Influence of elevated platform (wire-mesh or wooden) in the cage on domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) activity

S. Peeva1*, E. Raichev1, D. Georgiev2, A. Stefanov3

1Department of Animal Production – Non-ruminants and Other Animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria,

2Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, 6000, Bulgaria

3Student Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 29 June 2017; accepted for publication 12 August 2017)

Abstract. Placing an elevated platform in the cage of rabbits is an option to increase its area. The aim of this study was to determine whether raised platform affected the overall activity of breeding rabbits and to evaluate the influence of used material (wire-mesh or wood). Two experimental groups of three male Californian rabbits at four months of age, equal body mass and condition were formed. Their activity was examined in three cage types: without platforms, with wire-meshplatformsandwithwoodenplatformsusingcameratraps.Separationofcagevolumebymeansofanelevated platformincreasedtheactivityof breeding rabbits. The rabbit activity was also influenced by the platform material. It was almost three times higher when the platform was made from wood than from wire-mesh.

Sensory and instrumental texture analysis of Bulgarian commercial pates

M. Tonchev1, T. Atanasov1, A. Todorova1, Ts. Atanasova1, N. Shtrankova1, M. Momchilova2 G. Zsivanovits2

University of Food Technologies (UFT), 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Food Research and Development Institute (FoodRDI), 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 June 2017; accepted for publication 22 August 2017)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to characterize the textural differences between Bulgarian commercial pates with different ingredients and to adapt the used methods for later application in texture analysis of sterilized meat products. Texture parameters were studied by sensory and instrumental methods. The sensory panel was stated from students in similar age and was asked to fulfill a questionnaire about their likening the poultry pates bought from the commercial network. Nine points sensory scales were used, about appearance, colour, spreadability by knife to bread, flavor, consistency, taste, aftertaste and overall likening. The panelists were asked to rank the pates based on their colour, spreadability and consistency. Instrumental texture parameters – texture profile and spreadability work, were analyzed by Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer in Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) and compression methods. For further analysis of spreadability, the probes were scanned by flatbed scanner before and after compression and their area ratio was measured by image analysis method. The results of sensory analysis show that, the pate with duck meat received the highest liking based on the overall liking, followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the lowest liked was the pate with goose meat. Based on the sensory spreadability and consistency the hardest was the pate with goose meat followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the softest was the pate with duck meat. The results from instrumental spreadability and hardness showed positive correlations with the results of the sensory analysis.

Food emulsions with amidated pectin from celery (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum D.C.) tubers

Iv. Petrova1, N. Petkova2*, M. Ognyanov3, Ap. Simitchiev4, M. Todorova2, P. Denev2

1Department of Catering and Tourism, Faculty of Economic, University of Food Technologies, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Department of Organic Chemistry and Inorganic Chemistry, Technological Faculty, University of Food Technologies, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria 3Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Biologically Active Substances, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
4Department of Machinery for Food Industry, Technical Faculty, University of Food Technologies, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 29 May 2017; accepted for publication 22 August 2017)

Abstract. Hydrocolloids, especially polysaccharides from traditional plant sources and their derivatives possessed significant emulsifying properties. Pectin was isolated from celery tubers by accelerated “green” method for extraction based on ultrasonic irradiation. Further chemical modification of celery pectin was performed with 4 mol/L NH3. The amidated celery pectin was obtained with the following characteristics: the degree of esterification (DE) 31%, the degree of amidation (DA) 16%, degree of acetylation (DAc) 2% and anhydrouronic acid content (AUAC) 68%. This modified pectin was incorporated in preparation of model30,40and50%oil-in-wateremulsions.Theeffectofamidationofcelerypectinonthestabilityofemulsionswasinvestigated. Theresultsshowedthat amidation increased the emulsifying properties of pectic polysaccharides. It affected also the rheological characteristics of model emulsion. The current study demonstrated preparation of emulsion with low-caloric amidated pectin as proper alternative to the traditional emulsifiers.

Ecological analysis of the flora in the ‘Chinarite’ protected area – Rodopi municipality, Bulgaria

L. Dospatliev1*, M. Lacheva2

1Department of Pharmacology, Animal Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria;
2Department of Botany, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 June 2016; accepted for publication 21 August 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to make an ecological analysis of the floristic composition in the protected area ‘Chinarite’ Rodopi municipality, Bulgaria in terms of its biological spectrum, biological types and phytogeographic elements and an assessment of the anthropogenic effect on it. In studied protected area were identified 147 species of vascular plants, of them 8 species included in the Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 73 medicinal species, 55 nectariferous plants and 10 tertiary relicts were recorded. The anthropogenic impact on the protected area is obvious and it has affected to the greatest degree the species composition of vascular plants, which encompasses a large number of weeds – 28 species,ruderals-29species,alien -5speciesandinvasive-6species.

Avifauna abundance and diversity in Jos wildlife park, Nigeria

B.T. Kwaga1, D. Iliya1, A. Ali1, D. Khobe2*

1Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 1 June 2017; accepted for publication 30 August 2017)

Abstract. There is a great need to determine the abundance and diversity of any ecosystems biodiversity through its species composition and richness. This study compared the diversity and abundance of bird (avifauna) species in three habitats of the Wildlife Park, Plateau State, Nigeria. The three vegetation types (Gallery, Savannah and the Rocky areas) were surveyed. Fifteen (15) line transects (five in each of the habitats) were laid in the morning and evening hours. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics (mean and percentages). Simpson’s diversity index was also employed in assessing the diversity of avifauna species in the study area. The result obtained indicated that a total of 616, 569 and 363 birds were recorded in the morning hours while a total of 117, 140 and 115 were identified in the evening. The results of birds species diversity (morning and evening) indicated that transects II (0.5956) and I (0.7407) for Gallery forests, transects II (0.6946) and III (1.000) for Savannah V (0.0784) and I (0.0752) for Rocky habitats, respectively, had the highest birds diversity. It is recommended that pastoralists and Plateau State Government should liaise and provide alternative grazing reserves to minimize the encroachment of the pastoralists into the Park and other protected areas.

Influence of basic agrotechnical activities on the productivity and yield of Triticum monococcum L.

S. Stamatov*, K. Uzundzhalieva, E. Valchinova, G. Desheva, P. Chavdarov, B. Kyosev, T. Cholakov, R. Ruseva, N. Velcheva

Institute of Plant genetic Resources „Konstantin Malkov”, 2 Druzhba, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 7 June 2017; accepted for publication 25 August 2017)

Abstract. The study was conducted during the period 2014 – 2016 in the experimental field of Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Sadovo. The influence of the period of sowing, the predecessor and the fertilization on the elements of productivity and grain yield per hectare in einkorn wheat were studied. It was established that the structural elements of productivity – number of productive tillers, length of the spike, number of spikelets per spike, mass of central spike, number of grains in central spike, weight of the grains from the central spike are with the highest values in plants grown after predecessor peas, sown in autumn and fertilized with extra nitrogen. With least developed productive capabilities are the plant variants sown in spring after sunflower and without additional fertilization with nitrogen. With proved the biggest impact on grain yield per hectare is the date of sowing. The sources of variation: predecessor and combined effect of factors predecessor x fertilization show equal share of influence on the productivity of einkorn. The results from the study give science-based information on the most favorable time of sowing, fertilizing and predecessor in einkorn.

Present status of Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola /Fuckel/ Schroter) of the wheat cultures in the Republic of Macedonia

I. Karov*, E. Arsov

Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Goce Delcev University, Krste Misirkov, 2000 Stip, Republic of Macedonia (Manuscript received 6 July 2017; accepted for publication 31 August 2017)

Abstract. In the Republic of Macedonia, wheat is a very important crop and it is grown on an area of around 250.000 ha. The most important regions for wheat growing are: Bitola, Kumanovo, Sveti Nikole, Skopje, Probistip, Kocani, Veles and Stip. The most important deseases on wheat are: Tapesia yallundae Wallwork and Spooner with its anamorphic stage Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron) Deighton causer of the desease „eyespot“ on barley and wheat; Puccinia graminis f. spp. tritici; Puccinia racondita f. spp. tritici; Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici; Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker; Blumeria graminis var. tritici and Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola (Fuckel) Schroter). Many new diseases on wheat causing significant economic damage to producers are observed in Macedonia. The main aim of this article is to present the symptoms, morphology and protective measures of Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola), the most widely spread fungal pathogens on wheat in the Republic of Macedonia. In the period between 2014 and 2016, the pathogen fungi on wheat with the highest intensity were: Zymoseptoria tritici, Tapesia yallundae, Puccinia graminis, Puccinia recondita, Gaeumannomyces graminis, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Blumeria graminis. The intensity of the diseases and the damages – yield losses of wheat, differed from year to year and between regions, depended on the sensitivity of the wheat varieties. The smallest yield loss was identified in wheat producers who treated the wheat with pesticides at least twice for vegetation season.

Mathematical approaches for assessment and classification of the European Union member states based on the average yield of vegetables for the period 1961-2014

N. Keranova*

Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 May 2017; accepted for publication 27 July 2017)

Abstract. The objective of this work is to analyze the statistical data on the average yield of vegetables in the European Union member states for the period 1961 – 2014. The EU countries are classified and grouped through hierarchical cluster analysis based on the average yield of vegetables. A mathematical model for evaluation of the received data is composed through a single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that the countries with the highest yields are Belgium (33.81 t/ha), Austria (29.39 t/ha) and the Netherlands (27.76 t/ha), while the lowest yields are in Bulgaria (4.05 t/ha) and Luxembourg (0.19 t/ha). Dependencies have been identified between the change in the average yields in Bulgaria, Greece and Romania and time. It was found that they were modeled by polynomial regression models of second degree.

Justification of a method for determining the moment for switching on the level one signaling of filled grain harvester hoppers

G. Tihanov1*, B. Kolev2, K. Trendafilov3, N. Delchev1, Y. Stoyanov1

1Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Agricultural Machinery, Agrarian and Industrial Faculty, “Angel Kanchev” University of Ruse, 7017 Ruse, Bulgaria 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technics and Technologies – Yambol, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 4 January 2017; accepted for publication 11 April 2017)

Abstract. The main issue in the joint operation of a grain harvester and a transport vehicle is determining the moment when the vehicle has to start travelling to the harvester, so that it will arrive at it when the hopper is full. The result of the incorrect determining of that moment is that the productivity of the transport vehicle is not efficiently used and in the case when the hopper is unloaded at a harvester stantstill position, the harvester productivity is also reduced due to more frequent stops. The article proposes a method for determining the part of the grain harvester hopper volume after the filling of which the signalling shall be switched on indicating to the vehicle driver when to start moving toward the harvester. The results of real measurements are shown on different farms of the time of movement of the vehicle to the harvester for unloading. An analysis of the results has been made on the basis of the developed method as well and recommendations have been made to regulate the time of switching on the signalling. A nomogram has been proposed for determining the part of the grain hopper volume after the filling of which the signalling is to be switched on depending on the ratio between the time for moving of the vehicle and the time for filling the grain harvester hopper to the top.

Influence of organic nitrogen amendment, containing amino acids on the cellulase and xylanase, produced by Trichoderma spp. isolates

D. Draganova*, I. Valcheva, Y. Kuzmanova, M. Naydenov

Department of Microbiology and Ecological Biotechnologies, Faculty of Plant Protection and Agroecology, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 14 June 2017; accepted for publication 8 August 2017)

Abstract. Cellulases and hemicellulases are amount the main hydrolytic enzymes, involved in the bioconversion of lignocellulose material by microorganisms. Filamentous fungi of the genus Trichoderma are one of the most studied and good producer of cellulases and hemicellulases. The nutrients balance, especially carbon to nitrogen ratio, is one of the main factors of the biodegradation. The ability of 37 local isolates of Trichoderma sp. to produce cellulases and xylanase were tested in solid state cultivation on wheat straw as a substrate whit two variants: 1. the straw was only moistured with destilated water (CN 80:1); 2. the C:N ratio of the straw was adjusted to 30:1 using organic nitrogen amendment. There is a significant difference in the enzymatic activity of the isolates in their cultivation on straw with CN 80 and CN 30. The highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activity at CN 80 showed T1T (110.19U/ml), and in the variant at CN 30 – TD (369.07U/ml). The highest β-glucosidase activity on both variants CN 80 and CN 30 was established for TG (2743.1U/ml – 12679.9U/ml). The highest xylanase activity at CN 80 and CN 30 was measured on T4I (21311.5U/ml – 47937.5U/ml). After ONA addition, all enzymes activities have increased several times, indicating the enhancing effect of the additive. The average activity of CMCase increased 6.1 times, the average β – glucosidase activity increased 5.1 times, while the xylanase activity increased 4.9 times for all tested isolates. The increase in activity of the investigated enzymes showed different patterns.