Influence of the distillation rate on the quality and quantity of essential oil from Rosa alba L.

A. Dobreva*

Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Plants, 49 Osvobojdenie, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

Abstract. The aim of the investigations was to trace the influence of the speed level on the distillation of white oil-bearing rose. Using the methods of direct distillation of fresh rose flowers, it has been found that increasing the pressure and the flow rate of the distillate high yield can be achieved, but deterioration of thequalityoftheessentialoilisobserved.TheoptimalrateofprocessingforRosaalbaL.is8–10%. Inthiswaytheyieldisrisingupto0.02%andthevalueof the ratio of terpene alcohols / hydrocarbons is enhanced up to 0.74.


Variability of individual coagulation ability and qualitative composition of milk from Kalofer Longhaired goats

G. Kalaydzhiev1*, A. Vuchkov2*, T. Angelova1, D. Yordanova1, V. Karabashev1, J. Krastanov1, D. Dimov2, N. Oblakov3, S. Laleva1, Y. Popova1

1Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Departmet of Animal Science, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria 3Freelance scientific advisor

Abstract. The growing scientific interest in the coagulation ability of milk in leading countries in Europe and in the world, is the premise for the research carried out by us in this direction. In this study 49 individual milk samples of goats from the autochthonous breed Kalofer Longhaired were examined for coagulation ability and qualitative composition of the milk. Analysis of individual coagulation ability was made in the dairy lab of Agricultural Institute, Stara Zagora through Computerized Renneting Metter – Polo Trade, Italy. The studied phenotypic parameters defining the dynamics of the qualitative composition of milk are with average values, respectively: fat – 4.15%, protein – 3.34%, dry non-fat substitutes (DNS) – 8.84%, lactose – 4.84% and pH – 6.62. The average values of exponents are rennet clotting time (RCT) – 11.47min, curd firming time (CR) – 0.86min, and curd firmness – 27.16 mm. Coagulation ability of the milk of Kalofer Longhaired goat have good technological properties for the production of traditionally identical milk products.


Effect of vitamin E in the diet of pigs on the lipid and protein oxidative stability of meat during storage

T. Popova1*, P. Marinova, M. Ignatova

Institute of Animal Science, 2232 Kostinbrod, Bulgaria

Abstract. The changes in lipid and protein oxidative stability in response to vitamin E supplementation in the diet (400 mg/kg feed) during storage of Musculus LongissimusdorsiandMusculusSemimembranosuswerestudiedin♀Younax♂Pietrainpigs. Musclesampleswerestoredfor6daysat4°Cafterwhichthe storage continued for up to 90 days at – 20°C. Lipid oxidation was analysed by determination of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed during storage of 48 h, 6 days and 90 days. The oxidation of proteins was determined by measuring the content of carbonyls formed during the same storage periods. The muscles of the pigs from the vitamin E supplemented group showed lower TBARS content for 48 h and 6 days (P<0.01). Significant influence of the vitamin E was observed after frozen storage (P<0.01) as well and lower levels of TBARS were displayed in the muscles from the supplemented group. Contrary to the lipid oxidation, vitamin E supplementation of the diet only tended to decrease the oxidation of the proteins in the muscles during the storage. However, carbonyl formation differed between the muscles. During the refrigerated storage Musculus Longissimus showed higher extent of carbonylation, whereas after frozen storage the carbonyl content was increased in Musculus Semimembranosus. In both muscles lipid and protein oxidation showed the same trends of development in the control and supplemented group, showing maximal content of TBARS and carbonyls after the 90th day of frozen storage.


Analytical features of an optimized method for HPLC analysis of some polyphenolic acids and flavonoids in tomato fruits

D. Georgieva1, I. Tringovska2*, A. Atanasova2, V. Kmetov1

1Department of Analytical Chemistry and Computer Chemistry,Faculty of Chemistry, Plovdiv University Paisii Hilendarski, 24 Tzar Assen, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Departmen of Plant Nutrition, Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Abstract. Quality control of analytical procedure is required for any amended or new method to ensure its applicability and capability to produce reliable results. This study shows an optimized method for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of some polyphenolic acids and flavonoids in tomato fruits. Efficient separation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, rutin, myricetin, naringenin and quercetin was achieved on Poroshell 120 reverse-phase column С18 (75 mm x 4.6 mm x 2.7 μm) by gradient elution with mobile phase А (0.5% Acetic Acid), mobile phase B (1:1 mix of 0.5% Acetic acid and Acetonitrile) and mobile phase C (Acetonitrile). Some analytical features of the method such as limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity and precision were estimated after testing of an eight-compound mixture of the single reference phenolic compounds at seven concentrations. It was found that LOQ is from 0.02 to 0.63 ppm, for the included analytes with linear quantitative response up to 10 ppm. The method precision was estimated as measurement repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility. The relative standard deviation (RSD) obtained after analyzing 3 replicates and 7 concentrations varied from 0.1 to 12.6%. These results suggest that the optimized method has a good potential for simultaneous quantification of the above mentioned hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in tomato fruits.


Meat quality traits in Japanese quails with regard to storage conditions and duration

P. Vasileva, H. Lukanov*, A. Genchev

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. In the last decades the public perception about nutrition and food quality has witnessed a turning point on a global scale. There is an exceptional demand for meat and meat products from gallinaceous birds due to their high dietetic properties and low cost. Apart from the popular broiler chickens and turkey poults, meat-type quails have occupied a greater niche on the market during the last twenty years. Quails are characterised by good slaughter traits, excellent feed conversion rate and weight gain, and a valuable game-type meat. Quail meat is distinguished by excellent nutritional properties. It is rich in protein, with excellent amino acid balance, specific game flavour, relatively low fat content with greater share of unsaturated fatty acids. The study was performed with 40 sexually mature male and female Japanese quails from the Pharaoh meat-type breed, fattened until 35 days of age. Meat pH, meat colour according to the CIE L*а*b* colour system and water holding capacity (WHC) of M. pectoralis superficialis, М. pectoralis profundus and M. femorotibialis were determined on post slaughter minute 30, hours 4, 24, 48 and 72 as well as after defrosting of carcasses.The curves of meat pH reduction of the studied muscles were almost identical, and most substantial changes have occurred during the first 24 hours. Over the 72-hour storage, WHC of М. pectoralis profundus decreased at the highest extent. After freezing and thawing of meat, water loss decreased dramatically. Over the 72-hour period of cold storage, colour coordinates of M. pectoralis superficialis were the most stable, and the colour difference (∆Е*) – with the lowest values. Freezing resulted in lower ∆Е* of pectoral muscles and in increased colour difference in leg muscles.


Environmental friendly methods of inducing resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus in pepper

N. Petrov*

Institute of Soil Science, Agro Technologies and Plant Pprotection, Nikola Pushkarov, 7 Shosse Bankya, 1331 Sofia, Bulgaria

Abstract. Many viruses infect pepper in Bulgaria including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus Y (PVY). These viruses can infect either singly or in combination. CMV has been described as one of the five most important viruses infecting vegetable species worldwide. The virus causes severe mosaic symptoms, stunting, various types of necrosis and leaf deformation. Fruits are often malformed and necrotic lesions are common, thereby drastically reducing marketable yield. Control of CMV can be achieved by planting of resistant crops, but resistance in many crop species is often not available to a broad range of CMV strains. Developing and improving resistant lines by conventional breeding is very difficult since there are no CMV-resistant lines on the market. From the different treatment schemes best results were obtained from pepper plants treated with 5 mM BION and the combination BION+EXIN three days before CMV inoculation. For the plants treated after virus inoculation the best scheme is the combination BION+EXIN. Reduction of the virus symptoms is not always associated with its reduction of the virus titer. Different cultivars expressed different immune reactions to these plant viruses according to the genomic characteristics of the plant cultivar and the virus. Treatment with these SAR elicitors reduced losses from the CMV infection to almost zero.


Relationship between soil salinity and Bassia hirsuta, Salicornia europaea agg. and Petrosimonia brachyata distribution on the territory of Pomorie lake and Atanasovsko lake

M. Todorova1*, N. Grozeva2, L. Pleskuza1, Z. Yaneva3, M. Gerdgikova1

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
3Department of Pharmacology, Animal Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. In the Black Sea biogeographical region on the territory of Bulgaria there are only two Salinas – Atanasovsko lake and Pomorie lake. Since 1980 the north part of Atanasovsko lake has been declared nature reserve. Since 1999 the northern a part of the lake has been re-categorized as Managed Nature Reserve according to the new Protected Areas Act. Since 2001 Pomorie lake has been declared Protected Site. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between soil salinity and halophyte plants distribution – Salicornia europaea agg., Bassia hirsuta (L.) Asch. and Petrosimonia brachiata (Pall.) Bunge on the territory of both protected areas.The period of investigation was between September and October,2013.A total of 22 soil samples were taken from a depth of 0 – 20 cm. In each sample taking point vascular plants of Salicornia europaea aggr., Bassia hirsuta and Petrosimonia brachiata existing there, were also collected. The collected soil samples were analyzed for electrical conductivity (EC), pH, Cl-, CO – and HCO – content. The soil from the studied 33 territory of Atanasovsko lake Manage Nature Reserve was characterized with alkaline to strong alkaline reaction and high level of salinity. The alluvial deposit from Pomoriе lake Protected Site was characterized with neutral to alkaline reaction and light to high salinity. Salicornia europaea forms populations on alkalinesoil, with salinity from 2to44mS/cm,but dominates on high salinity soil,above14mS/cm. Bassia hirsuta forms populations on soil with neutralto moderate alkaline reaction and from light to high salinity, with ЕС up to14 mS/cm. Petrosimonia brachyata forms populations on alkaline soil, from light to moderatesalinity,withvaluesof ЕСfrom2to6mS/cm.


Algae cenoses with dominate Homoeothrix varians Geitler and Homoeothrix crustaceae Woronichin in the Veleka River, Bulgaria

K. Velichkova1*, I. Kiryakov2

1Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Botany, Faculty of Botany, Paisiy Hilendarski University of Plovdiv, 24 Tzar Assen, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Abstract. The cenoses with dominate Homoeothrix varians and Homoeothrix crustaceae in the Veleka River, Bulgaria were studied. The communities were distributed in the four points of the Veleka River. The composition of cenoses with dominant H. varians includes a total of 82 species and intraspecific taxa. Most of them are diatoms (90%). On the second place are blue-green algae (6%), to which it belongs and the dominant species. The rest of the species are green algae – Chlorophyta. About 43% of all established species in cenoses are bioindicators on degree of saprobity. Cenoses with dominant H. crustaceae were developend mainly on rocks in river rapids. We found that coenoses were characteristic of slow-flowing, calcareous waters with ß-mesosaprobic conditions.


Fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs under semi arid conditions in Nigeria

A. Raji1*, S. Mbap2, G. Mohammed1, I. Kwari1

1Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
2Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

Abstract. Some factors affecting the fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs were studied at the Poultry Unit of the University of Maiduguri, Livestock Teaching and Research Farm. The mean values of fertility, hatchability of total and fertile eggs set, early, mid and late embryo mortalities were 74.33, 51.35, 69.09, 10.25, 7.57 and 12.30% respectively. Fertility was highest (84.92%) in the dry cold, least (35.58%) in the dry hot with wet season (80.75%) being intermediate. Similarly, hatchability of total and fertile eggs set were 67.18 and 79.11% in the dry cold, 14.11 and 39.66% in the dry hot and 46.86 and 58.03% in the wet season. Younger quails (≤ 10 and 11 – 22 weeks) had higher fertility and hatchability than older ones (23 – 34 and 35 – 52 weeks). Early embryo mortality also increased with age. Fertility and hatchability of eggs from caged birds was 89.54 and 62.34% as compared to 54.93 and 37.35% from deep litter reared birds and hatchability of fertile eggs was 69.63 and 67.96% respectively. Fertility and hatchability was highest (92.15 and 71.48%) for birds of ratio 1:3 and least for 1:5 (19.60 and 10%). Breeders weighing 181 – 200 g had the highest hatchability (79.22%) and ≤140 g the least (60.83%). In contrast, breeder’s ≤ 140 g had the highest late embryo mortality (20%) and 141 – 160 g the least (9.67%). Light brown quails had lower hatchability of total and fertile eggs (23.71% and 35.71%) as compared to wild type or normal colored ones (52.04% and 69.84%). Light brown, however, had higher (P<0.05) early and late embryo mortalities (21.43% and 35.71%) than wild type (10.0% and 11.77%). It can be concluded from this study that season, production system, flock age, mating ratio, color and breeder weight affects the fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs. Thus, these factors have to be considered when raising breeders and collecting eggs for hatching.


Seasonal dynamics of virus pathogens important for Foeniculum vulgare

B. Dikova1*, H. Lambev2

1Department of Phytopathology, Plant Protection Division, Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant protection N. Poushkarov, 7 Shosse Bankya, 1080 Sofia, Bulgaria
2Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Plants, 49 Osvobozhdenie, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

Abstract. The objective of the study was the establishment of the seasonal dynamics of some large wide-spread infectious diseases, caused by virus pathogens on the important for Bulgaria essential oil-bearing crop fennel – Foeniculum vulgare (Mill.) that was a prerequisite for determination of dates and means for the control of these pathogens. The researches for the establishment of the viral infection in the fennel plants were carried out by the serological method ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ), variant DAS-ELISA in the former Plant Protection Institute in 2010 and now Division for Plant Protection at the Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, Nikola Poushkarov, Sofia, Bulgaria. The observations for the establishment of aphids in fennel crops were carried out at the Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Plants (IREMC) near Kazanlak, Bulgaria in 2010. Enhancing of the infection, expressed by increasing the viral concentration in the summer in comparison with the spring was established for the following viruses pathological for fennel: Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The number of populations of aphids (carriers – vectors) of AMV and CMV as well as the fennel plants with symptoms of viruses increased in the summer in comparison with the spring. The established dependences will be taken into account in the cases of the integrated management of pests on the fennel. Probably TSWV, transmissible by thripses, and TMV mechanically transmissible, had influence on factors and they were conductive to the increase of the viral concentration in the summer in comparison with the spring.