Mathematical methods for assessment and analysis of honey yield data for Bulgaria and the European Union for the period 1961-2014

N. Keranova*

Department of Mathematics, Informatics and Physics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 May 2017; accepted for publication 27 September 2017)

Abstract. The objective of this work is to assess the average yields of bee honey for the period from 1961 to 2014 for all countries of the European Union. For this purpose, a single-factor analysis of variance was used. As a result of the surveys, it was found that the highest average yield of honey in the EU is in Germany (20541.91 t) and Spain (20253.43 t), while the lowest yield is in Ireland (199.74 t) and Luxembourg (133,2 t). Data on the production of bee honey in Bulgaria by regions from 2006 to 2014 were also analyzed, and mathematical models were made, reflecting the relationship between the respective honey yields and the survey period. The data on the basis of which the study was carried out are from the FAOSTAD database and the Agro-statistical reference book for 2000-2014 of the “Agro-statistics” Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry of the Republic of Bulgaria.

Effect of herd and number of lactation on milking temperament score in Black-and-White cows

Abstract. The study comprises 143 Black-and-White cows from three cattle farms with free cubicle rearing (one) and tied rearing (two). The number of cows by farms is as follows: farm 1 – 69 cows, farm 2 – 34 cows and farm 3 – 40 cows. All cows in lactation from Ist to VIIth at the time of evaluation have been included, respectively in Ist lactation – 40 cows, in IInd – 28 and in IIIrd and further lactation – 75 cows. To assess the temperament a 5-point scale has been used, respectively 1 – very nervous and 5 – very calm cows. Recording the milking temperament has been done once during lactation and all cows currently in lactation on the three farms have been assessed. Primiparous up to the 30th day after calving have not been included in the assessment. Statistically significant effect of the farm on the milking temperament score has not been reported. In the three studied farms relatively high, above 80% share of calm cows has been reported – scores from 3 to 5. The highest is the relative share of nervous animals (scores 1 and 2) of farm 2 – 17.6%, and the lowest – of farm 3 – 12.5%. Statistically significant effect of the number of lactation on the milking temperament score has been reported. The highest is the percentage of nervous animals – 22.5% in cows at first lactation and, respectively, the lowest is the share of the calm ones – 77.5%. With cows after Ist lactation the percentage of nervous cows is half less and it remains almost unchanged in later lactations. The highest is the LS-mean score for the temperament of cows in IIIrd and further lactations – 4.15, followed by those in IInd. The lowest is the LS-mean score for temperament of cows in first lactation – 3.82.

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Possibilities for application of plant promotor Immunocitofit in integrated pepper production

S. Masheva, V. Todorova, G. Toskov
Abstract. The effect of multi-objective promotor Immunocitofit on the germination, germinating energy, yield and degree of infestation as a result of Verticillium wilt was studied in treatment of pepper seeds and plants variety Kurtovska kapiya 1619. The experiment was performed both in laboratory and in open field conditions in the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv during the period 2008-2009. Immunocitofit has stimulated the mass germination of the seeds and increased their germination ability. The yield obtained from such plants (treated seeds + threefold treatment during the vegetation: in bud formation phase + twofold treatments every 15 days with addition of 0.5 % kristalon 18, 18, 18) is higher, by 23.54 % on average compared to untreated control. A dominant power of effect (64.51%) on the variability of the character showed the year (growing conditions) followed by the production system (24.62%). The index of damage caused by Verticillium wilt is the lowest also in the variant with treated seeds and plants by the scheme + kristalon (i = 7.78%) and the highest in the untreated control variant (i = 29.96%). All systematic factors have an effect on the expression of this character. The growing system has the greatest effect (40.99%) on the expression of this character, followed by the factor seed treatment (29.33%) and the interaction treatment of seeds x growing system (25.08%).

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