Comparative electronmicroscopical study of the enterocytes of the duodenum of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the wild type (Coturnix coturnix)

R. Mihaylov, R. Dimitrov, V. Yordanova

Abstract. The main goal of the study was to be determined some age linked ultrastructure features of the duodenum in specific bird species. The investigated are 20 birds from each – Japanese and Wild quails. They were divided into four age groups (1-st, 20-th, 45-th и 60-th day of hatching; 5 birds in each age group). The materials for the electon microscopic study were obtained from the middle section of the duodenum. Onto the apical surface of the enterocytes of the duodenum with the one day old Japanese and Wild quails were determined evenly located and with similar height microvillies. They covered the apical surface of the enterocites and arround the apical parts was seen glycocalyx. The height of the duodenal microvilli of the twenty days old Japanese quails was greater from those of the one day old. The 45 days old and 60 days old quails the microvilli, covering the apical surface of the enterocytes were evenly placed, but their height was continuously growing. The height of the duodenal microvilli of the one day old Japanese and Wild quails was equal. With the 20, 45 and 60 days old quails, the height of the microvilli of the Wild type were higher from the microvillies of the Japanese quails. We beleive the difference of the microvillies height of the duodenum with the Wild and the Japanese quail is due to the distingtion in the nutritive habits and requirements of the investigated birds. The Wild quail is a bird, which is in a need of greater reabsorbtion mucosa of the small bowel and most likely is the reason the duodenal microvilli to be higher compare to the Japanese one.


Study on levels of some heavy metals in water and liver of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from waterbodies in Stara Zagora region, Bulgaria

V. Atanasov, E. Valkova, G. Kostadinova, G. Petkov, N. Georgieva, Ts. Yablanski, G.Nikolov

Abstract. The concentrations of 8 elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd) were determined in the water and liver by common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from 6 waterbodies in Stara Zagora region using atomic absorption spectrometry. Despite having a reputation for being heavily polluted, the investigated waters were not heavily burdened with examined metals. Our results suggest that fish liver were accumulating elements in the same manner such are increasing metal concentrations in waterbodies. Heavy metals concentrations were highest in the water and carp liver from Zagorka Lake and Ovcharitsa Dam, and especially of the Pb did exceed established quality standards for fish. Because the liver accumulates highest levels of heavy metals, it may to be use as an important biological indicator for ecological monitoring of the fish inhabiting waterbodies.


Investigations on production traits of mulard ducks with experimentally induced aflatoxicosis

I. Valchev, N. Grozeva, L. Lazarov, D. Kanakov, Ts. Hristov, R. Binev, Y. Nikolov

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin В (AFB ) on production traits (live body weight, weight gain, feed intake and 1 1 feed conversion) and relative weights (g/100 g body weight) of visceral organs (liver, kidneys, thymus, spleen, Bursa of Fabricius, heart, gizzard and proventriculus) in mulard ducklings. The experiment was carried out with four groups of 30 10-day-old ducklings each over 42 days. The groups were as followed: group І – control, which received standard feed according to the species and age, group ІІ – experimental, which received compound feed with 0.5 mg/kg AFB , group ІІI – receiving compound feed supplemented with 0.8 mg/kg AFB and group IV – compound feed supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB and 2 1 1 1 g/kg Mycotox NG. In experimental groups II and III, the body weight, weight gain, feed intake were lower, feed conversion ratio was higher as well as the relative weights of liver, kidneys, heart, pancreas, gizzard and proventriculus. At the same time, the relative weight of the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and the spleen were considerably reduced. The supplementation of feed of group IV with Mycotox NG protected birds from the negative effects of AFB on production traits and 1 prevented changes in the weights of visceral organs.


Characterization of enzyme with carboxymethyl cellulase activity produced by Trichoderma reesei NRRL 3652

B. Zhekova, G. Dobrev, V. Dobreva, M. Hadjikinova

Abstract. The main biochemical properties of an enzyme with carboxymethyl cellulase activity produced by Trichoderma reesei NRRL 3652 were studied. The enzyme exhibited activity against carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and displayed no activity against cellobiose, methyl glucoside and p-nitrophenyl-β-Dglucopyranoside. The influence of temperature and pH on the enzyme activity and stability was determined. The optimal pH value was pH 5.0 and the optimal temperature was 55-60 °C. Carboxymethyl cellulase was stable at pH 3.0 and pH 5.0 at 50 °C for up to 160 min. The enzyme decreased the viscosity of carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was accompanied by an increase in the reducing sugars content. Carboxymethyl cellulase was applied in hydrolysis of bean hulls.


Microscopic method for qualification of the cut surface of white brined cheese

P. Boyanova, P. Panayotov, V. Ganchovska, A. Bosakova – Ardenska

Abstract. There has been made a research of the cut surface of cheese which is one of the defining indicators for its organoleptic characteristics. This research uses hardware and software tools to automate and objectify the process of quality evaluation of cheese. Seven white brined cheeses purchased from the commercial chain have been studied. Cut surfaces were taken with a microscopic camera and acquired images were processed for the detection of defects by calculating the so called coefficient of diversity (K ). Computing shows clear differences between cheeses with diverse structure of the cut surface – their div coefficients of diversity differ significantly. The results show that it is possible to achieve better characterization of the cut surface using a computer system.


Physico-chemical quality characteristics of royal jelly from three regions of Bulgaria

R. Balkanska, I. Zhelyazkova, M. Ignatova

Abstract. The objective of the present study is to investigate the composition and physico-chemical properties of fresh royal jelly(RJ) samples from Sofia (n=5), Lovech (n=5) and Varna (n=3), produced from May to August 2011. The samples were kept frozen at -20° C before analysis. The parameters of royal jelly samples obtained from Sofia region varied within the following ranges: water content (61.7 – 65.2%), proteins (15.07 – 16.85%), fructose (3.73 – 5.05%), glucose (2.01 – 3.70%), sucrose (1.50 – 2.27%), total sugars (8.05 – 10.37%), pH (3.94 – 4.06), total acidity (3.86 – 4.51 ml 0.1 N NaOH/g) and electrical conductivity (180 – 206 μS/cm). The samples from Lovech region gave the following results: water content (59.10 – 62.70%), proteins (16.84 – 19.63%), fructose (4.07 – 5.47%), glucose (3.69 – 5.28%), sucrose (0.36 – 3.59%), total sugars (8.12 – 13.48%), pH (3.86 – 3.97), total acidity (3.68 – 4.42 ml 0.1 N NaOH/g) and electrical conductivity (196 – 216 μS/cm). Fructose, glucose, sucrose and total sugars contents are in the range 3.64–4.27%, 2.69 – 5.87%, 2.28 – 3.44%, 9.15 – 12.87%, respectively for the samples from Varna region. The minimum and maximum values for other parameters are: water content (63.30 – 65.80%), proteins (12.23 – 13.08%), pH (3.60 – 3.70), total acidity (2.48 – 4.23 ml 0.1 N NaOH/g), electrical conductivity (173 – 181 μS/cm). Because of the small number of samples and absence of information about additional feeding of bees with sugar solution, it should be insufficient to draw conclusion about the prevalence of glucose or fructose in fresh royal jelly. This work indicated slight differences between the obtained results of royal jelly samples from three regions of Bulgaria.


Comparative ecological analysis of the types of pasture and swards in Sakar and Strandzha region

V. Vateva, K. Stoeva

Abstract. The natural pasture grass associations are plant groups, whose composition, state and growth are result of complete showing native-climatic conditions. They are those grass associations, who ensure a valuable biomass for stock-breeding in the regions, where hi is basic occupation. Such regions in South-East Bulgaria are the Sakar and Strandzha. At least, soil-climatic conditions in the two regions are nearly and similar, the available pasture grass associations are diferent. During the three years period on the special selected and marked natural pasture grass associations of Sakar and Strandzha regions were carried out observations. The chosen pasture grass associations are with different locations and they are representative of the most typical and in a mass using pastures of two regions. The aim of the observations is to be done an comparative ecological analysis of the native pasture compositions in the Sakar and Strandzha regions. There composition and type belonging to be analyses, the changes in the pasture compositions to be study and the tendencyes for a future together development of two regions to be determine. As a result of the organize observations was established, that by the native-climatic conditions of the two regions, the pasture associations are differ on a type belonging. In the Sakar mountain are more pastures of type: Agrostis vulgaris – Festuca fallax; Cynodon dactylon – Lolium perenne; Andropogon schaemum and Festuca myuros – Bromus sp., and in the Strandzha the basic pasture associations are of the type: Hordeum crinitum – Trifolium nigrescens; Cynusurus cristatus – Lolium perenne – Trifolium subteraneum; Agrostis vulgaris – Cynusurus cristatus- Lolium perenne; Cynodon dactilon- Lolium perenne and Avena flavescens – Cynusurus cristatus – Lolium perenne. The changes who has come of the pasture compositions in the Sakar and Strandzha as a result of the climatic factors and the methods of use are in negative direction.


Chemometrical analyses of Zn distribution between water and soil of dams in Chirpan Municipality, Bulgaria

N. Georgieva, Z. Yaneva, M. Todorova, R. Ivanova, N. Nizamov, P. Neicheva

Abstract. This study was designed to evaluate the ecological status and to define probable liquid/solid correlations of Zn distribution between dam waters and adjacent soils in Chirpan Municipality, as a part of a continuous water and soil assessment project of Stara Zagora Region. Zinc concentrations in the investigated water and soil samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) on AAnalyst 800 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer, over the period December 2009 – November 2010. The analysis of Zn temporal distribution in the dam waters revealed maximum heavy metal loading of the three surface water bodies during June 2010. The ecological assessment of the studied soil samples showed that Zn content in some of them surpassed the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), according to Bulgarian state standards. Basic statistical parameters (standard deviation values), liquid-to-solid metal correlations, linear regression analyses and Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to rationalize and interpret the analytical data for both media. Relationships between Zn contents in dissolved (dam water samples) and particulate (soil samples) phases in Chirpan Municipality, ascertained a high degree of water/soil correlation during December 2009 (R2 0.9963) and July 2010 (R2 0.9033) in the three investigated compartments. Distribution coefficients (K ) of the trace metal between both phases presented as log K were in the range 1.98 – 3.26. The PCA confirmed the conclusions withdrawn on the bases of d d the chemical analyses and categorized the investigated sampling points into three classes – Class 1 (SP 216, SP 410A, SP 410-1A) with predominant Zn loading of the water bodies; Class 2 (SP 217, SP 418A, SP 418-1A) featured with excessive Zn soil contents; Class 3 (SP 215, SP 409A, SP 409-1A) with average levels of the heavy metal in both phases. The data of the present study provided a scientific basis for best-management practices of natural water and land use in the investigated municipality.


Investigation on the effect of the environment on some new common winter wheat varieties

E. Penchev, K. Kostov, I. Stoeva, V. Dochev

Abstract. The effect of the environment on a group of new Bulgarian varieties was investigated in three different locations for a period of 5 years. AMMI models were applied. The dispersion analysis carried out proved the different genetic potentials of the investigated varieties with regard to their ecological plasticity and stability. Varieties Kristi, Antonovka, Enola and Venka demonstrated highest plasticity and stability of their productivity.


Change of some chemical properties of alluvial-meadow soil (Mollic fluvisol) after long term fertilization

S. Todorova, N. Simeonova, K. Trendafilov, V. Valcheva

Abstract. In our research we are studying changes of some common chemical properties (pH, salt concentration, total carbonates, and humus content) during long-term organic-mineral fertilization and after its cessation. The object of our study is alluvial-meadow soil (Mollic fluvisol) in the region of Plovdiv (Bulgaria), on which in 1959 was set a trial with different variants of fertilization. Since 2006 the fertilization was stopped. Forty years of fertilization leads to increase in humus content, compared with unfertilized variant, and this is best expressed in variant with combined organic-mineral fertilization. After cessation of fertilization, soil organic matter content decrease in all variants. In other physicochemical parameters of the studied soil, there are no significant changes during the fertilization and after its cessation.