# Mathematical methods for assessment and analysis of honey yield data for Bulgaria and the European Union for the period 1961-2014

N. Keranova*

Department of Mathematics, Informatics and Physics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 May 2017; accepted for publication 27 September 2017)

Abstract. The objective of this work is to assess the average yields of bee honey for the period from 1961 to 2014 for all countries of the European Union. For this purpose, a single-factor analysis of variance was used. As a result of the surveys, it was found that the highest average yield of honey in the EU is in Germany (20541.91 t) and Spain (20253.43 t), while the lowest yield is in Ireland (199.74 t) and Luxembourg (133,2 t). Data on the production of bee honey in Bulgaria by regions from 2006 to 2014 were also analyzed, and mathematical models were made, reflecting the relationship between the respective honey yields and the survey period. The data on the basis of which the study was carried out are from the FAOSTAD database and the Agro-statistical reference book for 2000-2014 of the “Agro-statistics” Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry of the Republic of Bulgaria.

# Mathematical approaches for assessment and classification of the European Union member states based on the average yield of vegetables for the period 1961-2014

N. Keranova*

Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 May 2017; accepted for publication 27 July 2017)

Abstract. The objective of this work is to analyze the statistical data on the average yield of vegetables in the European Union member states for the period 1961 – 2014. The EU countries are classified and grouped through hierarchical cluster analysis based on the average yield of vegetables. A mathematical model for evaluation of the received data is composed through a single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that the countries with the highest yields are Belgium (33.81 t/ha), Austria (29.39 t/ha) and the Netherlands (27.76 t/ha), while the lowest yields are in Bulgaria (4.05 t/ha) and Luxembourg (0.19 t/ha). Dependencies have been identified between the change in the average yields in Bulgaria, Greece and Romania and time. It was found that they were modeled by polynomial regression models of second degree.