Morphological, reproductive manifestations and chemical composition of tomato varieties for greenhouse production

N. Valchev1*, G. Pevicharova2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Vegetable Crops Research Institute Maritsa, 32 Brezovsko shose, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Abstract. The morphological and reproductive manifestations as well as the chemical composition of seven introduced, indeterminate tomato varieties, grown in greenhouses in the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv were studied in the period 2012 – 2013. The tomato plants are transplanted in February and grown according to the conventional technology for late production. The indices determining the growth and reproductive manifestation of the plants were studied by the method for comparative variety investigation. It was established that the greatest average fruit weight – 246 g was observed in variety Beladona. The variety Kiveli exceeds the remaining by earliness. The highest total yield – 212220 kg/ha is recorded in variety Panekra. The content of the basic chemical components of the fruits is the greatest in the varieties Setia, Afen and Rashel. The total sensory evaluation is the highest in the varieties Beladona and Setia.


Toxic and essential metal concentration of freshwater fishes from Pyasachnik Dam, Bulgaria

K. Peycheva*, V. Panayotova, L. Makedonski, M. Stancheva

Department of Chemsitry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Varna, 55 Marin Drinov, 9000 Varna, Bulgaria

Abstract. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the concentration of some toxic (As, Hg, Pb, Cd and Ni) and essential elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr and Mn) inedible part of three fresh water fish species collected from Pyasachnik Dam during 2010. The species analyzed were silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and European carp (Cyprinus Carpio). The results were expressed as mg/kg wet weight. Common crap species were differentiated from the other three species by high concentration of Zn (11 mg/kg wet weight), Fe (7 mg/kg wet weight) and As (0.58 mg/kg wet weight) in muscle tissues. Concentrations of the analyzed elements were within the limits set from various health organization (FAO/WHO, EU and Bulgarian Food Codes) and are at acceptable levels for human consumption. Additionally the results obtained in this study were compared with those reported in other studies and they clearly demonstrated that the analyzed fish samples from Pyasachnik dam do not faced metal pollution in particular areas for toxic (As, Hg, Pb, Cd and Ni) and essential elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr and Mn).


Fatty acid composition of backfat during frozen storage in pigs fed vitamin E supplemented diet

T. Popova*

Institute of Animal Science, 2232 Kostinbrod, Bulgaria

Abstract.The changesinthefattyacidcompositionofthebackfatwerestudiedin ♀Younax ♂Pietrain pigs.Theanimalsweredividedintwogroups(vitaminE supplemented and control) and after slaughter, samples of the inner and outer backfat layers were taken, frozen and stored for a period of 6 months. Fatty acid composition was analysed in fresh backfat samples and after frozen storage of 3 and 6 months. The content of the major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids differed significantly between the two layers of the backfat in both groups. In the inner layer we observed significantly higher proportion of C16:0 (P<0.01) and C18:0 (P<0.001) while C18:1 had higher content in the outer backfat layer (P<0.001). The differences were not dependent on the presence of vitamin E in the diet, suggesting no effect of the antioxidant on the metabolism of the fatty acids of the two backfat layers. The total amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) was increased (P<0.001), higher values of UFA/SFA (P<0.001) and lower of the atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices (P<0.001) were observed in the outer backfat layer in both groups. The duration of frozen storage affected significantly the content of the individual and total fatty acids, as the changes were observed mostly between the 3rd and 6th month of frozen storage. In both groups the content of C16:0 and the total saturated fatty acids (SFA) decreased while the content of the total amount of UFA increased by the end of the 6th month. In the group supplemented vitamin E, the content of C16:1 significantly decreased (P<0.01) and that of C18:1 significantly increased (P<0.01) by the 6th month of storage. The atherogenic and thrombogenic indices followed the same pattern, showing the lowest values at the 6th month of frozen storage in both groups, thus indicating no negative influence on the duration of storage on the backfat.


Influence of the temperature for distillation on the yield and quality of the Rosa alba L. essential oil

A. Dobreva*

Institute for Roses and Medicinal Plants, 49 Osvobojdenie, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

Abstract. Applying the method of distillation, the influence of different temperatures at the outlet of the cooler when processing Rosa alba is traced. It has been found that the extraction temperature rise leads to an increase of the yield by 10%, but losses of essential oil components up to 33% are detected. Gas chromatography assay revealsthattemperaturerateat24÷28oC keepsthemaximumoftheterpenealcohol citronellol+nerolandgeraniol(13.52%and15.4 %, respectively), so this temperature level can be recommended.


Fatty acids profile, atherogenic and thrombogenic health indices of white brined cheese made from buffalo milk

N. Naydenova*, I. Kaishev, T. Iliev, G. Mihaylova

Department of Dairy Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. The present investigation had the objective to study the fatty acids profile and the related health lipid indices of buffalo cheese in order to add information on its nutritional quality. Two distinct indices were investigated – atherogenic and thrombogenic. These indices take into account the different effects that single fatty acids might have on human health. The study was performed with buffalo milk, obtained from purebred Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes from II lactation, reared in the herd of the private farm in Dimitrievo village. The amount of saturated fatty acids in raw milk diminished in the processing and ripening ofcheeseby5%. Theamountofunsaturatedfattyacidsincreasedduringripeningbythesamepercentinproportiontothedecreaseofsaturatedfattyacids. The biggest change is in the content of monounsaturated fatty acids in ripened cheese which increased by 4.35% from raw milk. Omega 6/omega 3 varies from 4:1 for raw milk to 7.9:1 for white brined cheese, which is within the range of the values for healthy nutrition. The values of the atherogenic index of buffalo milk change in the range 2.72 for raw milk to 2.16 for matured cheese. The same tendency is observed for the thrombogenic index – it decreased during ripening from 1.74 for raw milk to 1.2 for matured cheese. The values of the received lipid indices, calculated on the basis of single fatty acids and fatty acid groups – saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, showing the degree of preventive effect regarding the risk of cardiovascular disease,have a low risk factor for human health.


Septoria/Stagonospora diseases of durum wheat (Triticum durum) in Bulgaria

R. Rodeva1*, S. Nedyalkova2, Z. Stoyanova1

1Department of Applied Genetics and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 21 Acad. G. Bonchev, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
2Field Crop Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

Abstract. Three fungal pathogens: Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Zymoseptoria tritici), Phaeosphaeria nodorum (anamorph Stagonospora nodorum) and Phaeosphaeria avenaria f. sp. triticea (anamorph Stagonospora avenae f. sp. triticea) cause diseases on wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum) worldwide, known under the common name Septoria/Stagonospora diseases. In bread wheat (T. aestivum) studies have been carried out and information has been obtained on the state of the problem in Bulgaria. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish distribution and relative impact of Septoria/Stagonospora diseases and their causal agents on durum wheat (Triticum durum). The study showed that S. avenaria f. sp. triticea was the most common pathogen of this group during the studied period (2010 – 2014). Anamorph was primarily recorded. Teleomorph occurred with increasing frequency from the beginning of ripening. Z. tritici was not found in the first three years of the study. In 2013 six samples only were associated with Z. tritici infection. However, a large-scale occurrence of this fungus was established under extremely favorable weather conditions in 2014. S. nodorum was not recorded so far on the durum wheat cultivars included in the study. A comparative description of the symptoms caused by S. avenae f. sp. triticea and Z. tritici on the leaves of durum and bread wheat was made.


Vertical distribution of foliar pathogens on wheat

R. Rodeva1*, Z. Stoyanova1, S. Nedyalkova2, M. Pastirčák3, M. Hudcovicova3

1Department of Applied Genetics and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 21 Acad. G. Bonchev, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
2Field Crop Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria
3Plant Production Research Center Piestany, 122 Bratislavska, 92168 Piestany, Slovakia

Abstract. Wheat (bread and durum) is the most widely distributed crop in Bulgaria. Leaf spotting diseases of wheat are associated mainly with a complex of three fungal pathogens, which cause septoria leaf blotch. Lately, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis has been increasingly observed in Bulgaria. The purpose of the present investigation was to estimate the vertical distribution of these important leaf spotting pathogens during the post-anthesis period making a comparison between bread and durum wheat cultivars. P. tritici-repentis was the ubiquitous fungus in all studied sites with higher frequency of occurrence from lower to upper leaf layers. The inciters of septoria leaf blotch were predominant on bread wheat especially on cultivar Enola due to its susceptibility to Zymoseptoria tritici. In the lower and middle leaf layers they were more frequent than P. tritici-repentis. On durum wheat P. tritici-repentis was the most prevalent pathogen in all leaf layers especially on cultivar Saturn, while Z. tritici was found in 6 samples only in 2013. Stagonospora avenae f.sp. triticea was established on T. aestivum and T. durum cultivars with slightly prevalence on durum wheat. S. nodorum was recorded very seldom (on bread wheat) or missing at all (on durum wheat).


Effect of different nitrogen sources on the growth of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivation in aquaculture wastewater

К. Velichkova*

Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. Nitrogen is one of the most important limiting nutrients and nitrogen control is critical for the intensive cultivation of algae. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of different nitrogensources on biomass accumulation in microalgae C. vulgaris during its cultivation in aquaculture wastewater. Microalgae cultivation was initiated in abioreactor from 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 250 ml wastewaterfrom fish-ponds „Getov” – Pleven, Bulgaria. The cultures were kept at room temperature (25–27oC) at fluorescent light with a light:dark photoperiod of 12:12 h. The experiment was conducted in variants with urea (1.125g.l-1) and ammonium nitrate (1.125 g.l-1). The growth of the strain was checked for a 96-hour period. In the present study C. vulgaris showed better growth in wastewater from aquaculture with urea utilization as nitrogen source thanas a source of nitrogen ammonium nitrate.


Evaluation of porcine claw horn health

T. Penev1*, V. Katsarov2

1Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia Univeristy, 6014 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia Univeristy, 6014 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


Agroecological assessment of wastewater and sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant by content of nutrient inputs

G. Kostadinova*, D. Dermendjieva, G. Petkov, J. Gotchev

Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Вulgaria

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate and assess the quality of wastewater and sludge from different monitoring points (4 for wastewater and 3 for sludge) in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, for the period July 2013 – March 2014, by content of nutrient inputs (total N, total P and total K), absolutely dry matter, pH and electrical conductivity, in order to determine opportunities for their use in agriculture. For sampling and sample preparation of wastewater and sludge, international references of ISO and BSS were used. Sample analyses were made by equipment as follows: рН-meter Lab 850 (pH), Multi 340i/SET (electrical conductivity), method of Kjeldahl (total N), spectrophotometer UV/VIS 6705 JENWAY (total P) and ААС „AAnalyst 800”– Perkin Elmer (total K). It was found that: 1) Treated wastewater has neutral pH, low electrical conductivity and low total K content, as well as lower content of total N and total P than the maximum allowed concentrations for their discharge into the receiving water body – Bedechka river, defined from ecological point of view as a sensitive water body. 2) The effect of wastewater treatment in respect of total N was 87.4%, total P – 97.8% and total К – 23.0%, respectively. 3) Treated wastewater meets the requirements for irrigation of crops by indices: pH, electrical conductivity and content of total N, total P and total K. 4) The sludge has typical content of absolutely dry matter, neutral pH and high values of electrical conductivity, as well as lower content of total N (from 1.3 to 3.2 times), total P (from 3.2 to 7.8 times) and total K (from 4.4 to 12.2 times) in comparison with the sludge from 9 other WWTPs in the country, which is result of the modern technology of sludge treatment in WWTP-Stara Zagora. 5) Sludge contains more total N (from 2.71 to 7.5 times), comparable amount of total P and less quantity of total K compared with livestock manure.