Ecological analysis of the flora in the ‘Chinarite’ protected area – Rodopi municipality, Bulgaria

L. Dospatliev1*, M. Lacheva2

1Department of Pharmacology, Animal Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria;
2Department of Botany, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 June 2016; accepted for publication 21 August 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to make an ecological analysis of the floristic composition in the protected area ‘Chinarite’ Rodopi municipality, Bulgaria in terms of its biological spectrum, biological types and phytogeographic elements and an assessment of the anthropogenic effect on it. In studied protected area were identified 147 species of vascular plants, of them 8 species included in the Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 73 medicinal species, 55 nectariferous plants and 10 tertiary relicts were recorded. The anthropogenic impact on the protected area is obvious and it has affected to the greatest degree the species composition of vascular plants, which encompasses a large number of weeds – 28 species,ruderals-29species,alien -5speciesandinvasive-6species.

Carcass characteristics and technological properties of Musculus Longissimus Lumborum at lambs from the Bulgarian dairy synthetic population and its F1 crosses with meat breeds

N. Ivanov1*, T. Angelova1, S. Laleva1, S. Ribarski2, D. Miteva1, D. Yordanova1, V. Karabashev1, I. Penchev2

1Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 28 March 2017; accepted for publication 26 May 2017)

Abstract. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the breed on some of the carcass characteristics and the technological properties of Musculus Longissimus Lumborum in lambs from the Bulgarian Dairy Synthetic Population and its F1 crosses with Ile de France and Mutton Charollais breeds. The scientific study took place at the Agricultural Institute of Stara Zagora, Bulgaria. Object of the study were lambs from the Bulgarian Dairy Synthetic Population and its crosses with Ile de France and Mutton Charollais breeds. The internal organs weight of the animals from the three groups was measured after their slaughter. In order to determine the meat/bones ratio, the left carcass halves were deboned. The eye muscle area and analyzed samples of Musculus Longissimus Lumborum was determined. The results show a slight variation in the weight of the internal organs of the animals from the three groups. The Mutton Charollais crosses come first in terms of eye muscle area (11.34 cm2), followed by the Ile de France crosses (11.21 cm2), and the lambs from the reference group come last with only 8.64 cm2 (P ≤ 0.001). With regard to the meat/bones ratio, it was found out that in the Ile de France crosses it is the highest (2.90:1), followed by the Mutton Charollais crosses (2.68:1), and the lambs from the reference group (2.43:1) where it is the lowest (P >0.05). Ile de France crosses exhibited statistically significantly higher meat tenderness (P ≤ 0.001) and water-holding capacity (WHC) (P ≤ 0.01), while Mutton Charollais crosses – considerably higher cooking losses (P ≤ 0.001) than control animals.

Exopolysaccharide influence on acid gel formation

K. Yoanidu1, P. Boyanova2*, P. Panayotov2

1Department Industrial Microbiology, The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 26 Acad. G. Bonchev, 1113 Sofia,

2Department of milk and milk products, Faculty of Technology, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 February 2017; accepted for publication 16 April 2017)

Abstract. Turbidimetric monitoring of milk coagulation was conducted in situ. Milk gel was produced by acidification with the use of three strains of starter culture. These strains were characterized by various acidification rate and exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. The concentrations of EPS affect mostly the pH of gel formation (5.53 – low EPS – producing strain; 5.33 – medium EPS – producing strain; 5.46 – high EPS – producing strain) whereas the time of gel formation depends on the various rate of acidification of all three strains.

Concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids at turkey broilers during and after muscle dystrophy, fed with deficient feed supplemented with oxidised fat

K. Stoyanchev

Department of Internal Diseases and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 April 2016; accepted for publication 7 June 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to reproduce experimentally muscular dystrophy in 50 broiler turkeys, through early nutrition with a diet deficient in vitamin E, selenium and sulfur-containing amino acids, supplemented with oxidised fat and to study blood plasma sulfur containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine). The experiments were conducted with 1 day-old broiler turkeys. By the 3rd day of life, they were divided into 40 experimental (II group) and 10 control birds (I group); the latter were fed a standard compound feed, whereas the former group received a diet deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine (reduced up to 50%), vitamin E, and Se (from 0.2 mg/kg in standard feed to 0.01 mg/kg), further supplemented with oxidized fat containing peroxides and aldehydes with peroxide number of the food 8.0 meq O2/kg. The clinical signs of experimental muscle dystrophy in broiler turkeys 2
appeared first by the 25th day of feeding, when the mild clinical form (II A group) and the severe clinical form (II B group) werewas established. The results indicated clearly that in turkey broilers suffering from muscle dystrophy, the concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine decreased. After the treatment of turkey broilers with muscle dystrophy, and supplementation with non-deficient forage with Se, vitamin E, but also with sulfurcontaining amino acids cysteine or methionine with Seled at a dosage 0.06 mg/kg, the plasma levels of sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine was normalized in the mild clinical form (II A group). The birds affected by the severe clinical form of disease (II B group), which were not treated with Seled® and whose deficient feed was not corrected, could not recover and levels of sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine did not normalize.

Reclamation of soil excavated from construction and mine searching areas in Turkey

F. Apaydın

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Yalova University, Çınarcık Yolu, Yalova, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 April 2017; accepted for publication 02 June 2017)

Abstract. Soil fundamental for life is a strategic entity for our country like other countries and both the government and institutions and society should make an effort to protect it. On fertile lands for different purposes construction is made and mines are searched and soil on these lands are called excavated soil and in most times lost. In this paper, the main purpose is to analyze the situation of fertile excavation soil and develop suggestions which are believed to be bases for academicians and practitioners. Another significant purpose of this paper is to make suggestions for reclamation of excavated soil. Methods used are observation of construction areas, content analysis of legal arrangements and comprehensive literature review. As a conclusion it is suggested that the mentioned soil should be reclaimed and earned for agriculture by carrying it and spreading it over unfertile land in other parts. In order to put this into practice, it is suggested that “soil protection plan” should be made compulsory for the project owners before starting any kind of construction and mine searching activities to reclaim fertile excavated soil. Some amendments are needed to be done by the politicians.

Ecological characteristics of reclaimed areas in Pernik mines region, Bulgaria

I. Kirilov*, M. Banov

Nikola Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 August 2016; accepted for publication 29 April 2017)

Abstract. A referential literary analysis of the reclaimed area around coal mines near the town of Pernik, Bulgaria, is made in this paper. Affected areas (damaged, altered, etc.) around mining companies in the country are a serious environmental problem, including the territory of coal mines of Pernik which is a problem for the country. The area affected by the mining industry around Pernik occupies a territory of about 30 000 ha. As a result of the natural factors and the anthropogenic impact this region is characterized by a rather complicated soil situation. There are markedly expressed erosion and land-sliding processes on the slopes as well as conditions for surface over-humidification, swamping and salinization in some land lowering and on separate sections of the terraces of the rivers. The situation has acquired an exceptionally technogenic character after the development of the mines, the enormous pits and heaps and the construction of the industrial pads and equipment. The reclamation of environment in industrial areas is closely connected above all with the reclamation of disturbed areas and materials and can be performed in different ways according to their properties and economic effect. In connection with the extremely unfavorable conditions of a significant proportion of disturbed technogenic areas one of the basic methods is planting forests of production character or for recreational purpose. The inevitable degradation of the landscape can be corrected mainly by technical and biological reclamation of the disturbed terrains. A large part of the green belt of the town of Pernik was constructed on former heaps – mainly by afforestation. These activities have solved the problem of the separation of the town from the mining sites by a noise-preventing and dust-stopping embankment especially when the prevailing northwestern and northeastern winds are considered. Our main goal is to analyze and suggest the appropriate methods for biological reclamation of territories degraded by mining activities in Pernik coal mines region. That all proves the relevance and necessity of fundamental research and experimental work to identify opportunities for its targeted guidance and acceleration of the process. It has been established that almost all lands provided for agricultural uses are not cultivated and enter the fund of deserted lands. The basic reason for that fact is the lack of projects for biological reclamation and the insufficient justification of technical reclamation.

Heavy metal pools in urban soils from city parks of Sofia, Bulgaria

V. G. Kachova1*, I. D. Atanassova2

1Forest Research Institute, Kliment Ohridski Blvd. 132, 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria

2Nikola Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnology and Plant Protection, 1080 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 4 April 2017; accepted for publication 30 May 2017)

Abstract. With a population ~ 1 300 000 million and an area of 1344 km2, Sofia, Bulgaria is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe with registered contamination of the air, water and soils of the city including heavy metals. The purpose of the study is to analyze the different pools under which heavy metals in urban soils exist. The chosen sites are the largest forest parks in Sofia. Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil of samples were sequentially extracted and separated soluble F1 (70% ethyl alcohol solution), liable F2 (1N CH3C00Na, pH = 7), carbonate bound F3 (1N CH3C00Na + 1N CH3C00H, pH = 3), soil organic matter bound F4 (30% H2O2), amorphous iron oxide bound F5 (0.5 M Na-citrate), total “aqua regia” content and residual fraction F6 (measured as a difference from total). These operationally defined fractions give estimates of available (F1, F2), potentially liable (F3, F4, F5) and pseudo-total contents in soils, respectively. Metals were manly concentrated in the “residual fraction” F6. Organic matter associated is manly Cu and Pb, while carbonates-bound and amorphous iron oxides-bound were Pb and Zn. The mobility of the studied metals decreased in the order: Cd > Zn > Cu ≥ Pb. The soils with high pH and Cation exchenge capacity measured at pH = 8.2 (CEC8.2) show lower amounts of mobile (easily-available) forms of heavy metals.

Floristic diversity of ‘Chinarite’ protected area – Rodopi municipality, Bulgaria

L. Dospatliev1*, M. Lacheva2

1Department of Pharmacology, Animal Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora,
2Department of Botany, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 10 June 2016; accepted for publication 21 March 2017)

Abstract. Study on the species composition of vascular plants in ‘Chinarite’ protected area in Belashtitsa village, Rodopi Municipality, Bulgaria was conducted using the floristic analysis method. A total of 147 species of vascular plants were identified, belonging to 124 genera and 51 families. The families Poaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae are the most highly represented. The comparative analysis shows that the angiosperm taxa are dominating in the studied area. Dicotyledonous plants are prevailing among them, while monocotyledonous are significantly less in number. Molinia caerulea species, identified in the present study, has not been reported to have been found so far in the Thracian lowland floristic region.

Modeling and simulation of fuzzy logic controller for optimization of the greenhouse microclimate management

Didi Faouzi*1, N. Bibi-Triki1, B. Draoui2, A. Abene3

1Materials and Renewable Energy Research Unit M.R.E.R.U, University of Abou-bakr Belkaïd, B.P. 119Tlemcen, Algeria
2Energy Laboratory in Drylands, University of Bechar, Bechar Algeria
3Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Environment and Renewable Energies, University of Valenciennes, France

(Manuscript received 21 November 2016; accepted for publication 8 June 2017)
Abstract. Agricultural greenhouse is largely answered in the agricultural sphere, despite the shortcomings it has, including overheating during the day and night cooling which sometimes results in the thermal inversion mainly due to its low inertia. The glasshouse dressed chapel is relatively more efficient than the conventional tunnel greenhouse. Its proliferation on the ground is more or less timid because of its relatively high cost. Agricultural greenhouse aims to create a favorable microclimate to the requirements of growth and development of culture, from the surrounding weather conditions, produce according to the cropping calendars fruits, vegetables and flower species out of season and widely available along the year. It is defined by its structural and functional architecture, the quality thermal, mechanical and optical of its wall, with its sealing level and the technical and technological accompanying. The greenhouse is a very confined environment, where multiple components are exchanged between key stakeholders and the factors are light, temperature and relative humidity. This state of thermal evolution is the level sealing of the cover of its physical characteristics to be transparent to solar, absorbent and reflective of infrared radiation emitted by the enclosure where the solar radiation trapping effect otherwise called “greenhouse effect” and its technical and technological means of air that accompany. The socio-economic analysis of populations in the world leaves appear especially the last two decades of rapid and profound transformations These changes are accompanied by changes in eating habits, mainly characterized by rising consumption spread along the year. To effectively meet this demand, greenhouse systems have evolved, particularly towards greater control of production conditions (climate, irrigation, ventilation techniques, CO2 supply, etc.). Technological progress has allowed the development of greenhouses so that they become increasingly sophisticated and of an industrial nature (heating, air conditioning,
control, computer, regulation, etc.) New climate driving techniques have emerged, including the use of control devices from the classic to the use of artificial intelligence such as neural networks and / or fuzzy logic, etc. As a result, the greenhouse growers prefer these new technologies while optimizing the investment in the field to effectively meet the supply and demand of these fresh products cheaply and widely available throughout the year, The application of artificial intelligence in the industry known for considerable growth, which is not the case in the field of agricultural greenhouses, where enforcement remains timid. It is from this fact, we undertake research work in this area and conduct a simulation based on meteorological data through MATLAB Simulink to finally analyze the thermal behavior – greenhouse microclimate energy.

Study on the process of unloading grain harvesters at the end of the field

G. Tihanov

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University,
6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 4 January 2017; accepted for publication 11 April 2017)

Abstract. The paper analyses the cases of unloading harvester hoppers at the end of the field. A passive experiment was carried out in two agricultural farms while harvesting wheat and rice, and the times that affect the unloading of the grain hopper have been measured when the harvester moves to the end of the field to unload its hopper. In chronometering the operations it has been established that 63% of the time for unloading grain hoppers at the end of the field is used for auxiliary operations and only 37% of the time is related to proper unloading of the grain hopper. It has been found that the time for moving the harvester to the vehicle at the end of the field has longer duration (t = 127.72 s) than the time when the harvester goes back to the strip of land to continue harvesting (t = 1 780.36 s).