Crop relationship “yield – evapotranspiration” for green bean

R. Kalaydzhieva, D. Davidov, A. Matev*, V. Kuneva
Department of Melioration and Geodesy, Faculty of Viticulture and Horticulture, Agricultural University, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Abstract. The aim of the study is to establish the parameters of the relationship “Yield – ET” for green beans on the base of the growth stages. The experiment was conducted during the period 2010 – 2012 on the experimental field of Agricultural University, Plovdiv. The parameters of this relationship are established on the base of existing formulas as follows: the two-degree formula of Davidov, the linear formula of FAO, the one-degree formula of Davidov and the linear formula of Stewart. Data for yield and ET (for the different growth stages) are used with the following treatments: 1) no irrigation; 2) irrigation with 30% of the optimal irrigation rate; 3) irrigation with 70% optimal rate; 4) optimum irrigation (supply of 100% of the calculated irrigation norm). For this purpose, the vegetation period of the beans is divided into three sub-periods: (before bud formation, bud formation-flowering and bean formation). For the conditions of the experiment, the dependence is represented best by the two-degree formula of Davidov at R = 0.98. The exponent for the entire growing period is N = 1.8. The values for the different sub-periods are as follows: m1 = 0.05, m2 = 0.05 and m3 = 1.12. This means that the sensitivity of the third sub-period is the greatest, and the first and second have insignificant sensitivity.

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Seasonal dynamics of important for Coriandrum sativum virus pathogens

B. Dikova1*, H. Lambev2

1Institute for Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection Nikola Poushkarov, 7 Shosse Bankya, 1080 Sofia, Bulgaria 2Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Cultures, 49 Osvobozhdenie, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

Abstract. The objective of the study was the establishment of the seasonal dynamics of some wide spread infectious diseases, caused from virus pathogens on the most important for Bulgaria essential oil-bearing culture coriander – Coriandrum sativum (L.), that was a premise for determination of dates and means for the control of these pathogens. The researches for the establishment of viral infection in coriander were carried out by the serological method ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), variant DAS-ELISA in the Division for Plant Protection to the Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection (ISSAPP) Nikola Poushkarov, Sofia, Bulgaria. The observations for the establishment of aphids in coriander crop were carried out in the Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical cultures (IREMC) near Kasanlak, Bulgaria. A rise of the infection, expressing by the increase of the viral concentration in the summer in comparison with the spring was established for the following pathological for coriander viruses: Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The number of populations of aphids (carriers – vectors) of AMV and CMV as well as the coriander plants with symptoms of viruses increased in the summer in comparison with the spring. The established dependences will be taken into consideration in the cases of the integrated management of pests on coriander.

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Treatment of post harvest residues with cellulose decomposing preparations I. Effect on grain yield from wheat

G. Milev*, I. Iliev, A. Ivanova

Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

Abstract. During 2010 – 2013 an experiment was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute with the aim to find out what is the effect of stubble cellulose decomposition products (microbial-based or other) on the grain yield from winter wheat. The crop was grown in a stationary field trial in crop rotation with three spring crops – bean, maize and sunflower. Three cellulose decomposition products, Bactofil С, Nutri-Life Accelerate (NLA) and Amalgerol premium were tested against the background of plots without mineral fertilizers treatment. The post harvest residue was chopped with the equipment of the harvester combine to suitable pieces and evenly spread on the soil surface. The above cellulose decomposition products were applied by sprinkling the area of the stubble in autumn, one month before sowing of wheat. The norm of the working solution was 400 l/ha, and the doses of the respective products were according to the recommendations of the manufacturers. Immediately after sprinkling the post harvest residue from the previous crops, it was incorporated in soil using disking soil tillage machines. On the basis of the averaged 4-year results, the following conclusions were drawn: the cellulose decomposition products Bactopfil C and NLA had well expressed positive effect on grain yield (relatively expressed, the increase varied from 7.0 to 18.0%); the structural components of yield and 1000 grain weight; the conditions of application of the cellulose decomposition products; the initial soil moisture and the moisture of the plant residues themselves in particular, were very important for the efficiency of the preparations; the nature of the tested cellulose decomposers makes them suitable for organic agriculture where the short-term immobilization of nutrients (especially the nitrogen-containing ones) is a common and typical process

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Feeding value estimation of spring forage pea (Pisum sativum L.) in organic cultivation

I. Nikolova, N. Georgieva, Y. Naydenova*

Institute of Forage Crops, 89 General Vladimir Vazov, 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria

Abstract. The isolated and combined action of organic products Biofa (foliar fertilizer), Polyversum (growth regulator), NeemAzal and Pyrethrum (biological insecticides) on energy and protein feeding value of the dry mass of spring forage pea grown in the conditions of organic farming is studied. As a standard of comparisonthesyntheticproductsFlordimeks(plantgrowthregulator)andNureleE(insecticide)areusedaloneorincombination. Thefieldexperimentis conducted in the period 2011 – 2013 at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. Treatments are performed once in budding and twice in budding and flowering vegetative stages for control of economically important pests. It is found that treatment with organic products in the budding stage influences the energy feeding value positively, increasing it from 0.6 to 5.2% for UFL and from 0.7 to 7.1% for UFV. The highest energy feeding value distinguished combined introduction of Nimazal and Polyverzum (UFL – 0.850 and UFV – 0.768). Double use of biological preparations is associated with a pronounced increase in forage energy feeding value from 1.1 to 9.2% for UFL and from 0.9 to 11.9% for UFV. Compared to a single treatment, an average five- and four-fold increase is established for UFL and UFV, respectively. The treatment with biological regulator Polyverzum has the greatest impact (0.864 and 0.783 for the UFL and UFV), followed by Polyverzum+NeemAzal (0.856 and 0.773 for the UFL and UFV). Protein feeding value in a single treatment is decreased by 5.6% on average. Only Biofa treatment leads to an increase of 15.3% (PBD – 117.6). Double-application is associated with an increase of the forage protein feeding value from 0.2 to 14.4% for the PBD, from 0.1 to 9.8% for PDIN and from 1.8 to 6.4% for PDIE. The highest values distinguished the treatment with NeemAzal (PBD – 99.1; PDIN – 82.3; PDIE – 91.0), followed by NeemAzal+Biofa (PBD – 99.8; PDIN – 89.7; PDIE – 89.2) and Pyrethrum + Polyverzum (PBD – 97.1; PDIN – 88.1; PDIE – 89.0).Syntheticproducts,irrespectiveofthevegetativestageofsubmission,leadtoanincreaseofparameterswhichcharacterizethe forageenergyfeeding value and protein feeding value, but in a relatively lower degree.

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The performance of female dairy calves fed texturized starters with different protein sources

E. Yavuz1, N. Todorov1*, G. Ganchev1, K. Nedelkov2

1Departmet of Morphology, Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of inclusion of dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) and canola meal, as replacement of soybean meal and sunflower meal in textured starter feed for dairy calves. The second object was to compare two starters with the same ingredient and nutrient content composed of whole maize grain (WMG) plus protein concentrate, versus mixture of WMG, pelleted DDGS, pelleted canola meal, and pelleted mineral- vitamin premix. A seventy-day experiment was carried out with 30 Black and White female calves weighing 39 kg at birth. Each calf received 2 L of high quality colostrum (above 50 mg immunoglobulin/L) three times during the first day and 2 L colostrum three times at the second day after birth. From 3 to 35 days of age, calves were fed 3 L pasteurized whole unsalable milk twice daily and from 36 to 56 days of age – once daily. Calves were allocated to three treatments based on the day of birth and weight at birth. The calves received texturized starter feed with different composition: 1) 50% whole maize grain (WMG) + 50% pelleted protein concentrate with soybean meal, DDGS and sunflower meal as protein sources for the first group (pBDS); 2) 50% WMG + 50% pelleted protein concentrate withDDGSandcanolamealforthesecondgroup(pDC);3)50%WMG+24.1%pelletedDDGS+23.4%,pelletedcanolameal +2.5%pelleted mineral-vitaminpremix forthethirdgroup(DCVp).Crudeprotein(CP)contentofallthreestarterswas19.0to19.6%.From1to35daysofagetheaverage daily gain (ADG) was 606, 580 and 569 g respectively for pBDS, pDC and DCVp groups, and did not differ (P>0.05) among treatments. From 36 to 56 days of age the ADG was 719, 710 and 695 g (P>0.05), and from 57 to 70 days 971, 964 and 943 g (P>0.05) respectively for pBDS, pDC and DCVp groups. There were no significant differences in feed efficiency, fecal score, health status and behavior of calves receiving different starter feeds. Results of this trial indicated that it is possible to replace soybean meal plus sunflower meal with canola meal and dry distillers grain with solubles, without significant changes of ADG, feed efficiency and health status of calves. Performance of calves was approximately equal when fed DDGS and canola meal as ingredients of pelleted protein concentrate or as separate ingredient in a starter mixture of WMG, pelleted DDGS, pelleted CM and pelleted mineral-vitamin premix. When pelleted DDGS and pelleted canola meal is available, it is possible to use them directly as components of starter, instead of buying protein concentrate with the same protein sources. Starter feed containing whole maize grain, pelleted DDGS, pelleted canola meal, and pelleted mineral-vitamin premix was the cheapest, compared to the other tested starter feeds.

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Influence of the direction of crossing on heterosis and transgression events in relation to the length of the vegetative period of Burley tobaccos variety group

Y. Dyulgerski2, T. Radoukova2*, L. Dospatliev3

1Tobacco and Tobacco Products Institute, Markovo, 4108 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Department of Botany and MOB, Faculty of Biology, Plovdiv University “Paisii Hilendarski”, 24 Tzar Assen, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
3Department of Pharmacology, Animal Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. Investigated are manifestations of real and hypothetical heterosis in terms of the length of vegetative period in ten hybrid combinations involving indigenous and introduced varieties of Burley tobacco. Each of them is represented by forward and reverse cross. The results show that more than half of the Burley tobacco hybrid combinations observed significant negative heterosis. Heterozis effect is influenced positively by distance of parents used for hybridization, and the participation of a variety Burley 1344, regardless of whether maternal or paternal component. The direction of crossing influences manifestations of heterosis effect in terms of length of the vegetative period at cross examined Burley tobacco. Heterosis effect is more pronounced when a local variety or line is used as a mother component and an imported variety is used as a father component. Transgressive manifestations in the studied hybrids in the second generation in terms of length of the vegetative period presented by degree and frequency are relatively low presented and do not have great importance for the selection practice. The direction of crossing influences the degree and to a lesser extent the frequency of transgressive events. Strong relationship between manifestations of heterosis and transgression has not been observed.

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Interspecific hybridization in cotton and its use in breeding

A. Stoilova*, I. Saldzhiev

Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

Abstract.InterspecifichybridizationincottonisofgreatimportancewithaviewtoexploitthediversityofspeciesinthegenusGossypiumL. Theaimofthis study was to use the genetic potential of wild species of the genus Gossypium L. to improve productivity, fiber quality and resistance to some stressors of the modern Bulgarian cotton varieties. Interspecific hybridization of Gossypium hirsutum L. species (2n=52) with the wild diploid species G. sturtii F. Muell., G. thurberi Tod., G. davidsonii Kell. and G. raimondii Ulbr.(2n=26) was realized. To overcome sterility, caused by incompatibility of the genomes, the growing tips of the F1 plants in phase cotyledons were treated with 0.1% solution of colchicine for 12 hours. Amphidiploids of the G. hirsutum × G. sturtii, G. hirsutum × G. thurberi and G. hirsutum × G. davidsonii, and trispecific hybrids G. hirsutum – G. arboreum – G. raimondii, G. hirsutum – G. arboreum – G. thurberi and G. hirsutum – G. thurberi – G. raimondii were obtained. To overcome the undesirable qualities that hybrids inherited together with desirable ones from the wild species two- or three-times backcrossing in C1 and F1 (at the triple hybrids) and in the later generations was applied. Studies carried out with this hybridization revealed a number of opportunities such as to increase productivity, to improve fiber quality, resistance to low positive temperatures, drought tolerance, to obtain new valuable traits. After backcrossing to the cultivated species valuable introgressed forms having high productivity (from the hybridization with G. thurberi), high strength of the fiber and resistance to aphids and thrips (from the hybridization with G. sturtii), drought-tolerance or resistance to low positive temperatures, etc., were obtained.

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Genetic diversity in different accessions of oat (Avena sativa L.)

T. Savova1*, B. Dyulgerova1, G. Panayotova2

1Institut of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
2Institut of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflik”, 7000 Rousse, Bulgaria

Abstract. The objective of this study was to study genetic diversity among winter oat accessions by using multivariate analyses: hierarchical cluster and principal component (PC) analyses. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, during the period 2005 – 2011. Oat germplasm consisting of 25 genotypes was evaluated for length of vegetation period, winter resistance, lodging resistance, plant height, length of panicle, number of spikelets and grain in 1 panicle, grain weight per panicle,1000-grain weight. The Dunav 1 variety was used for comparison as a standard for winter oats. There was a significant genetic diversity among the studied accessions, which allows selection of appropriate parents with characters important for oat breeding. In the direction of early ripening the accessions: РА 7606-51, РА 7307-70 and NC 79-43; low stem: РА 7409-151, РА 7915-1342, РА 8019-1; lodging resistance: РА 7507-14, РА 7219-19, РА 7617-3460 may be included as suitable sources. The best combination of agronomically valuable traits was established for accessions: РА 7617-3658, РА 8014-1356 and РА 7603-7. Panicle length, number of spikelets and grain in the panicle, weight of grain in one panicle and 1000-grain weight were the important traits in differentiating the genotypes.

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Correlation between grain yield and yield components in winter barley varieties

N. Markova Ruzdik1*, D.Valcheva2, D.Vulchev2, Lj. Mihajlov1, I. Karov1, V. Ilieva1

1Faculty of Agriculture, “Goce Delchev” University, 2000 Stip, Macedonia 2Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

Abstract. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between yield and its components and their direct and indirect effects on grain yield in two-row winter barley varieties. The experimental work was conducted during the period of 2012-2014 on the research fields of the Faculty of Agriculture, in two different areas in the Republic of Macedonia, Ovche Pole and Strumica. As far as material is concerned, 21 genotypes were used with Macedonian, Serbian, Croatian and Bulgarian origin. Significant and positive coefficient of correlations were obtained between grain yield and number of spike per m2, number of productive tillers per plant and grain weight per plant, number of grain per spike and grain weight per spike, grain weight per spike and 1000 grains weight in both localities. The highest direct effect to grain yield was obtained by number of spikes per m2 in both localities. Therefore, this trait can be used as a criterion in breeding to improve the yield of barley varieties.

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Analysis of DNA polymorphism of CAST gene in Local Karnobat and Stara Zagora sheep breeds

D. Hristova*, S. Georgieva, S. Tanchev

Department of Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. Considered calpastatin as a candidate gene for meat and growth traits in sheep production it is important to understand the genetic variability in this locus. The present work was oriented to identification of calpastatin gene polymorphism and analysis of genetic structure of the populations representing two bulgarian sheep breeds – Local Karnobat and Stara Zagora.The material involved 96 sheep of breeds and genomic DNA was isolated by commersial purified kit and used in order to estimate calpastatin genotypes by PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with MspI restriction enzyme as a result were detectedtwodifferentgenotypesintheobservedlocus–homozygousMMandheterozygousMNinStaraZagorasheep populationwithfrequencies0.937 and 0.063, respectively. M and N allele frequencies were identified with 0.968 and 0.032. The observed heterozygosity in Stara Zagora sheep population was 0.063 and the chi-square test confirmed the existence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population (P>0.05). In the total population of Local Karnobat sheep was detected homozygous MM only. The results presented in this study show polymorphism of the calpastatin gene in the population of Stara Zagora sheep. Therefore, we could be confirm the importance of this gene as a potential DNA marker in marker-assisted selection with respect to meat production.

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