Comparative studies on the fatty acid composition of White brined cheese, marketed in the town of Stara Zagora

The study was carried out in March-April 2009. Ten cheese samples representing different cheese batches were sampled to compositional and fatty acid profile analysis. The palm oil and four white-brined cheeses (2 representing palm oil cheese batches and 2 – free of palm oil cheese batches) were purchased from a commercial manufacturer. Other six cheeses were purchased from the market where they were offered as “free of vegetable oil”. An extremely high level of saturated (73.55÷75.78%) fatty acids is established for 3 cheese batches due mainly to the higher amount of lauric (34.86÷36.97%), or palmitic acid (30.24÷34.00%). The high levels of the hypercholesterolemic fatty acids of the dairy factory palm oil cheeses and four market batches in combination with the very low or very high n-6/n-3 fatty ratios in these products pose a risk to consumer health. Only one of the all six market cheeses offered as “free of vegetable oil” dairy products does not cause suspicion of added vegetable fat or unfair sale to the customers.

Comparative studies on the fatty acid composition of White brined cheese, marketed in the town of Stara Zagora

N. Naydenova, K. Davidova, T. Iliev, G. Mihaylova

Gas-chromatography and organoleptic analysis of the essential oil of Agastache foeniculum

Through distillation in a Clevenger apparatus, IRAP has obtained essential oils of Agastache foeniculum leaves and blossoms. The gaschromatography and organoleptic analysis have identified three types of oil: anethole, sweet menthol, and menthol. The anethole oil has the least number of components and contains around 90% of methylhavicol, its aroma being typically anethole with some additional spicy notes. The other two types of oils have similar structures of the main components, with emerging menthofuran, pulegon, and increasing limonene. The main differences of the sweet menthol and the menthol are in the ratio of their components. With the menthol the smell is sharper and fresh, with green, grassy notes, whereas with the sweet menthol it is warmer, and flavoured with additional notes.

Gas-chromatography and organoleptic analysis of the essential oil of Agastache foeniculum

G. Zhekova, A. Dzhurmanski, A. Dobreva

An approach for Fusarium diseased corn kernels recognition using linear discrete models

A new approach to identify infected with pink Fusarium maize seeds through the spectral features in the near infrared region is proposed in the paper. It is based on analysis of coefficients of linear parametric models of discrete type Autoregresion (AR). Seeds identification criterion is based on the boundary of А between the class healthy and class infected seeds. The maximum distance between the two classes – ΔA for the 10th order of AR-model is used to LV determine the boudary. The recognition accuracy achieved 100% for a variety XM87/136 and for varieties 26a, Knezha 436 and Rouse 424 the accuracy range was from 97.50 to 98.75%.

An approach for Fusarium diseased corn kernels recognition using linear discrete models

P. Daskalov, V. Mancheva, T. Draganova, R. Tsonev

Microbial communities in areas affected by formation of calcrete in thracian plane

The number of 13 physiological groups of microorganisms is counted in depth of two types of alkaline soils affected by formation of calcrete. The first soil type is characterized by the presence of calcrete nodules occupying the surface layer of soil profile from 5 to 38 cm, and the second soil type – of isometric calcrete nodules, settled in depth below 30-35 cm. During the spring and autumn, when the samples were collected, it was determined that in soil, which is more affected by formation of calcrete, the number of various heterotrophic aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi is 1 to 3 orders lower than in less affected soil. A similar effect was observed on the amount of nitrifying bacteria. Other factors that influenced the microbial community structure and number were also the various values of pH, fractions of organic carbon and total nitrogen

Microbial communities in areas affected by formation of calcrete in thracian plane

S. Bratkova, K. Nikolova, K. Gesheva

Mechanism-based category formation of aldehydes for acute aquatic toxicity and mutagenicity

Aldehydes are soft electrophiles which are able to interact with proteins, enzymes and DNA through various mechanisms. They are able to stimulate a range of environmental toxicity and adverse health effects. Chemical category formation and the use of read-across to fill data gaps are seen as crucial methods for risk assessment of industrial chemicals under the REACH legislation. Such methods are especially important if the goal of reducing the number of experimental animals used in toxicological testing is going to be met. One of the crucial steps in the development of a chemical category is the definition of the applicability domain of the category in terms of the types of chemicals that should be included in the category. It has been suggested that the use of reactive mechanistic domains can aid in this process for several endpoints including mutagenicity and acute aquatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to classify chemicals into several reactive categories for mutagenicity and acute aquatic toxicity. In addition, mechanistic categories for both endpoints have been compared. A discussion of the requirement for the mechanistic differences between the two endpoints has also been done.

Mechanism-based category formation of aldehydes for acute aquatic toxicity and mutagenicity

Y. Koleva

Potassium fertilization on cotton

Research studies on cotton potassium fertilization in the last years at the Cotton and Durum Wheat Research Institute – Chirpan, Bulgaria have been reviewed. The soil Eutric vertisols was well supplied with available potassium (31-43 mg/100 g soil). The effect of K application was not clearly established. At K the seed-cotton yield increased with 6.4 % compared to the unfertilized. K O use efficiency was 0.18-0.61 kg of seed-cotton. For 100 kg seed-cotton yield it 160 2 was necessary to apply 3.36-4.94 kg K O. Production of dry matter was 5.0 % higher at 160 kg K O/ha. The concentration in the seeds was considerably higher 2 2 (1.3-1.4 %) in comparison with the lint (0.5-0.98 %). The total annual potassium uptake was 55-115 kg/ha. The changes of quality indexes were not essential. The difference between KNO , KCL and NaKNO with respect to yield and quality was insignificant. The optimum balance was created at applied 70 kg K O/ha.

Potassium fertilization on cotton

G. Panayotova, N. Valkova

Effectiveness of the Insecticide “MIDO 20 SL” in the Fight with the Green Rose Aphids Populations /Macrosiphum Rosae L./

The study was carried out in the period 2008 – 2009 in the Institute of roses and aromatic plants – Kazanlak. The preparation was used against Macrosiphum rosae L. in a plantation with Rosa damascena Mill. at a dose of 500 ml/ha. Observations were made in the following continuity: preliminary treatment, on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day. The effectiveness of the insecticide “Mido 20 SL” was calculated according to the formula of Henderson and Tilton – in the range between 99.80 – 94.50 % for the period. “Mido 20 SL” is effective against Macrosiphum rosae L., but it has a toxic effect on useful insects in the plantation.

Effectiveness of the Insecticide “MIDO 20 SL” in the Fight with the Green Rose Aphids Populations /Macrosiphum Rosae L./

H. Lambev

Daily dynamics of the essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill. and Rosa alba L.

The dynamics of the essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill. and Rosa alba L. within a day period has been measured. It has been found that the two genotypes have the same rhythm in the release of volatile emissions. In the context of meteorological conditions the maximum of oil of the pink rose was reached at 8 o’clock (0.275 %), and that of the white rose – at 12 o’clock (0.216%). The quality and quantity changes in oil run parallel. The white rose has the potential to synthesize a high percentage of terpene alcohols – up to 43.97% (compared to 42.48% for the pink rose), but is more unstable in this potential.

Daily dynamics of the essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill. and Rosa alba L.

A. Dobreva, N. Kovacheva

Shelter Policies in the Management of Canine Aggression

Like many countries Bulgaria has faced serious problems concerning the stray dog population dynamics. Today, municipal authorities widely apply the catch-castrate-release method which allows for free roaming dogs to be caught, vaccinated, castrated, tagged and subsequently released. Some of these dogs are reported to having exhibited aggressive behaviour and performed attacks on people and conspecific animals, which along with the increased number of incidents of domestic dog bites, requires further investigation into the displays and management of canine aggression. The current research has focused on the analysis of good international practices, the study of national legislation and a case study of two municipal shelters in Stara Zagora and Kazanlak respectively and their policies in coping with aggressive behaviour. Overall, results indicate that despite certain underlying common trends, there are also basic differences regarding the measures undertaken by shelter staff. Problems such as shortage of personnel and the lack of qualified animal behaviour experts and a standardized behaviour evaluation test impede progress work and make canine aggression management a hard task to achieve.

Shelter Policies in the Management of Canine Aggression

A. Arnaudova, I. Varlyakov

Adaptive possibility and yield stability of varieties oil-bearing roses

Oil bearing roses are traditionally grown in regions like the famous “rose valley” in Bulgaria where the climate is known to be favorable for high rose flower and essential oil yield. However, environmental conditions could vary within the microregions of the rose valley as well as between years. In the current study four oil rose cultivars (cv. Yanina, cv. Elejna, cv. Iskra and cv. Svezhen) have been evaluated for the stability and adaptability of the yield of fresh flower and essential oil. The adaptive potential and response of the four cultivars to unfavorable environmental conditions are discussed. The study is a first step for implementing targeted distribution of oil rose planting material to different microregions of the “rose valley” and other rose growing regions.

Adaptive possibility and yield stability of varieties oil-bearing roses

N. Kovatcheva, K. Rusanov, I. Atanasov