Inventory of the legal base for reclamation of lands disturbed by open-cast mining in Bulgaria

M. Banov*, V. Tzolova, I. Kirilov

N. Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, 1080 Sofia, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 4 July 2017; accepted for publication 18 October 2017)

Abstract. Samples of geological materials, used for reclamation of land, disturbed by open coal mining have been investigated. The obtained results for the opportunities of biological regeneration of the lands fertility, reclaimed with these materials, put them in the following order: Pliocene clays from the region of Maritza Iztok (the biggest energy complex with the largest open coal mine in Bulgaria); marl materials from the area of the town of Pernik; and last – sulfur containing materials from the region of Chukurovo Mine, Sofia region. It is proposed that the period for biological reclamation, shown in Article 4, item 2 §(а) from Regulation No. 26/1996 for reclamation of disturbed areas, improvement of lands of low productivity, removal and utilization of the humus layer, must be changed from”5years”to”7-12years”for the lands reclaimed without humus and to”3-5years”for the lands reclaimed with of humus horizon used.

Anthropogenically disturbed Soils and Methods for thier Reclamation

The present article summarizes the problematic issues, scientific quests and achievements related with lands reclamation during the past 40 (forty) years. The anthropogenic activities that alter natural landscapes and form a new anthropogenic relief are indicated here, as well as the consequences of those activities on the environment and the measures that apply to its recovery. We have outlined the classic and new leading technologies for reclamation of damaged areas. The characteristics of some specific objects for reclamation and the difficulties in their recovery are also described. We have reflected the advantages of interdisciplinary studies on damaged ecosystems and have presented the methods for their field and laboratory analyses and subsequent monitoring. Classifications and methodologies for agro-environmental assessment of the suitability of the various geological materials for reclamation are specified. We have also included a taxonomic list of some of thoroughly studied reclaimed lands in Bulgaria according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB, 2007).

Anthropogenically disturbed Soils and Methods for thier Reclamation

M. Banov, V. Tsolova, P. Ivanov, M. Hristova