Mathematical methods for assessment and analysis of honey yield data for Bulgaria and the European Union for the period 1961-2014

N. Keranova*

Department of Mathematics, Informatics and Physics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 May 2017; accepted for publication 27 September 2017)

Abstract. The objective of this work is to assess the average yields of bee honey for the period from 1961 to 2014 for all countries of the European Union. For this purpose, a single-factor analysis of variance was used. As a result of the surveys, it was found that the highest average yield of honey in the EU is in Germany (20541.91 t) and Spain (20253.43 t), while the lowest yield is in Ireland (199.74 t) and Luxembourg (133,2 t). Data on the production of bee honey in Bulgaria by regions from 2006 to 2014 were also analyzed, and mathematical models were made, reflecting the relationship between the respective honey yields and the survey period. The data on the basis of which the study was carried out are from the FAOSTAD database and the Agro-statistical reference book for 2000-2014 of the “Agro-statistics” Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry of the Republic of Bulgaria.

Study of bee honey by spectral analysis in the near infrared spectrum

I. Zhelyazkova, S. Atanasova , K. Elencheva – Karaneycheva
Abstract. The objective of the present study is to examine samples of bee honey of different origin and create models for their classification through spectral analysis in the near infrared spectrum. Representative samples unifloral (sunflower, acacia, lime and coriander), multifloral and honeydew honey are used. The origin of the above honey samples has been determined in advance by pollen analysis. The spectral measurement (NIR spectroscopy) of each sample was done non-destructively, by measuring the diffuse reflection of the honey samples using the spectral device NIRQuest 512 within the range 900–1700 nm. The spectral differences between the different types of bee honey have been studied. For classification of the samples based on their spectra the SIMCA method (Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy) was used. Models for distinguishing different types of bee honey – unifloral, multifloral and honeydew – have been obtained. The results show 100% accuracy of classification of the samples from the three groups based on the received spectral information. The most compact is the group of honeydew honey.


Effect of the duration of shelf life on some quality parameters related to bee honey

K. Elencheva-Karaneycheva, I. Zhelyazkova, R. Balkanska

Abstract. The changes in some parameters determining the quality of bee honey are traced after one and two years of storage at room temperature (5 – 8°C in winter months and 25 – 35°C in summer months). On samples of multifloral and honeydew honey (n=27) the following quality parameters have been defined: water content (%), electrical conductivity (μS/cm), specific optical rotation ([ά]20 ), pH, total acidity (meq/kg), diastase activity (units by Gote), D hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF – mg/kg) content. It was found that the duration of storage at ambient conditions has a pronounced impact on the amount of HMF for copper samples analyzed. There were no significant changes in the amount of HMF in honeydew honey and in most of multifloral bee honey samples. Depending on the duration and storage conditions, the values from other quality parameters being within admissible limits stated in Bulgarian (BDS 3050/80, Decree 48/2003) and international regulations.