Effect of the diet with commercial dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on organoleptic qualities, chemical and biological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

N.M. Abdulrahman1*, I.H. Al-Refaiee2, H. Ali Mutter3

1College of veterinary medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimaniya, Iraq
2Ministry of Agriculture, Al- Anbar province, Iraq
3College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Al- Anbar province, Iraq

(Manuscript received 9 July 2018; accepted for publication 31 January 2019)

Abstract. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the replacement of different levels of animal protein concentrate (APC) with a commercial dry yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in diets on common carp performance. The experiment was conducted in the fish laboratory of the Department of Animal Production, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani in Kurdistan region of Iraq for the period from 25.07.2015 to 15.10.2015. Starting with a period of acclimatization for 21 days, to test the efficiency of using commercial dry yeast S. cerevisiae as alternative protein source to APC used in the manufacturing of diets for common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by using 90 fish at weights ranged 22-42g divided into 15 groups distributed randomly on 15 plastic containers by five treatments with three replicates per each variant. The treatments contain different levels of APC and yeast S. cerevisiae as follows: first treatment (Control T1): 100% APC / 0.00% yeast S. cerevisiae; second treatment (T2): 75% APC / 25% yeast S. cerevisiae; third treatment (T3): 50% APC / 50% yeast S. cerevisiae; fourth treatment (T4): 25% APC / 75% yeast S. cerevisiae and fifth treatment (T5): 0.00% APC / 100% yeast S. cerevisiae. There was no significant difference observed in the value of biological indices for some physiological organs, spleen and Hepatic pancreases and also in the value of the condition factor (CF) between carps from different treatments. The results of the chemical composition of the fish flesh showed significant difference in the moisture of individuals from T4 as compared with these from T2 and T5, T2 was significantly increased in crude protein as compared with other treatments, T5 had significant differences in fat crude as compared with other treatments, T1 and T2 were significantly different in ash as compared with other treatments, T1 was significantly different in carbohydrates as compared with other treatments. The results showed no significant differences observed among experimental treatments in Panel test of tenderness, color, juiciness, flavor and overall acceptance for fish meat.

Proximate composition, lipid quality and heavy metals content in the muscle of two carp species

A. Merdzhanova*, V. Panayotova, D.A. Dobreva, K. Peycheva

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, 9000 Varna, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 2 August 2018; accepted for publication 12 October 2018)

Abstract. The aim of the presented study was to characterize the quality of edible tissue of freshwater common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), based on their proximate and lipid composition (lipid classes, fatty acid profile, fat soluble vitamins, carotenoids and cholesterol). Health risk assessment was evaluated based on the analysis of some toxic elements (As, Cd, Ni, Pb and total Hg). Proximate composition (moisture, crude protein and total lipid) was determined using standard procedures. Lipids were subsequently separated into neutral (NL) and polar lipids: Phospho- (PL) and Glycolipids (GL) by means of column and thin-layer chromatography. Lipid classes were derivatized into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) which were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Vitamins A, D3 and E, beta-carotene, astaxanthin and cholesterol were analysed simultaneously using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg and Ni) were determined by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) following a microwave digestion procedure. Protein content was higher in bighead carp (18.5%) and lower for common carp (15.5%), whereas lipid content showed opposite trend. Similarities in lipid classes distribution were observed for both species: NL>GL>PL. Neutral lipids constituted approximately 70% of TL in both species, as FAs profile was dominated by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) prevailed in polar fractions. Omega-3 PUFAs were higher in all lipid classes compared to omega-6 PUFAs. Cholesterol content was low (17-24 mg.100-1g ww). Astaxanthin was detected only in bighead carp, whereas beta-carotene, vitamin D3 and vitamin A showed similar concentrations in both samples. Vitamin E content was higher in bighead carp (10.4 mg.100 g-1 w.w.). Trace elements content was higher in bighead carp showing a maximum value of As (0.312 mg.kg-1 w.w). All determined toxic elements were found below the recommended value in carp muscle. The results of the present study confirmed the high quality and safety of common carp and bighead carp meat. These freshwater species are valuable sources of essential nutrients such as proteins, vitamin D3 and long chain omega-3 PUFAs. Together with the nutrients, the information for low concentrations of toxic elements makes them valuable components of a healthy human diet.

Effect of monosodium glutamate dietary supplementation on some productive traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), cultivated in net cages

  1. G. Zhelyazkov*

 

Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6014 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.039

(Manuscript received 30 May 2018; accepted for publication 15 August 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a monosodium glutamate dietary supplementation on the survival rate, growth performance, feed conversion ratio and economic efficiency of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), cultivated in net cages. Two hundred carps were allotted into two experimental variants, each of them comprising two replications (Control groups – CG and CG1; Experimental groups – EG and EG1), with 50 fish in a group. The average initial live weight of fish from the control and experimental groups was 1141.62±79.62g and 1129.54±71.47g, respectively (P>0.05). The carps were cultivated in net cages with a size 3.0/3.0/2.0m. The fish were fed with extruded feed Aqua garant VITAL, a product of Garant-Tiernahrung Gesellschaft m.b.H. – Austria, with 6mm size of pellets. Monosodium glutamate in amount of 1% was added to the feed of carps from the experimental groups. The fish from the control groups received no monosodium glutamate supplementation of the diet. The feed given to the fish was 2% of the total biomass. The trial period was 60 days, control catch at 30th day were done in order to study the influence of the monosodium glutamate supplementation on the weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the common carp, cultivated in net cages. The initial (1st day), control (30th day) and final (60th day) live weights (g) were determined by individual weighing. The final live weight of the fish from both replications of the experimental and the control groups was as follows: 1699.36±78.43g and 1597.27±74.66g, the differences were significant (P<0.001). The survival rate of carps from both control and experimental group replications was 100%. The average individual weight gain of fish from the two replications (supplemented with 1% monosodium glutamate) was 569.82±3.75g which was higher than that of controls by 20.04%, the differences were significant (P<0.001). At the end of the trial, the analysis of consumed feed amount showed that feed conversion ratio in the group supplemented with 1% monosodium glutamate was 1.76±0.12, i.e. by 25.57% lower than that of control carps (P<0.001). The economic efficiency in the experimental groups exhibited better economic conversion ratio (0.936), by 22.65% lower than that of the non-supplemented groups.

Effect of nutmeg extract supplementation on some productive traits and economic efficiency of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultivated in recirculation system

  1. Zhelyazkov*, S. Stoyanova, I. Sirakov, K. Velichkova, Y. Staykov

 

Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University,

6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 21 December 2017; accepted for publication 16 February 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary nutmeg extract supplement on the survival rate, growth performance, feed conversion ratio and economic efficiency of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in a recirculation system. Thirty-two carps were allotted into two experimental variants, each of them comprising two replications with 8 fish in a group. The average initial live weight of carps from the control group (CG) and experimental group (EG) was 866.56±113.99g and 868.50±111.18g, respectively (P>0.05). Fish were reared in concrete tanks with efficient volume of 0.8m3, elements of the recirculation system. They were fed pelleted carp feed with 25% crude protein produced by “Top mix” company, with pellet size of 6mm. The feed of fish from the EG was supplemented with 1% powdered nutmeg extract after lubricating the pellets with 5ml sunflower oil per 100g feed. Control carps received the same amount of sunflower oil-lubricated feed. The daily ration of fish from both replications was 1.8% of their live weight. The experiment duration was 45 days. The initial and final live weights were determined by individual weighing. By the end of the experiment, there was a tendency towards statistically insignificant higher average live weight in fish supplemented with 1% nutmeg extract – 986.44±125.91g vs 964.94±92.04g in non-supplemented controls (P>0.05). The survival rate of carps from both control and experimental group replications was 100%. The average individual weight gain of carps from the two EG replications (supplemented with 1% nutmeg extract) was 117.94±31.24g which was higher than that of controls by 16.58% but the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). At the end of the trial, the analysis of consumed feed amount showed that feed conversion ratio in the group supplemented with 1% nutmeg extract was 3.05±0.78, i.e. by 23.28% lower than that of control carps (P>0.05). The group that received 1% nutmeg extract exhibited better economic conversion ratio (2.71), by 4.06% lower than that of the non-supplemented group.

Chromium level in water, sediment, aquatic plants and meat of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from different water bodies in Bulgaria

E. Valkova1*, V. Atanasov1, K. Velichkova2, G. Kostadinova3, M. Tzanova1

1Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physics, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Biology and Aquaculture; Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
3Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. Chromium (Cr) is heavy metal often found in aquatic ecosystems due to its widespread use in households and industry. Reaching toxic levels in water, chromium may cause a violation of many metabolic processes in hydrobionts. The aim of the present study was to investigate and assess the Cr concentration levels in water, sediment, aquatic plants and meat of common carp from different surface water bodies in a region of Bulgaria with high anthropogenic impact. International standards of ISO and BSS for sample preparation of water, sediment, aquatic plants and meat of common carp analysis were used. Concentration of Cr in the analyzed samples was determined by atomic adsorption spectrometry. It was found that the Cr levels: a) in surface water varied from 0.012 mg/l in monitoring point (MP-5) to 0.043 mg/l in MP-6, all concentrations exceeded the maximum admissible concentration (MCA) – 8 μg/l (0.008 mg/l) for Cr (VI) according to Regulation No 4-H (2012) for characterization of surface water, from 1.5 times in MP 5 to 5.38 times in MP 6; b) in sediment ranged from 20.7 mg/kg in MP 1 to 199.9 mg/kg in MP 4, which are lower than the MCA for cultivated soil – 200 mg/kg dry soil according to Regulation No 3/01.08.2008 concerning norms for admissible content of harmful substances in the soil, from 1 time in MP 4 to 9.6 times in MP 1; c) in aquatic plants varied from 6.021 mg/kg in MP 3 to 23.2 mg/kg in MP 6; d) in common carp meat were between 0.11 mg/kg in MP 5 and 0,16 mg/kg in MP 3, which is lower than the MCA (0.3 mg/kg) for maximum permissible quantities for contaminants in food (Regulation No 31, 2004), from 0,37 times in MP 5 to 0.53 times in MP 3. Cr accumulation was not observed in the tested common carp meat samples, which most probably is due to its accumulation in organs with active metabolism (gills, liver); e) proportions of accumulation of Cr in the trophic chain are different for the different units – water/sediment (1040 – 12 129 times more), aquatic plants/water (207 – 1011 times more) and meat of common carp/water (9.1 – 12.1 times more).

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Seasonal changes in fatty acid composition and fat soluble vitamins content of grass carp and common carp

Abstract. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the seasonal changes in total lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition, and fat soluble vitamins (A, D3, E) content in the edible tissue of two freshwater fish species – grass carp and common carp. The FA and vitamins contents of the investigated fish species showed significant seasonal changes. All spring samples were characterized by lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) levels (from 35.9% to 36.0%) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (from 14.6% up to 30.1%), including the essential omega 3 PUFA compared to the autumn specimens. The autumn carp and grass carp showed significant decrease of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) levels. All autumn samples showed lower PUFA (from 13.3% to 30.0%) values, due to reduction of linoleic acid (C 18:2 n6) levels in carp and grass carp. PUFA/SFA and n-3/n-6 ratios decreased in all fish species in the autumn season. The fat soluble vitamins content of the analyzed species in the two seasons were in the ranges: from 8.56±0.68μg/100g to 24.44±5.8 μg.100g-1 wet weight (ww) for all-trans-retinol; from 5.41±0.33 μg.100g-1ww to 30.87±5.1 μg.100g-1ww cholecalciferol and from 1051.8±38.470 μg.100g-1ww to 3133.1± 57.8 μg.100g-1ww α-tocopherol, respectively. All analyzed cyprinid species in both seasons are good sources of fat soluble vitamins and PUFAs, which makes them a desirable part of the human diet.

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Fatty acid composition of common carp, rainbow trout and grey mullet fish species

M. Stancheva, A. Merdzhanova

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to determinate the fatty acid composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species – rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and one Black Sea fish – grey mullet (Mugil cephalus). Lipid extraction was done according to the Bligh and Dyer method. Methyl esters were prepared according to method EN ISO 5508:2000. The fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The total lipid content in rainbow trout was 11.50 g/100g raw weight (r.w.), in carp – 12.74g/100 g r.w. while grey mullet showed a value of 3.80g/100g r.w. In comparison with other groups, the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) showed the highest level in trout – 43.13 % including ω3 such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids followed by grey mullet –29.1%, whereas the carp presented lowest level – 17.55%. The amounts of total ω6 PUFAs were higher than the total ω3 PUFAs in all analyzed fish samples. A ω3 /ω6 and PUFA/SFA ratios were determined in all three fish species.

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