Heat-induced Changes in Organic Compounds Characteristics and Properties of Sandy Soils

Ground surface heating, (e.g. forest fire) often leads to an increase or above a critical threshold, elimination of water repellency (hydrophobicity) in soils. Here we report on the characterisation of the chemical changes of organic compounds associated with heat-induced increases and elimination of water repellency. A eucalypt forest soil of sandy texture was heated in the laboratory at temperatures between 320°C – 330°C. Laboratory heating in this temperature range resulted in elimination of repellency, with the exception of one replicate, in which repellency increased. Soil organic compounds were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with an isopropanol/ammonia mixture. Organic compounds were measured in solvent/solvent mixtures of increasing polarity in order to solubilise the residue. Before heat treatments, the total lipid extracts were dominated by alkanols, palmitic acid, C alkane, β-sitosterol and 29 polar compounds. A profound change in lipid patterns occurred in the extracts following heating irrespective of whether or not water repellency was destroyed. Heat-induced changes resulted in: a) the loss of main lipid signatures and b) a high abundance of benzene carboxylic acids, as well as levoglucosan, simple sugars and glycosides, compared to the unburned soil. Our data demonstrate that many of the compounds detected in the originally unheated, water repellent soil were lost after heating in the temperature range 320 – 330 °C. We suspect that the increased water repellency in one of the heated samples is associated with compounds of different chemical structure and properties, and that saccharides and aromatic acids can play a role in  repellency expression in soils afterheating.

Heat-induced Changes in Organic Compounds Characteristics and Properties of Sandy Soils

I. Atanassova, S. Doerr

Probiotic Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Feces of Breast-Fed infant

Six strains lactobacilli – L. reuteri (3), L. plantarum (2) and L. brevis (1), and five strains enterococci – E. faecalis (3) and E. faecium (2) were tested for their inhibitory activity against some enteropathogenic bacteria and their tolerance to unfavorable conditions of life in the upper alimentary tract. Two tested strains of lactobacilli and three strains of enterococci repressed most strongly the growth of enteropathogenes. All three strains of L. reuteri showed high percentage of survival after treatment with gastric juice and bile (from 66.45% to 88.66%). The strain of L. plantarum 113-3 survived 62.15% and all tested enterococci – over 75%. All tested strains of lactobacilli and enterococci except L. brevis 129-3 (25.41% surviving) could successfully pass through the stomach and duodenum and reach the small intestine and colon. They contribute the balance of intestinal microflora.

Probiotic Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Feces of Breast-Fed infant

S. Boycheva

Tolerance of lucerne varieties to Apion seniculus Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

During the 2007-2009 period in IFC, Pleven (Bulgaria) a field trial was carried out with the purpose of studying the tolerance of 8 lucerne varieties to attack by Apion seniculus Kirby. It was found that the attack of weevil was the strongest at primary growth. The damaged plants varied from 21.1 to 45.8%. Attacked plants were the most in the second and third year of cultivation of alfalfa (34.1-48.4%). Apion seniculus attacked the least varieties Europe and Multifoliate lucerne. The degree of the damaged stems were respectively 9.10 and 8.16%. These varieties occupied the first two plases in the list of varieties ranging. The most sensitive were Prista 3 (20.03%), Obnova 10 (18.21%) and Pleven 6 (18.24%). The parameters that had the most influence on the degree of the damaged stems by larvae of Apion seniculus were: the rate of regrowth in the spring, respectively the height of stems (r = +0.830) and number of stems of a plant (r = – 0.703). With a good tolerance to tracked parameters were Europe and Multifoliate lucerne, which determined their phenological and morphological tolerance.

Tolerance of lucerne varieties to Apion seniculus Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

I. Nikolova, N. Georgieva

Using Microwave mineralization in order to determine heavy metal concentration in samples of herbs used for pharmaceutical purposes

The purpose of the recent study was to determine the heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni) content in samples of medicinal plants collected from Batak Municipality by the application of microwave system Mileston 1200 MEGA for sample preparation. ICP – OES was used for the quantity determination of the heavy metals. Certified Virginia Tobacco CTA-VTL-2 material was applied to test the analyses accuracy. The analytical results obtained displayed that the concentrations of the metals determined were below the permissible levels regulated by the World Health Organization. It was established that due to the considerably reduced acid consumption and analyses time, microwave mineralization could be accepted as the most economically profitable sample preparation method.

Using Microwave mineralization in order to determine heavy metal concentration in samples of herbs used for pharmaceutical purposes

L. Dospatliev

Anthropogenically disturbed Soils and Methods for thier Reclamation

The present article summarizes the problematic issues, scientific quests and achievements related with lands reclamation during the past 40 (forty) years. The anthropogenic activities that alter natural landscapes and form a new anthropogenic relief are indicated here, as well as the consequences of those activities on the environment and the measures that apply to its recovery. We have outlined the classic and new leading technologies for reclamation of damaged areas. The characteristics of some specific objects for reclamation and the difficulties in their recovery are also described. We have reflected the advantages of interdisciplinary studies on damaged ecosystems and have presented the methods for their field and laboratory analyses and subsequent monitoring. Classifications and methodologies for agro-environmental assessment of the suitability of the various geological materials for reclamation are specified. We have also included a taxonomic list of some of thoroughly studied reclaimed lands in Bulgaria according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB, 2007).

Anthropogenically disturbed Soils and Methods for thier Reclamation

M. Banov, V. Tsolova, P. Ivanov, M. Hristova

Influence of some stimulators on the grain economic and sowing-seeds properties of two durum wheat cultivars

A two-factor experiment was carried out on pellic vertisol soil type in 2007-2009 on the experimental field of the Cotton and Durum Wheat Research Institute, Chirpan, Bulgaria. Factor A included 2 Bulgarian durum wheat cultivars – Vuzhod and Saturn, which belong to var. valenciae. Factor B included 6 rates – non-treated control and 3 stimulators: Tritimil – 300 ml/ha, Napsil – 300 and 500 ml/ha, Cemofol – 500 and 700 ml/ha. All stimulators were treated in the tillering stage of the durum wheat. Stimulators Tritimil, Napsil and Cemofol decreased less the 1-st and 2-nd overgrown internode length of cultivar Saturn compared with cultivar Vuzhod. Napsil and Cemofol increased grain yield by 9.0 % and 10.9 % in cultivar Vuzhod and by 10.3 % in cultivar Saturn. Both stimulators have equal or increased effectiveness compared with the standard Tritimil. The studied stimulators increased the vitreousness, protein content, wet and dry gluten contents. Stimulators Tritimil, Napsil and Cemofol increased germination energy and seed germination and decreased the waste grain quantity.

Influence of some stimulators on the grain economic and sowing-seeds properties of two durum wheat cultivars

G. Delchev, D. Nenkova, D. Stoychev

Quantitative changes in major components of lavender oil during the distillation process

In 2009 in IREMK lavender variety Seuthopolis was distilled under laboratory conditions and the variation of the basic oil components was traced during distillation. Gas chromatography analysis was performed of the individual oils and organoleptic assesment was made with the aim to use the oil in cosmetics and perfumery. It was established that linalylacetate increased for 15 minutes, then began to decline, hydrocarbons and 3-okatanon distilled in great quantity in the first 5 min and gradually reduced within one hour, terpineol-4 evenly distilled during the process as differences in the content of various fractions are not more than 10%. In relation to flavour the most suitable oils are separated within 30 min of the process.

Quantitative changes in major components of lavender oil during the distillation process

G. Zhekova, N. Nedkov

Effect from the addition of VemoZim F(phytase) on diets with decreased content of phosphorus on the microstructure of tibia in chickens broilers

The subject of the study was to investigate the effect of the addition of different doses of the new Bulgarian enzyme preparation – VemoZim F (activity 5000 FТU/g) to wheat-corn-soyabean meal diets, with 30% decreased content of available phosphorus on the microstructure of tibia in broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 180 one-day-old male chick broilers (Ross 308), up to the age 38 days, bred in battery cages, distributed in 5 groups, with 36 numbers in each one, equalized by body weight. The chicks from the control group obtained balanced diet, according to the requirements of the used hybrid, and these from the experimental groups, with 30% deficit of phosphorus diets (0,35, 0,32 and 0,30% in the starter, grower and finisher, respectively). The compound feed of II nd group of chicks was without addition of VemoZim F, compared to ІІІ rd, ІV th and V th experimental groups, in whose diets, 150 g/t of VemoZim F was added correspondingly (recommended dose, providing 750 FТU/kg feed), 1500g/t of the investigated additive (10 times higher dose of phytase) and in the chicks from V th group 100 times more phytase than the recommended dose via the addition of 1500 g/t concentrate of phytase in VemoZim. The results of the histological analysis of tibial bone epiphysis showed, that in chickens that received 30% reduced content of available phosphorus without addition of VemoZimF, diversions in the ossification processes were observed, characteristic of phosphorus deficiency compared to the control. Remarkable differences in the chicken tibial microstructure from the control group and those that obtained 150 g/t VemoZimF (recommended dose, providing 750 FTU/kg feed) weren’t found. The increased level of phytase 10 and 100 times (respectively, 7 500 and 75 000 FТU/kg feed) in the chicken diet compared to the experimental group led to different degree of structure alterations, with identical kind and localization in the epiphyseal cartilage of the tibial bones.

Effect from the addition of VemoZim F(phytase) on diets with decreased content of phosphorus on the microstructure of tibia in chickens broilers

V. Georgieva, D. Yovchev, A. Atanasov

Ethological evaluation of a building for free housing of dairy cows. II. Behavioral activities in the winter

The aim of the research was through a study of four areas of satisfaction of the biological requirements of animals to make ethological evaluation of abuilding for free-range dairy cows: freedom of locomotion, social contacts, conditions for having a rest and available symptoms of discomfort. Data from the study conducted during the winter, showed that at ambient temperatures less than -5 °C, the basic behavioural activities, characterizing the status of comfort were within the norm. The cows used mostly yard (iFA=0,79038), less – boxes (iFA=0,16412) and the least – paths (iFA=0,04550). A seasonal effect is found of using the boxes for rest and rumination and reducing the time for these activities in the yard. Be confirmed in previous studies identified two behavioral phenomenon – a very early start of ruminating – immediately after eating, and increased rumination in standing position, not only on the yard but also on the paths and the entrance of the milking parlour immediately before the start of milking. Using a 4-grade scale for evaluation, based on 4 spheres of biological requirement satisfaction, it is concluded that housing conditions applied in the family dairy farm “Land O’Lake” in the town of Nova Zagora, has achieved a high degree (good grade) of biological requirements satisfaction, due to: provided possibilities for loose movement and free choice of all behavioural activitiesleading to over 82% efficiency in use of the areas of the building; solid hierarchy is built in the groups which results in lack of conflicts; provided time and place for
rest and ruminating; lack of any symptoms of discomfort.

Ethological evaluation of a building for free housing of dairy cows. II. Behavioral activities in the winter

І. Varlyakov, T. Slavov, N. Grigorova

Effect of age upon the reproductive performance of Japanese quails

The present study was carried out to monitor the reproductive traits of Japanese quail breeds reared in Bulgaria. The quail breeds kept at the Poultry Breeding Section at Trakia University: Pharaoh and Manchurian Golden, were used. Breeder flocks consisted of 8 female and 3 male birds. The eggs from each
breed were collected for three consecutive days in the middle of every production month. The incubation was performed under standard conditions in a smallscale
industrial incubator (Victoria-560). For the entire experimental period, 3902 Pharaoh and 3617 Manchurian Golden quail eggs were incubated. The
average percentage of hatched vital quails during the 7-month experimental period was 75.70% in the Pharaoh and 75.97% in the Manchurian Golden breed.
The incubation waste in both breeds consisted mainly of infertile eggs and late embryonic deaths – 18.66% and 18.52% of incubated Pharaoh and Manchurian
Golden eggs, respectively. During the first production month, the hatchability of incubated eggs was statistically significantly lower (P<0.001 in Pharaoh and
P<0.01 in Manchurian Golden quails) mostly due to the late embryonic deaths.

Effect of age upon the reproductive performance of Japanese quails

А. Genchev