Medicinal plants in Tended Nature Reserve „Atanasovsko ezero”

N. Grozeva, Tch. Miteva, N. Nedyalkova

Abstract. The diversity of medicinal plants in Tended Nature Reserve “Atanasovsko ezero” has been studied. A total of 102 species and 1 subspecies belonging to 82 genera have been established. The data is indicative of the relatively great diversity of medicinal plants in Tended Nature Reserve “Atanasovsko ezero”. Most of the medicinal plants belong to Magnoliophyta. The families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Chenopodiaceae are represented by the greatest number of species and genera. A large number of antropophyte, melliferous and toxic plants has been registered. Five protected species and one subspecies were found: Anethum graveolens L.; Artemisia lerchiana Weber; Eryngium maritimum L.; Еuphorbia peplis L.; Orchis laxiflora ssp. еlegans (Heuffel) Soó; Samolus valerandii L. The populations of all registered medicinal plants are in good condition, especially those of perennial ruderal and weed plants. Certain reduction in the number of populations has been registered for Dictamnus albus L., Iris pumila L. and I. pseudacorus L. At this stage it is not necessary to implement additional measures for protection of medicinal species on the studied territory.

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Correlation between soil characteristics and zinc content in the aboveground biomass of Virginia tobacco

L. Dospatliev

Abstract. The study was conducted on alluvial-meadow, maroon-forest soils and vertisols with Virginia tobacco. The total content of zinc is measured through decomposition by HF, HClO , and HNO acids. A solution of 0.005 M diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid + 0.1 M triethanolamine, pH 7.3 was used for extraction 4 3 of the elements’ mobile forms from soils. The preparation of plant samples was made by means of dry ashing and dissolution in 3 M HCl. An atomic absorption spectrometer “Spektra AA 220” of the Australian company Varian was used for determination of Zn content in the soil and plant samples. Certified reference materials (three soils and tobacco leaves) were also analyzed for the verification of the accuracy of Zn determination.A correlation/regression analysis was conducted between pH, humus content, total and mobile forms of zinc in the soil, and the concentration of these elements in the aboveground biomass of Virginia tobacco. It was established that there are no statistically significant dependencies determined between soil pH, humus content and zinc concentration in the plant organs of Virginia tobacco. Regressional dependencies of great significance were determined between the total and mobile zinc in the soil, and the element concentration in the leaves of the three harvesting zones.

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Estimation of several soil properties by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

M.Todorova, S. Atanassova, H. Longer, D. Pavlov

Abstract. There is a great demand for involving rapid, non destructive and less time consuming methods for quick control and prediction of soil quality, environmental monitoring, and other precision measurements in agriculture. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy(NIRS)is considered as an appropriate alternative method to conventional analytical methods for large scale measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibilities of NIRS for prediction of some chemical properties of soil samples. A total of 97 samples from Stara Zagora, Kazanlak and Gurkovo region taken from the 0-40 cm layer were collected. Soil types were Luvisols, Vertisols, Fluvisols and Rankers. The samples were analyzed for total phosphorus by spectrometric determination of phosphorus soluble in sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, total nitrogen by Kjeldahl method, pH (H O)-potentiometrically and electrical conductivity (EC). 2 The spectral data of all air dried samples were measured using an Perkin Elmer Spectrum One NTS, FT-NIR Spectrometer, within the range from 700 to 2500 nm. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to built models to determine soil chemical parameters from the NIR spectra. Two-third of the samples were used as a calibration set and the remaining samples as independent validation test set. The best model was obtained for total nitrogen with a coefficient of determination r=0,91, standard error of calibration SEP=336 mg/kg, and the ratio of the standard variation of the reference data to the SEP, indicating the performance of the calibration, of RPD=2,3. The accuracy of prediction was poor for electrical conductivity. The results obtained clearly indicated that NIRS had the potential to predict some soil components rapidly and without sample preparation.

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Study of milk composition in sheep of Pleven black head breed

D. Panayotov, T. Iliev, N. Naydenova, D. Pamukova, M. Simeonov

Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate somatic cell count and milk composition from Pleven Black head breed of sheep. A total of 96 ewes on first lactation were used belonging to the flock of the village of Komarevo, Pleven district. The studied animals – daughters of six rams from 2 lines, were fed year round in a barn (November-March) and pasture period (April-October). A total of 384 individual milk samples were taken at four selection controls. The milk composition – fat, protein, casei, lactose, solids-non-fat and dry matter was established by Milko-Skan 104 (A/S Foss Elektric, Denmark). The total number of the somatic cells was established by an Ekoscope SCC automated system (Bulteh 2000, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria). The results of this investigation showed that the studied animals had very good milk quality indices. The milk of line 522 animals had significantly higher dry matter, solids-non-fat, fat, protein, casein and lactose content in comparison to those of line 32. For all studied milk indicators the daughters of ram No.33 in line 32 showed the highest average values whereas those of ram No.321 belonging to the same line had the lowest. The average somatic cell count of the milk in the studied animals was very low – 66 254 cells/ml. Minimum variation was established in respect to average SCC values of the milk in both lines but very large between the individual rams.

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Identification of Mastitis Pathogens in Rabbit Milk by Near Infrared Spectroscopy and SIMCA Classification Method

S. Atanassova, D. Prakasam, S. Isloor, R.M.Vasu

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for determination of bacterial species, caused mastitis infection, based on NIR spectra of milk. Experimental mastitis was induced in 12 milking rabbits. The rabbits were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli bacteria, isolated from mastitis cows by injection of 0.5 ml of bacterial suspension with different concentration into the base of the teats. After the inoculation of bacterial strains into the teats, the infected rabbit milk was collected at different time intervals – 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. Spectra of diluted milk were collected using a USB4000 visible-near-infrared spectrometer (OceanOptics, USA) over the wavelength range 450–1100nm using transmission through 10mm quvette. The instrument was first set up with healthy milk as reference. Spectra of 37 milk samples from rabbits, contaminated with Escherichia coli, and 28 milk samples from rabbits, contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, were used in the investigation. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was implemented to create models for discrimination of milk according to bacterial infection. SIMCA models correct classified from 81.08 to 100% of milk samples from rabbits, infected with Escherichia coli, and from 89.28 to 100% of samples from rabbits, infected with Staphylococcus aureus, depending on used spectral region and spectral data transformation. Models, based on spectral region from 456 to 960 nm allowed 100% correct identified all samples. The information of SIMCA models was used for investigation of spectral information, related to presence and action of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in milk. The most important spectral region for detection of Escherichia coli infection was found to be 720 – 750nm, and for Staphylococcus aureus infection – from 920 to 960nm, respectively. The results demonstrated that near infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate chemometrics technique offers an alternative approach to traditional methods with large potentials for a rapid and reliable identification in microbiology and biodiagnostics.

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Investigation on stabilization of riboflavin in the presence of cyclodextrins

B. Zhekova, G. Dobrev

Abstract. The possibility for stabilization of riboflavin in solution in the presence of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins at different molar ratios of the compounds and different conditions was investigated. The three types of cyclodextrins had a stabilizing effect on riboflavin. The highest effect was established for γ- cyclodextrins. The residual concentration of riboflavin was retained up to 74-80 % for 90 h in the presence of γ-cyclodextrins. A positive influence of cyclodextrins on the stability of the vitamin was registered also at temperatures of 50 °С and 70 °С.

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Morphological and productive characteristics of Rhaponticum carthamoides Iljin

A. Dzhurmanski

Abstract. A three-year- old plantation of 200 pcs. of plants were analyzed and their biometric and economic characteristics were determined according to 19 indices. The observed population was highly heterozygous and it displayed important differences both in their basic biometric indicators (height, width, number and diameter of stems, number and size of leaves and inflorescences), and their economic indicators: yield roots, seeds and secondary autumn growth. Fresh root yield varied widely from 65 to 1185 g, 464 g per plant on average. In plants forming twice as heavy roots than the average there were the following characteristics – 82% of them formed a larger leaf lamina. The third year, 35% of the plants either didn’t form generative organs, or they were sterile. The seed yield of the third year was 9.08 kg/ha and it was 28% lower compared to the previous year; a significant degree of variation in the seed yield of a plant within 1.4 to 28.1 g indicated high heterozigosity of the population. In the standardization of seedlings, it was found that the biggest size group with root neck thickness of over 10 mm and forming several vegetative tips accounts for 26.8% of the seedlings. The three-year-old plants of this group gave an average of 540 g fresh roots from one plant, or 23% more than the next group. There were also 12 times more often high-yield plants with roots weighing over 900 g. The small size group of seedlings with root neck thickness of 5 mm should not be used to create plantations. In carrying out the selection in Rhaponticum carthamoides Iljin it is necessary to use only the biggest size seedling, to choose plants with large leaf lamina, and stem diameter of over 8 mm. as additional indicators.

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Theoretical determination of the width of strip for turning when ploughing with a traditional plough in a field with irregular shape

Ploughing with a traditional plough requires bed-like movement of the unit. The field is divided into beds (strips) and each of them is processed individually. Two ways of movements alternate. They are called “ridge” (moving in a clockwise direction) and “furrow” (moving in counter-clockwise direction). At the end of the field units do stretched turns in a strip called “strip for turning”. The width of this strip depends not only on the parameters of the unit but also on the shape of the field. In the article correlations have been produced for determining the width of strip for turning when ploughing with a traditional plough in a field with irregular shape and conditions in which the strip width is minimum have been determined.

Theoretical determination of the width of strip for turning when ploughing with a traditional plough in a field with irregular shape

K. Trendafilov

Influence of some growth regulators on energy efficiency of spring pea (Pisum sativum L) cultivated for fresh biomass

For establishing the effect of different growth regulators: Atonic – 0.6 L ha-1. Masterblend – 1.6 kg ha-1 and Confidor 70 VG – 0.15 kg.ha-1 applied alone and in combination in budding; budding + flowering and flowering on the productivity, composition, nutritive value and energy efficiency, field experiment with spring pea, cultivated for fresh biomass was conducted at Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven. Energy efficiency was calculated by balance method (energy input and output) by energy equivalents for all operations and energy value of the biomass calculated by composition and digestibility. Treatment of spring pea variety Pleven 4 with Atonic, Confidor and Masterblend had a positive effect and increased the yield of biomass and had no effect on chemical composition, nutritive and energy value of the biomass. Application of combination Confidor + Masterblend in budding + flowering stages leads to increasing the yield of dry matter with average 25,3 % and output of gross energy with 26,5 %. The coefficient of energy efficiency (conversion of gross energy) of spring pea cultivated for fresh biomass is average 10,7. Treatment of pea with combination Confidor + Masterblend increases the coefficient of energy efficiency of GE with 21 %.

Influence of some growth regulators on energy efficiency of spring pea (Pisum sativum L) cultivated for fresh biomass

N. Georgieva, I. Nikolova, D. Pavlov , T. Zhelyazkova, Y. Naydenova

Complement activity in Bulgarian local sheep related to season and breed

The studies were performed in 2008 on 308 sheep at the age of 2-4 years. Sheep from the following breeds were used: Karakachan, Tsigay, Replyan, Panagyurishte, Copper-red Shoumen, Karnobat, Pleven Blackhead, White Maritsa, Patch-faced Maritsa, Stara Zagora and Romanov. During the spring and summer, 6 sheep from each breed were used and during the summer – 20. The activity of the alternative pathway of complement activation was assayed by the method of Sotirov (1991). During the spring, the highest blood complement concentrations were determined in Panagyurishte (215,24 ± 5,22), White Maritsa (206,87 ± 13,12) and Copper-red Shoumen breeds (201,15 ± 8,88), and the lowest in Romanov (160,23 ± 7,44) and Pleven Blackhead breed – 164,09 ± 12,86 (р < 0,01). The highest summer complement levels were measured in Panagyurishte breed (218,801 ± 3,285 СН50), аnd the lowest – in Tsigay breed (167,144 ± 5,233 СН50) (р < 0,01). During the autumn, Karakachan breed were with the highest complement concentrations (205,79 ± 13,28), whereas Pleven Blackhead – with the lowest – 169,04 ± 10,10 (р < 0,01). Totally for all sheep studied, the average APCA concentrations were 190,87 ± 5,87 during the spring, 190,028 ± 8,284 СН50 during the summer and 191,24 ± 8,47 during the winter.

Complement activity in Bulgarian local sheep related to season and breed

L. Sotirov, V. Semerdjiev, Ts. Maslev, M. Iliev, G. Gerchev, I. Yankov, Ts. Koinarski, Ts.Hristova