Efficacy and selectivity of antibroadleaved herbicides at durum wheat against volunteers of coriander, Clearfield canola, Clearfield sunflower and ExpressSun sunflower

G. Delchev
Abstract. During the period 2010 – 2012, on the experimental field of the Field Crops Institute, Chirpan was carried out a field experiment with durum wheat cultivar Elbrus (Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 24 variants were investigated. They include vegetation-applied herbicides, soil-applied herbicides and herbicide tank mixtures. Volunteers of Clearfield canola in the durum wheat crops are controlled successfully by vegetation-applied herbicides Derby, Mustang, Sunsac and Weedmaster and soil-applied herbicides Marathon, Stomp and Cougar. Volunteers of Clearfield and ExpressSun sunflower are controlled by herbicides Arat, Derby, Derby super, Mustang, Sunsac, Secator, Lintur, Weedmaster, Marathon, Stomp, Racer and Cougar. Volunteers of coriander in wheat crops are controlled by herbicides Derby, Mustang, Sunsac, Secator, Lintur, Weedmaster, Granstar super, Eagle and Cougar. Herbicide tank mixtures Derby super + Sanafen, Secator + Sanafen, Granstar super + Starane, Laren + Dicotex and Ally max + Sanafen control successfully volunteers of coriander, Clearfield canola, Clearfield and ExpressSun sunflower. Herbicide Cougar causes phytotoxicity on durum wheat. The highest grain yield was obtained by treatment with herbicide tank mixture Granstar super + Starane, Derby super + Sanafen, Secator + Sanafen, Ally max + Sanafen and Laren + Dicotex and herbicides Derby super, Derby, Secator, Sunsac, Mustang , Weedmaster and Arat.

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Effect of different lipid and protein dietary levels on rumen ciliate fauna and cellulolytic activity in yearling rams

V. Radev, I. Varlyakov, R. Mihaylov
Abstract. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of rations with different lipid and protein levels on total counts and generic composition of rumen ciliates, and bacterial cellulolytic activity in the rumen of yearling rams. Three rations, conditionally termed ration I, ration II and ration III were tested. Ration I contained 1.00 kg ground barley and 1.00 kg meadow hay. To the others, different protein and lipid source was added. Ration II consisted of 1.00 kg meadow hay, 0.800 kg barley mash and 0.200 kg sunflower meal. Ration III contained 1.00 kg meadow hay, 0.800 kg barley mash and 0.200 kg sunflower expeller. Rations differed with respect to their lipid and protein contents. They were offered twice daily –8:00 AM and 1:00 PM. The experiment was performed with nine Blackhead Pleven yearling rams, with initial average body weight 45.2 kg. They were divided in three groups of three animals each. Twenty days prior to the trial, the animals were fitted with cannulae of the dorsal rumen sac. Rumen content was sampled for 4 consecutive days, three times a day: before feeding, 2.5 h and 5 h after feeding. The total counts and generic composition of rumen ciliates were determined. The cellulolytic activity in the rumen was determined in vivo after 24-hour incubation. Feeding rations with different sources of proteins and lipids did not change significantly the total counts and the composition of rumen ciliates in yearling rams. Feeding a ration containing sunflower meal increased significantly (p<0.01) rumen cellulolytic activity as compared both to base ration composed of barley mesh and meadow hay and sunflower expeller supplemented ration.

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Rumen fermentation in yearling rams fed different rations

V. Radev
Abstract. To establish the effect of different dietary lipid and protein content un rumen fermentation in yearling rams, three rations have been tested. The main component in them was ground barley and meadow hay (ration I), plus a different lipid and protein source – sunflower meal (ration II) or sunflower expeller (ration III). Rations were offered twice a day – at 8:00 AM and 1:00 PM. Nine Blackhead Pleven yearling rams, weighing 45.2 kg at the beginning of the experiment were divided into 3 groups of 3 animals each. Twenty days prior to the trial, the animals were fitted with cannulae of the dorsal rumen sac. Rumen content was sampled for 4 consecutive days, three times a day: before feeding, 2.5 h and 5 h after feeding. The following parameters were investigated: pH, ammonia concentrations and volatile fatty acid concentrations. The addition of 0.200 kg sunflower meal (ration II) and 0.200 kg sunflower expeller (ration III) to baseline ration consisting of 1.0 kg meadow hay and 0.8 kg barley mash did not alter significantly rumen pH of yearling rams. For all three rations, rumen pH decreased considerably (p<0.001) 2,5 hours after feeding.Feeding rations with sunflower meal or sunflower expeller resulted in increased rumen ammonia concentrations both before (p<0.001, p<0.01;), and after feeding (p<0.001, p<0.01). The highest levels of this parameter after feeding was observed for sunflower expeller ration. The total amount of volatile fatty acids in the rumen of experimental animals increased after feeding (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001) for all rations tested. The relatively highest levels were established in the group fed sunflower meal-containing ration.

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Investigations on kidney function in mulard ducklings with experimental aflatoxicosis

I. Valchev, N. Grozeva, L. Lazarov, D. Kanakov, Ts. Hristov, R. Binev, Y. Nikolov
Abstract. The toxic effect of AFB in mulard ducks was evaluated through the changes in several blood parameters, namely uric acid, urea, creatinine, creatine 1 kinase, calcium, inorganic phosphate, sodium and potassium. Also, the morphological changes in kidney parenchyma were evaluated. Experiments were conducted with 4 groups of 20 10-day-old mulard ducks: group I – control, fed a standard compound feed according to the species and the age; group II – experimental, whose feed was supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB , group III – experimental, supplemented with 0.8 mg/kg AFB and group IV – experimental, 1 1 supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB and 2 g/kg Mycotox NG. The duration of the experiment was 42 days. The blood analysis results by the 21st day of the trial 1 showed reduced concentrations of urea, creatinine, uric acid, calcium, inorganic phosphate, sodium and potassium, and higher creatine kinase activity in groups II and III. These changes tended to become more pronounced by the 42nd day from the beginning of the experiment. Morphological alterations of kidney parenchyma consisted in degeneration in renal tubules, congestion, desquamation and disintegration of tubular cells with pyknotic changes in cell nuclei, necrobiotic changes and haemorrhages depending on the amount of ingested toxin. The dietary supplementation of group IV with Mycotox NG decreased the severity of observed blood changes as well as the frequency and severity of histological lesions (hyperaemia and mild granular dystrophy with pyknotic nuclei).

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Effect of the feeding of products stimulating the development of bee colonies

R. Shumkova, I. Zhelyazkova
Abstract. The study was conducted in the spring and autumn of 2011 at the Experimental apiary of the Agricultural and Stockbreeding Experimental Station (ASES), Smolyan and at the private apiary of Mitev’s bee farm, Smolyan. For stimulating feeding of the bee colonies are used products “Vita Feed Gold”, “Ecophil-P”, “Apidas”, “Oligofosi” and “Anolyte -7”. To each family are provided a total of 5 l of sugar syrup for the individual periods (spring and autumn), 500 ml are given in the feeding troughs of hives at intervals of 2–3 days. The measurements of the studied indications are done with a measuring frame (size 5 x 5 squares cm) in 12 days. Some parameters are: strength of bee colonies (kg); volume of sealed worker brood and egg productivity of queen bees (number of cells). During the spring test a clear positive impact of “Vita Feed Gold” and “Apidas” is found. The influence of the other detergents for stimulating individual apiaries is comparable to that of the control feeding only with sugar solution. The results obtained during the autumn period of the study show that the specified values for strength of bee colonies fed with “Apidas” and “Anolyte -7” are 125.26% and 131.58% higher than this indicator in the control group. For the amount of sealed worker brood were recorded higher values for the bee colonies that received “Anolyte -7” (125.47%), “Apidas” (110.56%) and “Vita Feed Gold” (111,3% ) compared to the control. The results show that “Ecophil-P” and “Oligofosi” do not have clear stimulating effect on the development of colonies in both periods of the study.

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Reproductive performance of Polish Large White and Polish Landrace sows

B. Szostak, V. Katsarov
Abstract. Analyses of traits were conducted on six farms breeding Polish Large White pigs and six breeding Polish Landrace pigs. Farms were selected for the analysis based on their similar environmental conditions and the average size of the sow herds, which ranged from 18.8 to 34.9 sows. The sows were housed in groups in pens with straw. The material for analysis consisted of data from breeding documentation covering the period of 2011–2012. The Polish Large White and Polish Landrace sows on the farms analysed were characterized by a high average number of piglets born alive per litter (11.5–13.3). The high variation in this parameter on many farms confirms that further selection is advisable. The average number of litters obtained per sow per year on most of the farms analysed was lower than in countries in which pig breeding is more advanced. In order to be competitive in pork production, breeders should try to improve the number of litters per sow per year. This can be achieved by means of early weaning of piglets and the earliest possible fertilization of sows after lactation. All of this, however, requires optimal living conditions for the animals and their overall well-being.

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Reproductive performance of weaning saws after treatment with Fertipig®

S. Dimitrov, G. Bonev
Abstract. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of hormonal treatment of lactating sows with a combination of 400 UI PMSG and 200 UI hCG one day before weaning. The treatment with Fertipig of a total of 88 sows induced estrus with an average period of 4.54±0.64 days after injection. It was established that the interval from the injection to the beginning of estrus had no significant effect on the main reproductive parameters. The animals with estrus up to 5 days after hormonal treatment had low percent of farrowing rate in comparison with sows showing estrus after 5 days – 87.80% and 93.61%, respectively. The significant effect was found in the sow’s parity number regarding live born piglets. More piglets were obtained from animals with up to 6 parities – 11.00±1.51 in comparison with sows with over 6 parities – 10.15±2.22 (р< 0.05). This factor does not have significant influence on the time of estrus appearance after hormonal injection and other reproductive parameters. This hormonal therapy is an effective way to improve the reproductive performance on commercial pig farms.

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Dry matter accumulation in the varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) according to previous crop

A. Ivanova, N. Tsenov
Abstract. The constant interest in common wheat investigations is determined by the main share this crop has in agriculture and by the unique properties it possesses. This investigation was carried out under field conditions for a three-year period (2009 – 2011) in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo (DAI). The trial was designed according to the split plot method in four replications, the size of the trial plot being 12 m2. Five common wheat genotypes developed at DAI were subjected to investigation (Iveta, Enola, Pryaspa, Bolyarka, Dragana). The trial involved four previous crops: oilseed rape, pea, sunflower and maize, and three norms of mineral fertilization depending on the type of previous crop. Fertilization with phosphorus and potassium was used as a background (Р К ), kg/ha and nitrogen was tested at the following fertilizer norms: N , N and N kg/ha after previous crops oilseed rape, 60 60 60 120 180 sunflower and maize, and N , N and N kg/ha after pea, with check variant N P K . The effect of the type of previous crop on dry matter accumulation in the 30 60 90 0 0 0 investigated common wheat varieties was analyzed. It was found that dry matter accumulation continued throughout the entire growth season, the year conditions being decisive for its amount. Dry matter accumulation during the individual stages of growth and development was specific for each investigated cultivar. The investigated cultivars accumulated higher total biomass than the standard Pryaspa. After the early previous crops (oilseed rape and pea), the amounts of dry matter formed were higher at the end of the growth period (after heading). After the late previous crops (sunflower and maize) the new wheat varieties formed higher total biomass as early as the beginning of spring growth. After predecessor pea the highest amounts of dry matter were formed.

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Apricot breeding for resistance to Sharka

V. Bozhkova, S. Milusheva
Abstract. The Sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus (РРV) was found for the first time in Bulgaria more than 80 years ago and it is an endemic disease for our country, as is for all the East European countries. Like all plant viruses, PPV could not be controlled with treatments and that makes breeding of resistant cultivars and rootstocks a significant tool for limiting its spread. The investigation was carried out in the period 2009–2012 in the collection plantations of the Fruit-Growing Institute, Plovdiv in the frames of FP7 project of the EU „Sharka Containment (SharCo)”. The aim set in one of the work packages of the project was to carry out accelerated breeding activities of apricot cultivars resistant to Sharka by using MAS (marker-assisted selection). The hybridization programme included 24 parental combinations with 12 633 pollinated flowers and as a result 1661 hybrid stones (seeds) were obtained. The molecular marker analysis of the leaf samples from 39 hybrid plants obtained from 7 crossings showed that 8 of the hybrids contained a gene for resistance to PPV. Those were plants of the parental combinations ‘Harcot’ х ‘Lito’, ‘Lito’ х ‘SEO’ and ‘Harlayne’ х ‘Harcot’. Data showed that all hybrids obtained from crossing of two resistant cultivars (‘Lito’ х ‘SEO’) have a gene for resistance. If only one of the parental cultivar is resistant, part of the hybrids have gene for resistance to PPV and in our case it is 50% of all analyzed hybrids.

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Breeding evaluation of newly stabilized lines of maize

V. Valkova
Abstract. General Combining Ability (GCA) and Specific Combining Ability (SCA) of sixteen newly stabilized early maize lines were evaluated by Savchenko’s method (1978). The lines were tested in five testers by different genetic groups, possessing established high general combining ability. For testing of productive capacity of the resulting F1 topcross crosses three preliminary variety trials were carried out in the experimental field of the Maize Research Institute, Knezha. The experimental work was carried out in the period of 2009–2011, under conditions without irrigation and plant density 52000 plant/ha. As a result of these experiments, inbred lines with high GCA are pointed out (KC 08 23 and KC 08 27), which are recommended as components of new synthetic populations. The highest is the SCA of inbred lines KC 08 31, KC 08 32 and XM 08 3. These inbreds may be used in heterosis programs for new high yield hybrid creation. Two of the lines (XM 08 1 and KC 08 24) have both high GCA and SCA and can be used in corresponding breeding programs.

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