An assessment of farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills in Ekiti State, Nigeria

S.E. Komolafe, G.B. Adesiji


Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 29 January 2018; accepted for publication 24 April 2018)


Abstract. This study assessed the farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Two-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 580 respondents. Questionnaire was used to collect data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data collected. Findings show that the majority of the respondents had access to yam entrepreneurial business training/seminar (75.5%), sources of information through agricultural extension agents (86.2%), radio (83.3%) and fellow farmers (79.5%), non-member of any crop related enterprise group (66.2%). The overall farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills was low among the majority (62.6%). Specifically, the knowledge level of respondents on cultivation skills (=67.0) was high while management skills (=39.5), co-operation/networking (=29.3), customer/marketing skills (=27.1) and opportunity skills (=21.3) of respondents were considered low. It was, therefore, concluded that farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills was low. Agri-entrepreneurship training in management skills, opportunity skills, customer and marketing skills, co-operation and networking skills is recommended and encouraging the less educated yam-based entrepreneurs to participate in the agri-entrepreneurship capacity building training.

Technical efficiency of cowpea farmers in Mubi south local government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria

  1. Joshua


Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 May 2018; accepted for publication 23 June 2018)


Abstract. The study analyzed the technical efficiency among cowpea farmers in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 100 respondents randomly selected cowpea farmers using multi-stage, purposive and simple random sampling process. The result of the stochastic frontier production function shows that sigma squared was 0.656 and significant at 1% level, indicating good fit and correctness of the distributional form assumed for the composite error term. The value of gamma was 0.522 and significant at 1% level, suggesting that 52% of the variability in the output of farmers was due to differences in their technical efficiency. The coefficients of farm size, seed, fertilizer, agro-chemicals and labor were positive and significant at varying levels indicating direct relationship with output of cowpea production. The analysis of the inefficiency variables revealed that education, farming experience and extension contact decreases technical inefficiency of the farmers. Mean technical efficiency (TE) was 0.78 with the minimum and maximum values of efficiency as 0.53 and 0.97, indicating that farmers have the potential to increase their TE by 21.2% in the short run given the current state of technology. To achieve this, policies by the government and nongovernmental agencies should be geared towards encouraging farmers’ education on farm management practices so that they would be able to allocate production resources more efficiently especially fertilizer and herbicide for optimum yield.

A study on entrepreneurship skill practices among rural women in Kwara state, Nigeria

G.B. Adesiji, S.O. Ibrahim, S.E. Komolafe


Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 18 March 2018; accepted for publication 21 May 2018)


Abstract. The study examined the entrepreneurial skill practices of rural women in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 147 respondents were selected. Primary data were collected with the use of questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for the study. Mean age of respondents was 38.5 years. The average entrepreneurship experience was 11 years. The most prominent enterprises undertaken by respondents were garri processing (83.7%), corn milling (82.3%), soap making (82.3%), livestock production (81.6%), selling of provision/petty trade (80.3%), grinding pepper (78.2%), tailoring (76.9%), selling of pepper (71.4%), and poultry farming (64.6%). Commonly practiced entrepreneurial skills were communication skills (74.1%), creative thinking skills (72.8%), time management skills (70.1%), decision making and risk management skills (68.0%) and organizational management (61.2%). Most indicated constraints faced were high interest on loan (70.8%), poor road structure (67.3%), high cost of input (66.0%), lack of storage facilities (63.9), poor electricity supply (62.0%), lack of production materials (61.2%) and environmental factors (60.5%). Findings also show that age, marital status, household size and years of experience of respondents had positive significant influence on entrepreneurial skills practised at p<0.01 level of significance. The study concluded that communication skills, creative thinking skills, and time management skills were most practised by rural women entrepreneurs in Kwara State. The study recommends the need for rural women entrepreneurs to form strong credit cooperative society in other to empower themselves financially as well as easy procurement of inputs at cheaper rate.

Perception of rural farmers on pesticide use in vegetable production

  1. Naznin1, M. S. I. Afrad1, M. E. Haque1, M. Zakaria2, A. A. Barau1


1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh

2Department of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh


(Manuscript received 20 March 2018; accepted for publication 21 May 2018)


Abstract. In rural areas of Bangladesh, farmers use various types of pesticides without thinking about the effects of these pesticides on deteriorating and polluting the environment. As a result, the present study examined the rural farmers’ perception on pesticide use for vegetable production. The study was conducted in four villages of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. A total of 110 vegetables farmers were selected as sample for the study. Interview schedule was employed for collection of primary data. Simple statistics was used for analysis, viz. frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, while correlation was employed to test the relationship between the selected socioeconomic characteristics and perception of the farmers on pesticide use in vegetable cultivation. Findings revealed that most of the respondents were over 35 years old, had high literacy level, 7 or less family members, contacted various information sources, received training (64.55%), earned low (78.2%) income annually and slightly above half (52.73%) participated in organizations. A greater majority of the respondents had favorable to highly favorable perception on pesticide use in vegetable production. Also, most of the respondents faced myriad of difficulties in dealing with pesticide, especially eye and skin difficulties. Organizational participation (r = 0.220) showed significant relationship with perception on pesticide use in vegetable production. Therefore, information dissemination should be improved by the government in order to increase awareness on safe use of pesticides, as well as establish centres for surveillance, prevention, and management of difficulties associated with dealing with pesticides.

Effect of fertilizer type and plant spacing on plant morphological characteristics, yield and chemical composition of desho grass (Pennisetumpedicellatum Trin.) in Northwestern Ethiopia

B.Mihret1, B. Asmare2, Y. Mekuriaw2


1Awi Zone, Department of Agriculture, Injibara,Ethiopia

2Department of Animal Production and Technology, P.O.Box 5501, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia


(Manuscript received 19 January 2018; accepted for publication 4 April  2018)


Abstract. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer type and plant spacing on morphological characteristics, yield and nutritive value of desho grass.The study compared three type of fertilizer and three type of between plant spacing on the performance of desho grass. The data collected from the study were morphological parameters including plant height (PH), leaf length per plant (LLPP), number of leaves per plant (NLPP), number of tillers per plant (NTPP), number of roots per plant (NRPP) and root length per plant (RLPP), biomass yield and chemical composition including crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), neutral detergentfibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre(ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) of the grass as well as yield parameters crude protein yield (CPY)and dry matte yield (DMY) were collected. The result indicated that all morphological parameters were significantly affected (P<0.05) by the type of fertilizer. Among chemical composition parameters CP, ash, NDF, ADF, ADLand yield parameters CPY and DMYwere significantly different (P<0.05) due to both factors. However, DM content was not affected (P>0.05) by effect of fertilizer and plant spacing. The highest CPcontent was observed (10.95%) for chemical fertilizer and least value (9%) for non-fertilized grass. The result revealed that the maximum biomass yield and improved quality can be obtained using NPS fertilizer if it is accessible by smallholder farmers. However, if the NPS is not accessible, the use of manure could be an alternative to produce good quality desho fodder with optimum yield. With regard to plant spacing, the intermediate plant spacing can be best to obtain optimum biomass in the study area. Overall, this study implied that desho grass can be planted with available fertilizer and proper spacing recommendable since it has shown good result for yield and quality of the desho grass in the study area and similar agro-ecologies.

Influence of biomanipulation on the living communities and the water quality in the Strezhevo hydroecosystem, R. Macedonia

  1. R. Nastova*, V. Kostov, N. Gjorgovska, V. Levkov

Institute of Animal Science, “Ss Cyril and Methodius” University of Skopje, Bul. Ilinden 92a, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

(Manuscript received 21 June 2017; accepted for publication 16 January 2018)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the biomanipulation on the living communities and water quality in the Strezhevo hydroecosystem, Republic of Macedonia in which a problem with increase of primary organic production has occurred. The biomanipulatory intervention in water bodies is used to prevent the development of macrophyte vegetation. It is achieved by direct influence on the increased development of phytoplanktonic production and macrophytes by gradual and controlled introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The study was conducted in the period June-September 2012 in two earthen ponds (A and B), situated in Strezhevo Lake with 100 specimens of grass carp/pond with average individual mass of 4 kg and age of 3–5 years. The following were monitored: water – temperature (oC), pH, dissolved oxygen (O2 mg/l) and saturation (%); grass carp – length (mm), weight (kg), Fulton and Clark coefficients of fattening, consumption of added in ponds fresh vegetable mass (kg), consisting of Ceratophyllum demersum (hornwort) (95%) and Potamogeton pusillus (small pondweed) (5%). Based on the results obtained, the meliorative ability of this species with high density of the stock was evaluated as very favourable. At optimal temperature, oxygen regime and pH conditions of water, this herbivore fish species consumed the present macrophytic vegetation very intensively, and in the case of its absence, also the additional share of fresh herbal mass, showing certain selectivity towards particular water vegetation species. Thus, grass carp maintains an optimal composition of the macrophytic communities in the hydroecosystem.

Effect of nutmeg extract supplementation on some productive traits and economic efficiency of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultivated in recirculation system

  1. Zhelyazkov*, S. Stoyanova, I. Sirakov, K. Velichkova, Y. Staykov


Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University,

6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 21 December 2017; accepted for publication 16 February 2018)


Abstract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary nutmeg extract supplement on the survival rate, growth performance, feed conversion ratio and economic efficiency of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in a recirculation system. Thirty-two carps were allotted into two experimental variants, each of them comprising two replications with 8 fish in a group. The average initial live weight of carps from the control group (CG) and experimental group (EG) was 866.56±113.99g and 868.50±111.18g, respectively (P>0.05). Fish were reared in concrete tanks with efficient volume of 0.8m3, elements of the recirculation system. They were fed pelleted carp feed with 25% crude protein produced by “Top mix” company, with pellet size of 6mm. The feed of fish from the EG was supplemented with 1% powdered nutmeg extract after lubricating the pellets with 5ml sunflower oil per 100g feed. Control carps received the same amount of sunflower oil-lubricated feed. The daily ration of fish from both replications was 1.8% of their live weight. The experiment duration was 45 days. The initial and final live weights were determined by individual weighing. By the end of the experiment, there was a tendency towards statistically insignificant higher average live weight in fish supplemented with 1% nutmeg extract – 986.44±125.91g vs 964.94±92.04g in non-supplemented controls (P>0.05). The survival rate of carps from both control and experimental group replications was 100%. The average individual weight gain of carps from the two EG replications (supplemented with 1% nutmeg extract) was 117.94±31.24g which was higher than that of controls by 16.58% but the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). At the end of the trial, the analysis of consumed feed amount showed that feed conversion ratio in the group supplemented with 1% nutmeg extract was 3.05±0.78, i.e. by 23.28% lower than that of control carps (P>0.05). The group that received 1% nutmeg extract exhibited better economic conversion ratio (2.71), by 4.06% lower than that of the non-supplemented group.

Economic efficiency of fattening on different genotypes slow-growing and fast-growing broiler chickens

  1. Oblakova*, Y. Popova, P. Hristakieva, N. Mincheva, M. Lalev


Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 21 June 2017; accepted for publication 16 January 2018)


Abstract. In the present study six lines from the National Gene Pool (Bulgaria) were used, four of which – line NG (New Hampshire G), line E (Barred Plymouth Rock), line Ss (Sussex) and line F (NG x Red Rhode Island) as maternal forms in the crossing schedule and two sire lines, meat type – line L (White Plymouth Rock) and line M (Cornish), for production of slow-growing broilers. The effect of genotype on meat quality traits was studied with 5 groups of 150 unsexed day-old chicks from each genotype, and after the manifestation of sexual dimorphism – male and female chickens at 70 and 84 days of age. In valuation on revenues and costs of the fattening of the compared groups current prices at the time of the experiment were used. Cost of feed is determined according to the actual feed. In determining the economic efficiency of fattening, three variants of sales prices per kg of meat – 3.60 BGN/kg, 4.65 BGN/kg and 5.30 BGN/ kg have been analysed. The rate of profitability is a synthetic indicator for economic efficiency, calculated by the formula: NP = (Profitability / Production costs) * 100, %. Feed expenses for experimental group I were lowered by 22.8%, while in groups II, III, and IV- by 13.48%, 9.42% and 9.05%, respectively, compared to group V, which registered the highest consumption of feed in the amount of 5.52 BGN. The share of feed expenses in group I was 53.45% of total expenses, and in groups II, III, and IV group they were 59.88%, 56.30%, 57.50%, and 56.87%, respectively. The highest profits per the accepted sale prices were observed in group V- 10.71 BGN, 13.68 BGN and 15.52 BGN, respectively, followed by group IV with 8.56 BGN, 10.92 BGN, and 12.38 BGN, respectively.  At a level of sale prices of 3.60 BGN/kg a positive value of profitability was registered for the fattening of chickens from group V – 16.03%. In all other groups, the profitability norm was negative. At a level of sale prices of 4.65 BGN/kg, the highest profitability was observed in the chickens of group V – 48.21%, followed by group IV – 25.37%, while the lowest cost efficiency was in group III – 4.24%. In the variant with a sale price of 5.30 BGN/kg, the profitability norm was the highest in group V – 68.14%, followed by group IV – 42.13% and group II – 40.98%, while the lowest level was in group III – 18.21%.

Evaluation of some technological properties of Caucasian ram wool

D. Pamukova1*, G. Staykova2, N. Stancheva2, D. Panayotov1

1Department of Animal Science – Ruminant Animals and Dairy Science, Faculty of Agriculture,Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Agricultural Institute, 3 Simeon Veliki, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 September 2017; accepted for publication 17 November 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to establish the levels of the main selection traits which determine the technological wool production in the rams from the breed of Caucasian merino sheep. The study included a total of 126 rams at 18 months of age from Caucasian merino breed. To determine the fibre diameter, a total of 252 wool samples from two parts of the body (sideandleg) were analyzed.For laboratory examination of staple lengt handcrimp of wool, a total 36 wool samples (from the side and the leg) were studied. The rams from Caucasian breed had a very good topographic equality of fiber thickness and staple length. The average fiber diameter of the side was 21.98μm (with variation from 21.71μm to 22.30 μm) and the leg was 23.05μm (with variation from 22.76μm to 23.34μm).The wool`s fineness in the fleecewas 64’s quality in 76.98% of the samples, which characterized it as a fine merinowool.The number of crimps per 1 cm in the rams was an average of 5.07 nrs. on the side and 4.46 nrs. on the leg and in the rams at 18 months of age – 5.26 nrs. and 4.82 nrs., respectively.

Effect of the herbicide treatment dose on the weed infestation in common winter wheat

Z. Petrova*

Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 10 June 2017; accepted for publication 24 October 2017)

Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of the treatment dose of herbicides on the weed infestation in common winter wheat. The investigations were carried out during 2015 –2016 at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI) – General Toshevo. The following herbicides were used: Derby super WG (33 g/ha; 66 g/ha; 132 g/ha), Secator ОD (100 ml/ha; 200 ml/ha; 400 ml/ha), Ergon WG (50 g/ha; 100 g/ha; 200 g/ha), Granstar super 50SG (40 g/ha; 80 g/ha; 160 g/ha), Lintur 70WG (150 g/ha; 300 g/ha; 600 g/ha) and Mustang 306.25 СК (800 ml/ha; 1600 ml/ha; 3200 ml/ha) from the group of sulfunylureas with various mechanism of action. The preparations were applied at three doses – optimal, double and quadruple, at stage 29 (according to Zadoks et al., 1974) of common winter wheat cultivars Dragana, Zlatitsa and Kalina. The herbicide effect was determined by the quantitative weight method and evaluated by the EWRS scale. Regardless of the used dose and the cultivar, Derby super WG, Secator OD, Lintur 70WG and Mustang 306.25СК had highest efficiency (100%) against the following investigated weeds: Sinapis arvensis L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Anthemis arvensis L., Galium tricorne (Stock.), Consolida orientalis (J. Gay) and Cirsium arvensis L. Ergon WG and Granstar super 50SG had 100% efficiency against Sinapis arvensis L., Matricaria chamomilla L. and Anthemis arvensis L. and lower effect (90-94%) on Galium tricorne (Stock), Consolida orientalis (J. Gay) and Cirsium arvensis L.