N. Tsenov, D. Atanasova, I. Stoeva, E. Tsenova
Abstract. State and Aims: In the wheat breeding of Bulgaria foreign varieties or samples with excellent grain quality are used as parents. The most important indices of the quality of promising breeding lines obtained with participation of pattern from Ukraine are analyzed. The aim is to explore the real possibilities for compromise combining high yield and early date of heading of Bulgarian with the grain quality of Ukrainian forms.
Methods In the course of two consecutive years 64 genotypes of which 50 lines from 5 hybrid combinations of two biotypes, with 10 parental and several standard varieties for correct comparison were investigated. A total of nine traits of quality by which a comparison between the value of the lines, the parental varieties, standards and several varieties obtained also with the participation of varieties from Ukraine are analyzed. Combining Ability of parents for grain quality, with special emphasis on the combination of precocity is discussed.
Key results: In order to enhance the quality of cereals in combination with precocity the varieties most appropriate to combine are Albatros odesskiy and Obrii. The latter can be used to increase grain productivity as well. Developing lines with earlier date of ear emergence and higher productivity of the early Mironovskaya 29, Galatea and Enola is unlikely. By using specific varieties it is possible to combine quality levels of grain with precocity, but within the boundaries of the particular indices of the parental varieties.
Conclusions: When combining different in date of ear heading samples and then selecting earlier plants in hybrid populations it is possible to obtain favourable combinations of yield and grain quality. The genetic level of quality of such lines is related to the date of ear emergence, so that the quality is high, as is the later date of ear emergence. The higher the quality of the parents by this approach, the greater the probability to obtain more qualitative lines in the progenies. The date of ear heading in creating high quality lines is similar to that of the corresponding quality parent. Therefore, to obtain the desired early genotypes high quality donors such as Obrii and Iveta var. and new sources such as Demetra, Goritsa and others should be selected.