Variation and stability of the advanced bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under various environment conditions in Trakia region

İ. Öztürk1*, T. Kahraman1, R. Avcı1, A. Şen2, T.H. Kılıç1

1Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey

(Manuscript received 10 October 2018; accepted for publication 24 January 2019)

Abstract. Various environmental conditions can cause some biotic and abiotic stress factors and reduce yield and quality of wheat. This research was carried out to determine the effect of the environmental conditions on yield, some agronomic, and leaf rust disease of the bread wheat genotypes in four different locations in Trakia region, Turkey. The experiment was established with 25 genotypes in randomised complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications in 2008-2009 cycles. Grain yield, days to heading and maturity, plant height, lodging resistance, leaf rust and relationship among characters were investigated. The temperature and rainfall were scored at GS24-33, GS34-43, GS45-75 and GS77-89 growth stages and compared with the investigated traits. According to the results, significant differences among locations and some investigated parameters were found based on rainfall and temperature with yield and other investigated traits. The mean yield of the genotypes was 5851 kg ha-1, and CMSW97WM518S-12 had the highest yield with 6601 kg ha-1. Tekirdağ was the highest yielding location with 7022 kg ha-1, followed by Edirne (5808 kg ha-1) and Kırklareli (5754 kg ha-1). Due to various environment conditions infection of the leaf rust varied and there were differences among locations. Cultivar Aldane and three lines were resistant to leaf rust. Positive relation between yield with plant height and lodging resistance was found and this means that genotypes which have tall plant had higher yield potential. Rainfall at GS24-33 (r= 0.855) and GS34-43 (r= 0.911*) had a significant and positive effect on grain yield. Increase of temperature during the shooting, heading and grain filling period decreased grain yield, so negative association between grain yield and temperature at GS34-43 (r= -0.761), GS45-75 (r= -0.635) and GS77-89 (r= -0.815) was found. The overall evaluation suggested that increase of temperature from shooting up to grain filling decreased the grain yield duration of the maturating stage. Rainfall during the vegetative growth phase increased grain yield and biomass of plant of genotypes.