Biotic stress factors in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under various environmental conditions in Trakia Region

İ. Öztürk*

Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 December 2018; accepted for publication 16 April 2019)

Abstract. Barley is an important crop in Trakia region, Turkey and due to various environmental factors it can suffer some biotic stress and yield loss in the region. This research was carried out in two locations (Edirne and Tekirdağ) of Trakia region during 2013-2014 growing year. The experiment was set up with 25 advanced genotypes in completely randomized blocks with four replications at two locations. Grain yield, plant height, days to heading, leaf rust, net blotch, powdery mildew and relationship among these characters were investigated. According to the results, there was significant difference among genotypes for grain yield, biotic stress factors and other characters. The mean grain yield of the genotypes was 6866 kg ha-1. TEA1619-11 had the highest grain yield with 7667 kg ha-1. TEA2311-19 (7593 kg ha-1) and Harman (7593 kg ha-1) were the other highest yielding genotypes. Due to various environmental conditions, there was significant difference between locations. Mean yield in Edirne location was 7841 kg ha-1 and in Tekirdağ location it was 5891 kg ha-1. TEA1619-8 and TEA1619-9 sister lines had the shortest plant height and early genotypes had higher grain yield. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) is the mainly prevalent disease in Trakya region. Leaf rust and powdery mildew had negative effect and decreased grain yield. TEA1619-12, TEA1619-17, TEA2311-19 and TEA1980-25 genotypes were resistant at both locations. TEA1980-25 was an outstanding line to net blotch, leaf rust and powdery mildew. It was determined that increase of net blotch had negative effect and decreased the grain yield in the genotypes.

Yield and seed quality of some soybean (Glycine max. L) varieties, cultivated in Osmaniye region, Turkey

F.F. Aşik, R. Yildiz

 

Oil Seeds Research Institute, 80950 Osmaniye, Turkey

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.042

(Manuscript received 21 May 2018; accepted for publication 2 August 2018)

 

Abstract. This study was carried out to determine yield and seed quality of 14 soybean varieties (Blaze, Ataem-7, Bravo, İlksoy, Çetinbey, Nova, Atakişi, Cinsoy, Adasoy, Umut-2002, Türksoy, Arısoy, HA.16-21 and SA-88), conducted with 3 replicates, according to the Randomized Block Experimental Design in the Osmaniye region, Turkey during 2016 growing season. Plant height, seed number per pod, first pod height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per node, number of pods per plant, harvest index, protein content, oil content, hundred seed weight, seed yield and fatty acid composition were the parameters examined. It was found that the controlled parameters values at different soybean varieties ranged as follows: plant height – between 69.47cm (Blaze) and 101.83cm (HA.16-21); number of seeds per pod – between 1.82 units/pod (Adasoy) and 2.21 units/pod (Blaze); first pod height – between 13.10cm (Blaze) and 22.53 cm (Umut-2002); number of branches per plant – between 1.07 units/plant (HA.16-21) and 3.00 units/plant (Nova); number of pods per node – between 2.43 units/node (Umut-2002) and 4.81 units/node (Adasoy); number of pods per plant – between 27.40 units/plant (Umut-2002) and 47.73 units/plant (Adasoy); Harvest Index values – between 43.99% (HA.16-21) and 54.72% (Ataem) – 55.42% (Blaze); protein content – between 36.09% (Nova) and 39.17% (Çetinbey); oil content – between 15.71% (Blaze) and 19.73% (Türksoy) – 19.82% (Arısoy); 100 seed weight – between 12.54g (Arısoy) and 19.18g (Çetinbey); seed yield – between 2470.41 kg/ha (Arısoy) and 3280.03 kg/ha (Adasoy); acid composition values: palmitic acid – from 9.97% (Türksoy) to 11.47% (Çetinbey); stearic acid – from 3.82% (Ataem-7) to 4.38% (Türksoy); oleic acid – from 22.39% (Bravo) to 28.14% (Çetinbey); linoleic acid – from 47.30% (Çetinbey) to 53.26%  (Ataem-7) and linolenic acid – from 5.49% (Türksoy) to 6.88% (Bravo). The soybean varieties tested showed different advantages over the individual parameters: in terms of seed yield – Adasoy (3280.03 kg/ha) and Atakişi (3260.60 kg/ha) varieties; in terms of protein content – Çetinbey (39.17%) followed by SA-88 (38.55%) genotype; in terms of oil content – Türksoy variety (19.82%) followed by Arisoy (19.73%) variety; in terms of fatty acid composition the results are very diverse.

 

Variability and grain yield potential of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under irrigated condition in central Sudan

M.B. Alhussein1, S.H. Suliman2, A.A. Mohammed3

 

1Maize research program, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan

2Crop sciences section, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan

3Maize research program, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.038

(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 27 August 2018)

 

Abstract. These experiments were conducted in two different sites to study the genetic variability and the mean performance of the elite different origin maize genotypes under irrigated condition in central region of Sudan during rainy season of 2015. The experiments were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates, the data were collected on days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter and grain yield. The analysis of variance for each site and cross sites showed a significant variability among tested genotypes for grain yield, days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter. Also significant differences were observed for genotypes, site and a cross site for most of the studied traits such as for grain yield, days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter. The combined results for genotypic coefficients of variability and broad sense heritability estimates grain yield, ear length and ear diameter varied significantly among the tested genotypes.

Yield and coefficient of ecological valence of spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat, Bulgaria

  1. Neykov, T. Mokreva

 

1Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria

2Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 April 2017; accepted for publication 21 September 2017)

 

Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the yield and the coefficient of ecological valence of spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat. Seven spring barley cultivars were planted in the first and second ten days of March, in comparative cultivars trials on the block method in four repetitions of an area of 10 m2, with sowing rate of 450 germinating seeds per m2. They were assessed on the standard for the French cultivar Josefin used of the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control. The statistical processing of the results was carried out by ANOVA. The coefficient of ecological valence (W) is calculated.  Cultivars grown in the region of Sadovo showed better ecological plasticity, but gave lower yields, in the region of Karnobat were more productive but difficult to adapt to environmental conditions. Suitable cultivars for growing spring barley in the regions of Sadovo and Karnobat are Barke, Scarlett and Bodega. They exceed the standard variety Josefin in yield with proven differences at both test sites.

Length of the growing season and yield in Triticum monococcum L., in accordance with the growing conditions

S. Stamatov*, E. Valchinova, G. Desheva, K. Uzundzhalieva, P. Chavdarov, T. Cholakov, B. Kyosev, R. Ruseva, N. Velcheva

Institute of Plant genetic resources „Konstantin Malkov”, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 7 June 2017; accepted for publication 1 September 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the current study is to trace the changes in the length of the growing season in accordance with the accumulated effective temperatures, rains and plant nutrition during the vegetation period, as well as the influence of these indices on the grain yield. The study was conducted in the period 2015 – 2016 in the experimental field of Institute of Plant Genetic Resources – Sadovo with the local variety B3E0025 from the National Genebank in Sadovo. The experiment was made in block method in four repetitions. Three sowing times were made – autumn, winter and early spring and two options of N fertilization – without additional N and 3 kg/da input of active N substance in tillеring phase. The beginning of the basic phenophases has been observed. As a result of the study it was established that the vegetation period in T. monococcum L. has 114-238 days’ duration and accumulation of effective temperature of 2266.0- 2714.71°C. The length of the growing season and the necessary accumulated temperature depends on the sowing period, the predecessor, the amount of nutrient substances and soil moisture. The extension of the critical phases of autumn sowing favours the obtaining of higher yield. The significance of the effective temperatures decreases with additional N input.

Influence of basic agrotechnical activities on the productivity and yield of Triticum monococcum L.

S. Stamatov*, K. Uzundzhalieva, E. Valchinova, G. Desheva, P. Chavdarov, B. Kyosev, T. Cholakov, R. Ruseva, N. Velcheva

Institute of Plant genetic Resources „Konstantin Malkov”, 2 Druzhba, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 7 June 2017; accepted for publication 25 August 2017)

Abstract. The study was conducted during the period 2014 – 2016 in the experimental field of Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Sadovo. The influence of the period of sowing, the predecessor and the fertilization on the elements of productivity and grain yield per hectare in einkorn wheat were studied. It was established that the structural elements of productivity – number of productive tillers, length of the spike, number of spikelets per spike, mass of central spike, number of grains in central spike, weight of the grains from the central spike are with the highest values in plants grown after predecessor peas, sown in autumn and fertilized with extra nitrogen. With least developed productive capabilities are the plant variants sown in spring after sunflower and without additional fertilization with nitrogen. With proved the biggest impact on grain yield per hectare is the date of sowing. The sources of variation: predecessor and combined effect of factors predecessor x fertilization show equal share of influence on the productivity of einkorn. The results from the study give science-based information on the most favorable time of sowing, fertilizing and predecessor in einkorn.

Phytosanitary status and yield of kamut (Triticum turgidum polonicum L.) grown in organic and biodynamic farming

V. Maneva*, D. Atanasova, T. Nedelcheva

Institute of Agriculture, 1 Industrialna, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 30 June 2016; accepted for publication 27 October 2016)

Abstract. During the period of 2013 – 2015 the influence of farming types (organic and biodinamic) on the phytosanitary status and yield of kamut was studied. Kamut is resistant to diseases and they are not a problem for growing it in an organic and biodynamic way. In both kinds of farming single numbers of five types of pests on kamut were recorded. Two of them were from Order Homoptera (Sitobion avenae L. and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch)) and three from Hemiptera (Philaenus spumarius (L.), Eurygaster integriceps Put. and Aelia acuminata L.).The species diversity of the weeds was greater in biodynamic farming. Kamut yield from biodynamic farming was proven to exceed the organic one. The strength of effect of the type of farming factor was 83.57%.

Productivity and adaptability of new genotypes field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivated under environmental condition of Southern Romania

R. Sturzu*, A. M. Ene, Cr. Melucă, J. M. Cojocaru

Agricultural Research and Development Station Teleorman, Drăgănești Vlașca, 147135 Teleorman, Romania (Manuscript received 11 October 2016; accepted for publication 19 January 2017)

Abstract. The purpose of the paper was to identify new peas genotypes, created in Agricultural Research and Development Station, Teleorman, South Romania, with improved productivity and adaptability to the environmental conditions of that region. The study was carried out with 25 field pea varieties for a period of three years (2013-2015). The experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks design in three replications. The results of variance analysis showed that there was significant difference among pea genotypes by grain yield. The average yield over three years showed that lines M 1357, M 1410, M 1418 and M 720 achieved higher yield levels compared with the control genotype Vedea and with the average yield of all tested genotypes. Yields stability was estimated by coefficient of variability. Correlation analysis showed that the strongest relations there are between productivity elements: number of pods and seeds per plant (r = 0.905), number of pods and seeds weight per plant (r = 0.655), number of seeds per plant and seeds weight (r = 0.815), plant height and first pod insertion height (r = 0.921). There are significant negative correlations between 1000 seeds weight and number of grains per plant (r = – 0.229), number of pods per plant and 1000 seeds weight (r = -0.346), the first pod insertion height and number of pods per plant (r = -0.530), and the number of grains per plant (r = -0.412). The results obtained in this study suggest that, the new field pea genotypes are suitable for spreading and cultivating in Southern Romania.

Effect of green manure cover crops on tomato greenhouse production

I. Tringovska, V. Yankova, D. Markova

Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 22 August 2016; accepted for publication 27 September 2016)

Abstract. Cover crops are an important component in sustainable vegetable production with main purpose to reduce the use of synthetic inputs, especially nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops as hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) on (i) greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality and (ii) root-knot nematodes infestation. The experiment was carried out during two consecutive years (2014 – 2015) in an unheated greenhouse at Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute. Cover crops were grown before the main crop and plowed under and incorporated into the soil a week before transplanting the tomato plants. Control plots did not receive green manures. Two variants of fertigation were applied – optimal and 50% reduced amount of nitrogen fertilizer. Green manures did not change significantly the yield of tomato plants as well as did not influence on fruit quality parameters as brix, total sugars and titrable acidity. A slight negative effect was observed on Vitamin C content in tomato fruits. By green manuring with hairy vetch a reduction of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer used for fertigation could be achieved. Hairy vetch and white mustard as green manures suppressed to some extent the development of Meloidogyne spp.

Production properties of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivated in Strumica region, Republic of Macedonia

P. Vuckov*, M. Ilievski, D. Spasova, L. Mihajlov, N. Markova-Ruzdić

Department for Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University Goce Delchev, 2400 Stip, Republic of Macedonia (Manuscript received 30 May 2016; accepted for publication 16 September 2016)

Abstract. The purpose of this research was to determine the production properties of 5 flax genotypes cultivated in agro-ecological conditions in the Strumica region, Republic of Macedonia.The research was conducted in a period of two years (2014 and 2015), on the research fields in Strumica at Uni Service – Agro, Faculty of Agriculture, University Goce Delchev, Stip.The research was conducted on 5 genotypes of flax, 4 of which are domestic intermediate genotypes (transitive) flax (Velusina, Duferin, Belan, Belinka) and one French introduced fiber flax variety (Viking). The experiment consisted of five variants in three iterations, divided by the method of random block system for each genotype.The number of fruit per plant in both years of testing is statistically different among different genotypes. In the first year of the examination (2014), the largest number of fruit per plant had genotype Velusina (156) and the lowest (70.3) genotype Belan. In the second year of the examination (2015), the largest number of fruit per plant had the genotype Velusina (102.3) and the lowest (54.7), genotype Belinka.There is no statistically significant difference in number of seeds in the fruit among the tested genotypes. In the first year of the examination (2014), the largest number of seeds in fruit had genotype Velusina (4.63) and the lowest (2.26) – genotype Viking. In the second year of the examination (2015), the largest number of seeds in fruit had genotype Belan (9.96) and the lowest (7.06) – genotype Duferin. In the first year of the examination (2014), the largest number of seed yield per plant in kg/ha had the genotype Viking (500 kg/ha) and the lowest – genotype Belinka (210 kg/ha). In the second year of the examination (2015), the largest number of seed yield per plant in kg/ha had genotype Velusina (1100 kg/ha) and the lowest – genotype Belinka (780 kg/ha). In both years of research (2014 and 2015) there were statistically significant differences on the level of probability of 0.05 and 0.01 among the examined genotypes. Based on the survey results the most promising genotypes in terms of stability, yielding and quality are proposed to producers and industry, both at home and abroad.