Effect of Аrtemisia annua L. extract on growth performance, biochemical blood parameters and meat quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), cultivated in recirculating system

  1. Koshinski*


Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.051

(Manuscript received 30 June 2018; accepted for publication 20 August 2018)


Abstract. Medicinal herbs can be used as feed additives to improve animal growth performance and to optimize physiological processes. The purpose of this study was to trace growth performance, meat quality and biochemical blood parameters (glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, ASAT, ALAT, Ca, P, Mg, triglycerides, cholesterol) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), fed with additive sweet wormwood (Аrtemisia annua L.) extract. In a recirculation system at the Aquaculture Base of the Faculty of Agriculture at Trakia University, a control group (no added) and an experimental (with added 204 mg.kg-1 of sweet wormwood extract) option were set, each of them with two replicates and mean initial weight of fish 13.32±3.07g and 13.37±2.76g, respectively. Forty specimens of rainbow trouts in good health condition were placed in each tank and cultivated for 60 days. At the end of the experiment average final weight, specific growth rates, feed conversion ratio, meat quality and blood biochemical parameters were calculated. Trouts from the experimental group, fed with supplement had 5.5% higher average final weight compared to this one of individuals from the control (P<0.05). The blood biochemical parameters glucose, ASAT and ALAT in control variant were higher compared to the values of that parameters of the fish from the experimental group (P>0.05). Electrolytes of blood such as phosphorus (P) had higher level in the experimental group (P>0.05) compared to the control group. Better growth performance and blood parameters were measured in trout fed sweet wormwood supplement.

Ontogenetic and diurnal variations of essential oil content of Hypericum montbretii Spach, cultivated in Kazdağı (Edremit/Balıkesir), Turkey

  1. Paşa1, E. Esendal2, T. Kiliç3


1Department of Plant and Animal Production, Altinoluk Vocational School, Balikesir University, Medicinal and Aromatical Plants Programme, Altinoluk, Edremit, Balikesir, Turkey

2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdağ, Turkey

3Faculty of Necatibey Education, Balikesir University, Balikesir, Turkey


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.050

(Manuscript received 16 April 2018; accepted for publication 8 July 2018)


Abstract. This research was carried out to determine the Hypericum montbretii Spach types essential oil content and composition, and its diurnal variations (9.00 am, 12.00 am and 16.00 pm) during the growing season of 2012. The plant was cultivated in the area of Mount Ida (Balikesir-Edremit), Turkey. The oil composition was determined with GC-MS. During the plant developmental stages the highest quantity of essential oil content (0.30-0.39%) was found at the full plant flowering stage and the lowest one at fresh fruiting stage (0.03-0.04%). Diurnal fluctuation in essential oils of whole plant was also observed – higher were the levels at noon (12.00 am) – 0.04-0.39% compared to the morning (9.00 am) and in the afternoon (16.00 pm). The oils consisted mainly of: at the vegetative stage – germacrene-D (6.9-11.7 %), gamma-Gurjunene (6.1-11.6%), 2-methyl octane (3.8-4.9%), δ-cadinol (2.7-4.8%) and phytol (2.9-4.5%); at the flowering stage – α-pinene (26.4-28.0%), undecane (14.1-16.0%), β-pinene (12.8-14.3%), delta-cadinene (6.8-8.0%) and caryophyllene (4.9-6.0%); at the fresh fruiting stage – amorphene (6.8-8.2%), β- caryophyllene (4.1-5.3%), delta-cadinene (5.0-5.5%) and α-cadinene (4.3-6.1%).


Agricultural characteristics of sugar factory waste products

B.B. Aşık, S. Dorak


Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.049

(Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 16 August 2018)


Abstract. In this study, physical and chemical properties of sugar factory waste (sugar beet seed wastes) were determined. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, EC, organic matter, C:N ratio, total concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn, and the content of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn. The EC values of waste material were 8.96-10.25 dS/m. pH values varied from 4.96 to 7.30. Organic matter content changed between 86.54 and 89.02%. C:N ratio changed from 18.68 to 24.49. Total N content varied from 2.10 to 2.70%. Waste material contains different quantities of plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, etc.). The physicochemical characterization is important when planning the use and management of organic waste. Heavy metal concentrations of seed waste were below the regulatory limits of Turkey and the European Union. Finally, the compost from sugar factory waste products is of good quality and suitable for use as fertilizer in agriculture.


Theoretical analysis of the heat energy savings in wood pellets production

  1. R. Georgiev, K. Peychev, V. Dimova, Georgiev


Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.048

(Manuscript received 4 June 2018; accepted for publication 6 August 2018)


Abstract. The report includes a theoretical analysis of the heat energy savings in the drying of wood biomass with desiccant fumes. With the current technological schemes for drying wood pellets most heat is lost with the exhaust fumes.To use the heat of exhaust fumes it is propose to utilize these by a heat exchanger recuperator type, which transfers part of the heat of the exhaust gas to the fresh air entering the dryer installation. Thus, about 25% of the heat for drying biomass can be saved. The report examines the relationship between outdoor temperature and condensation of moisture from the exhaust gases on the relative share of energy saved using a heat exchanger.

Differences in carbon forms under two land use types in Abia State, South-east Nigeria

B.N. Ndukwu1, D.N. Osujieke2, C.M. Ahukaemere1, P.E. Imadojemu2


1Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

2Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020 Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.047

(Manuscript received 21 May 2018; accepted for publication 29 July 2018)


Abstract. The storage of carbon in the soil helps to sustain the ecosystem of our environment. However, this study was to determine the differences in carbon forms (total carbon, organic carbon and inorganic carbon) under selected forest and pasture land use types in Abia State, Nigeria. Two profile pits were sung on each of the land use types using free survey technique. The profile pits were sampled based on horizon differentiation for routine and special laboratory analyses. The data obtained were statistically analyzed for coefficient of variation and correlation. Total carbon had mean of 2.07% and 2.12% for profiles 1 and 2 under pasture land use and 2.46% and 2.45% for profiles 3 and 4 under forested land use. Organic carbon as indicated by the mean was higher in forest land (profile 3=1.85%, profile 4=2.09%) than in pasture land (profile 1=1.37%, profile 2=1.40%) while inorganic carbon was higher in pasture land (profile 1=0.70%, profile 2=0.72%) over forest land (profile 3= 0.39 %, profile 4= 0.36 %). Organic carbon had high variation (≥45.97% ≤ 49.38%) in profiles of the pastured land use while it had low – moderate variation (≥12.55% ≤ 27.03%) in profiles of forested land use. Also, inorganic carbon recorded moderate variation (≥16.12% ≤ 25.95%) in profiles of pasture and forest land use types. The forest land use type was determined to contain more forms of carbon when compared with the pasture land use type.

Application of herbicides on common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different doses and their reflection on the structural elements of spike

  1. Z. Petrova, Nankova


Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.046

(Manuscript received 13 June 2018; accepted for publication 25 July 2018)


Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of the application dose of herbicides on structural elements of spike in common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The investigations were carried out during 2015–2017 at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI) – town of General Toshevo. The following herbicides were used: Derby super WG (33 g/ha; 66 g/ha; 132 g/ha), Secator ОD (100 mL/ha; 200 mL/ha; 400 mL/ha), Ergon WG (50 g/ha; 100 g/ha; 200 g/ha), Granstar super 50SG (40 g/ha; 80 g/ha; 160 g/ha), Lintur 70WG (150 g/ha; 300 g/ha; 600 g/ha) and Mustang 306.25 СК (800 mL/ha; 1600 mL/ha; 3200 mL/ha) from the group of sulfunylureas with various mechanism of action. The preparations were applied at three doses – optimal, double and quadruple, at stage 29 of common winter wheat cultivar Dragana, Zlatitsa and Kalina. The herbicide effect was determined by the quantitative weight method and evaluated by the EWRS scale. These were the traced structural elements of the wheat spike: length of spike (cm), number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, weight of grain per spike (g) and weight of 1000 grains (g). Four-factor dispersion analysis was applied. The factors year conditions, cultivar, herbicide and dose were traced. The factors with the highest strength of effect were the year conditions (10-95%) and the used cultivar (2-87%). Significantly lower was the effect of the factors applied herbicide (2-4%) and dose (1-2%) on the investigated structural elements of spike.


Soil structure after treatment with different operation modes of spading machine

  1. Stoyanov1, K. Trendafilov2, N. Delchev1, G. Tihanov1


1Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria,

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technics and Technologies – Yambol, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.045

(Manuscript received 13 June 2018; accepted for publication 24 August 2018)


Abstract. The article presents the results of a field survey of the work of a spading machine. The influence of the following factors has been investigated: operating speed, deflector cover deflection angle and rotation speed of the power take-off shaft of the tractor on soil crushing. The relative share of aggregates smaller than 1 mm, from 1 to 10 mm, from 10 to 25 mm, from 25 to 50 mm, from 50 to 100 mm and over 100 mm has been determined. Regression relations have been created to determine the proportion of soil fractions of certain sizes depending on the controllable factors. The operating speed and the position of the machine cover have the greatest influence on the granulometric composition of the soil in cultivation with a spading machine. The resulting regression relations can be used to determine the operating parameters of the machine to achieve the desired granulometric composition of the soil depending on the purpose of the cultivation.


The effects of inoculation and N fertilization on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed yield and protein concentration under drought stress

  1. Basal, A. Szabó


Institute of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental management, Böszörményi út 138, Debrecen, Hungary


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.044

(Manuscript received 7 June 2018; accepted for publication 8 August 2018)


Abstract. An experiment was conducted during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of inoculation and N fertilization on the seed yield and protein concentration of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivar (Boglár) under three irrigation regimes: severe drought (SD), moderate drought (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Three N fertilizer rates were applied: no N (0N), 35 kg/ha (35N) and 105 kg/ha of N fertilizer (105N). Half of the seeds in each treatment were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant. The results showed significant differences in the seed yield associated with both inoculation and irrigation, whereas there were no significant differences in the seed yield associated with fertilization. When seeds were inoculated, yield was increased when (35N) was applied compared to (0N); however, high rate (105N) reduced the yield to a level even less than (0N). When seeds were not inoculated, the highest rate of N increased the yield the most compared to the other two N fertilizer rates under drought. Under severe drought, inoculation was positively and significantly correlated with yield; however, adding N fertilizer increased the yield of non-inoculated plants compared to the inoculated ones, regardless of N-fertilizer rate. Protein concentration in the seeds was significantly affected by irrigation and by fertilization, but not by inoculation. Protein concentration increased as N fertilization rate increased, regardless of inoculation or irrigation; moreover, increasing N rate reduced the correlation coefficient of protein concentration with irrigation. It was concluded that adding N-fertilizer is not always recommended, especially when seeds are inoculated before being sown; however, it is very important under severe drought stress to sustain yield. Enhanced protein concentrations could be achieved by applying N fertilization, whether the seeds were pre-inoculated or not.


Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides. I. Influence at treatment during 1-st stem node stage

Gr. Delchev, D. Delchev


Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.043

(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 20 July 2018)


Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Victoria (Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were investigated: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 1-st stem node stage of durum wheat. During 1-st stem node stage of durum wheat the antibroadleaved herbicides Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Mustang, Weedmaster, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra, Eagle, Starane, Sanafen, Dicotex and Herby can be used. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable are herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 1-st stem node stage technologically the most valuable are herbicide Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. They combine high grain yield with high stability in relation to different years. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran and Herbaflex cannot be used during 1-st stem node stage of durum wheat.


Yield and seed quality of some soybean (Glycine max. L) varieties, cultivated in Osmaniye region, Turkey

F.F. Aşik, R. Yildiz


Oil Seeds Research Institute, 80950 Osmaniye, Turkey


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.042

(Manuscript received 21 May 2018; accepted for publication 2 August 2018)


Abstract. This study was carried out to determine yield and seed quality of 14 soybean varieties (Blaze, Ataem-7, Bravo, İlksoy, Çetinbey, Nova, Atakişi, Cinsoy, Adasoy, Umut-2002, Türksoy, Arısoy, HA.16-21 and SA-88), conducted with 3 replicates, according to the Randomized Block Experimental Design in the Osmaniye region, Turkey during 2016 growing season. Plant height, seed number per pod, first pod height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per node, number of pods per plant, harvest index, protein content, oil content, hundred seed weight, seed yield and fatty acid composition were the parameters examined. It was found that the controlled parameters values at different soybean varieties ranged as follows: plant height – between 69.47cm (Blaze) and 101.83cm (HA.16-21); number of seeds per pod – between 1.82 units/pod (Adasoy) and 2.21 units/pod (Blaze); first pod height – between 13.10cm (Blaze) and 22.53 cm (Umut-2002); number of branches per plant – between 1.07 units/plant (HA.16-21) and 3.00 units/plant (Nova); number of pods per node – between 2.43 units/node (Umut-2002) and 4.81 units/node (Adasoy); number of pods per plant – between 27.40 units/plant (Umut-2002) and 47.73 units/plant (Adasoy); Harvest Index values – between 43.99% (HA.16-21) and 54.72% (Ataem) – 55.42% (Blaze); protein content – between 36.09% (Nova) and 39.17% (Çetinbey); oil content – between 15.71% (Blaze) and 19.73% (Türksoy) – 19.82% (Arısoy); 100 seed weight – between 12.54g (Arısoy) and 19.18g (Çetinbey); seed yield – between 2470.41 kg/ha (Arısoy) and 3280.03 kg/ha (Adasoy); acid composition values: palmitic acid – from 9.97% (Türksoy) to 11.47% (Çetinbey); stearic acid – from 3.82% (Ataem-7) to 4.38% (Türksoy); oleic acid – from 22.39% (Bravo) to 28.14% (Çetinbey); linoleic acid – from 47.30% (Çetinbey) to 53.26%  (Ataem-7) and linolenic acid – from 5.49% (Türksoy) to 6.88% (Bravo). The soybean varieties tested showed different advantages over the individual parameters: in terms of seed yield – Adasoy (3280.03 kg/ha) and Atakişi (3260.60 kg/ha) varieties; in terms of protein content – Çetinbey (39.17%) followed by SA-88 (38.55%) genotype; in terms of oil content – Türksoy variety (19.82%) followed by Arisoy (19.73%) variety; in terms of fatty acid composition the results are very diverse.