Inventory of the legal base for reclamation of lands disturbed by open-cast mining in Bulgaria

M. Banov*, V. Tzolova, I. Kirilov

N. Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, 1080 Sofia, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 4 July 2017; accepted for publication 18 October 2017)

Abstract. Samples of geological materials, used for reclamation of land, disturbed by open coal mining have been investigated. The obtained results for the opportunities of biological regeneration of the lands fertility, reclaimed with these materials, put them in the following order: Pliocene clays from the region of Maritza Iztok (the biggest energy complex with the largest open coal mine in Bulgaria); marl materials from the area of the town of Pernik; and last – sulfur containing materials from the region of Chukurovo Mine, Sofia region. It is proposed that the period for biological reclamation, shown in Article 4, item 2 §(а) from Regulation No. 26/1996 for reclamation of disturbed areas, improvement of lands of low productivity, removal and utilization of the humus layer, must be changed from”5years”to”7-12years”for the lands reclaimed without humus and to”3-5years”for the lands reclaimed with of humus horizon used.

Organic matter status in reclaimed Technosols of Bulgaria

V. Tsolova, M. Banov

Abstract. The paper deals with the characterization of organic matter in reclaimed Technosols (WRS, 2007) built in the different mine regions of Bulgaria (Chukurovo, Pernik, Maritsa-Iztok and Lokorsko). The studied soils were formed around 30 years ago through the humus and none humus reclamation methods. The humus formation processes occur with greater intensity in reclaimed without humus technogenic soils and form the vertical differentiation of the section. The newly formed organic horizons contain mainly non-extractable (unreachable) carbon, formed due to the coal impurities and / or on-going evolution of the geological materials, building up the technogenic soils. The extractable carbon, which content averages at about 0.22%, is represented by humic acids with low condensation and maturity. The process of cultivation of the Technosols occurs along with the increasing content of fulvic acids, which decreases the stability and quality of the organic matter, especially in the humus reclaimed Technosols.

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Anthropogenically disturbed Soils and Methods for thier Reclamation

The present article summarizes the problematic issues, scientific quests and achievements related with lands reclamation during the past 40 (forty) years. The anthropogenic activities that alter natural landscapes and form a new anthropogenic relief are indicated here, as well as the consequences of those activities on the environment and the measures that apply to its recovery. We have outlined the classic and new leading technologies for reclamation of damaged areas. The characteristics of some specific objects for reclamation and the difficulties in their recovery are also described. We have reflected the advantages of interdisciplinary studies on damaged ecosystems and have presented the methods for their field and laboratory analyses and subsequent monitoring. Classifications and methodologies for agro-environmental assessment of the suitability of the various geological materials for reclamation are specified. We have also included a taxonomic list of some of thoroughly studied reclaimed lands in Bulgaria according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB, 2007).

Anthropogenically disturbed Soils and Methods for thier Reclamation

M. Banov, V. Tsolova, P. Ivanov, M. Hristova