Ergon WG (50 g/ha; 100 g/ha; 200 g/ha), Granstar super 50SG (40 g/ha; 80 g/ha; 160 g/ha), Lintur 70WG (150 g/ha; 300 g/ha; 600 g/ha) and Mustang 306.25 СК (800 mL/ha; 1600 mL/ha; 3200 mL/ha) from the group of sulfunylureas with various mechanism of action. The preparations were applied at three doses – optimal, double and quadruple, at stage 29 of common winter wheat cultivar Dragana, Zlatitsa and Kalina. The herbicide effect was determined by the quantitative weight method and evaluated by the EWRS scale. These were the traced structural elements of the wheat spike: length of spike (cm), number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, weight of grain per spike (g) and weight of 1000 grains (g). Four-factor dispersion analysis was applied. The factors year conditions, cultivar, herbicide and dose were traced. The factors with the highest strength of effect were the year conditions (10-95%) and the used cultivar (2-87%). Significantly lower was the effect of the factors applied herbicide (2-4%) and dose (1-2%) on the investigated structural elements of spike.