Study of emmer (Triticum dicoccum (Schrank) Shuebl.) accessions for traits related to spike productivity and grain quality in connection to durum wheat improvement

K. Taneva, V. Bozhanova*, B. Hadzhiivanova

Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

Abstract. Emmer (Tr. dicoccum (Schrank) Schuebl. (2n = 4x = 28) is a progenitor of cultivated wheat and it is considered as potential source of genes for important agronomical traits including grain quality. The aim of this study was to characterize emmer accessions for agronomic and grain quality traits in relation to durum wheat improvement. Fifteen emmer accessions were characterised in a 3-year field study (2010 – 2012) and compared to Bulgarian durum wheat standard cultivar Predel. Variation among genotypes for all studied traits was found. Most of emmer accessions are characterized by higher values for the traits spikelength,grainproteinandglutencontent,andvitreousnessandlowervaluesforthetraitskernelnumberperspike,kernelweight perspikeandthousand grain weight in comparison with durum wheat standard cultivar. By analyses of variance the influence of genotype, year of cultivations and interaction between both factors on the variation of some studied traits was determined. Emmer accession No 45367 is distinguished with the best combination of traits related to spike productivity and grain quality – 1.95 g kernel weight per spike, 49.5 g thousand grain weight, 20.4% grain protein content, 41.9% gluten wet content and 99% grain vitreousness. The presented results reveal that some of the studied emmer accessions have potential to be involved in durum wheat breeding programme especially for grain quality traits improvement.