Analysis of structure and performance of paddy rice marketing in Adamawa state, Nigeria

Y. Dauna1, D.Y. Giroh1, W.B. Adamu2

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
2Yola Electricity Distribution Company Yerwa Business Unit, Maiduguri, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 20 March 2018; accepted for publication 31 May 2018)

Abstract. Many factors such as inadequate capital, poor infrastructure, poor price information could bring about distortion in the structure and performance of the market process resulting to the reduction in profit margin of marketers and a disincentive to present and prospective marketers of paddy rice. This study was conducted to analyze the structure and performance of paddy rice marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to examine the structure of rice market and to evaluate the performance of the market participants in the study area. Data were collected from 204 rice marketers using multi stage sampling technique. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) was used to determine structure of the market, while Marketing Efficiency measure was applied in analyzing the market performance of the market participants. The HHI pooled results for year 2013, 2014 and 2015 revealed that paddy rice marketing in Adamawa State has a highly competitive market structure (11.38 and 71) with low (42% and 24%) marketing performance for retailers and wholesalers, respectively. To improve the performance of market participants, it is recommended that government should open up and rehabilitate the road network in the hinterlands to facilitate easy evacuation of agricultural inputs and commodities in and out of the market. Financial support and formation of unions would enable the marketers benefit from scale operation and enroll for training on entrepreneurship.

Meat quality and boar taint in entire male pigs fattened to 90 kg

I.G. Penchev1, S. Ribarski1, D. Dimitrov2, T. Stoyanchev3, S. Ivanova4

1Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Slaughterhouse “Dimes 2000” EOOD, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria,
3Department of Food safety and control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
4Department of International cooperation and public relations, Agricultural Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 23 February 2018; accepted for publication 10 May 2018)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, technological traits and incidence of boar taint of meat from entire male pigs from two of the commonest breeds reared in Bulgaria: Landrace and Danube White. Fifty meat samples from entire male pigs (22 Landrace and 28 Danube White) fattened to average live weight of 90 kg were investigated. The chemical composition of Landrace pig meat was characterised with insignificantly lower fat and mineral content compared to Danube White meat. There were no significant differences between both breeds as technological properties of meat (pH, water holding capacity, and cooking loss) were concerned. The breed had a statistically significant effect on meat marbling (р<0.001). Landrace meat exhibited insignificantly higher incidence of the unpleasant boar taint as compared to Danube White meat (27.27% and 25.00%, respectively).

Profitability analysis of small-scale fish farming in Mubi metropolis of Adamawa State, Nigeria: Alternative to poverty alleviation

J.D. Daniel1, Z.H. Yerima2, A.B. Shelleng1

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria
2Adamawa State Post Primary Schools Management Board, Yola, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 18 March 2018; accepted for publication 28 May 2018)

Abstract. The study examined the profit potentials of fish farming in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from 70 respondents through snow-ball sampling technique between April and May 2015. The results revealed 81.43% of the respondents were youth within the age range of 20-40 years, with majority (74.29%) of them being males. About 74.3% had household members, which range from 1-5, more so, 54.3% had one form of formal education or the other. Most of the respondents also (54.30) were civil servants. Analysis of cost and returns from the fish farms unveiled a net farm profit of $407.37 (₦150 879.22) per cycle, with a benefit cost ratio of 2.03, which implies that a dollar is gained as a profit for every one dollar invested in the farming business in the study area. High cost of fingerlings (25.35%) and inadequate information on fish farming practices (15.02%) were among the major problems militating against fish farming in the area. The study recommended the supply of credit facilities to the respondents as well as extension services delivery through government and non-government organisations to improve on the farmers’ output.

Determination of Stone marten (Martes foina) and Pine marten (Martes martes) in natural habitats using camera traps

Department of Animal Production – Non-ruminants and Other Animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora 6000, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 15 May 2018; accepted for publication 4 June 2018)

Abstract. In the nature, difficulties with distinguishing of closely related species like Stone marten (Martes foina) and Pine marten (Martes martes) appear. Based on 280 photos a non-invasive method for determining the Stone marten and the Pine marten by camera trapping was performed. Sloping trees (similar to Leaning-Pole or Running-Pole) were used as a route for animals to pass with a purpose to be photographed. Honey and distal parts of bird wings were used as a lure. The camera was set to capture the climbing animal from the side. The coat coloration and scent marking patterns – proper species indicators – were clearly visible on daily photos. The night photos showed the differences in body proportion but not these in throat patch coloration. Profile photographing also allowed an individual determination based on throat patch shape and area.

Wastewater characteristics by physico-chemical parameters from different type treatment plants

D. Dermendzhieva

Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 21 January 2018; accepted for publication 2 April 2018)

Abstract. The purpose of the present study was to make wastewater characterization by physico-chemical parameters from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) – Municipal WWTP (MWWTP) and Poultry meat processing enterprise WWTP (PMPEWWTP). The investigation was carried out during 2016 and 11 wastewater parameters (ToC, pH, EC, SS, COD, BOD and total forms of N, P, K, Na and chlorides content) were controlled in 4 monitoring points (MPs) at both WWTPs: MP-1 – inlet of WWTP, MP-2 – after section of biological treatment, MP-3 – outlet of vertical precipitators and MP-4 – outlet of WWTP. Wastewater samples were collected every two months from each MP and were analyzed by validated Bulgarian State and ISO standards. The following were recorded: a) the value limit variation at the surveyed parameters and their characteristics by monitoring points in both treatment plants; b) that both TPs demonstrated high removal efficiency (81.6-98.6%) in regard to SS, COD, BOD5, Total N and Total P, and very low removal efficiency in regard to Total K (2.2-12.5%); c) that the final effluents from both TPs meet the ecological requirements for discharge in the receiving water bodies (Bedecka River and Azmaka River, respectively) for the parameters SS, COD, BOD5 and TN and deviate from them by phosphorus content that exceeds the permitted limit; d) that in MWWTP there are 25 correlations (15 positive and 10 negative) between monitored WW parameters and in PMPEWWTP – 28 correlations (19 positive and 9 negative), respectively; e) that there are different trends in the changes of the controlled physicochemical parameters by monitoring points and by months in both WWTPs determined on the basis of a regression model – a polynomial of degree II; f) that Na, Cl, COD and BOD5 WW content correlates very well with some other parameters, which allowed the development of linear regression models to determine their concentrations.

Effect of bioorganic fertilizers and growth regulators on productivity and immune response of field tomatoes

O. Georgieva¹, N. Valchev²

¹Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
²Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 16 February 2018; accepted for publication 21 May 2018)

Abstract. In conditions of growing tomatoes in the open field the effect of bioorganic fertilizers and growth regulators have been studied based on humic acids Nagro and Stimix on the main growth indicators, yield and immune response of plant in tomatoes for medium early production of the variety Milyana. It has been found that seed treatment and seedlings with the bioorganic products Nagro and Stimix improve the biometric indicators of seedlings and plants during vegetation and accelerate the process of flowering of tomato phenophases. Fertilization with those bioorganic fertilizers at phase flowering increases the earliest and total yield. The application of the technological complex of activities including fertilization with mineral fertilizers Nı6P20K22, treatment of seeds with organic fertilizers Nagro and Stimix, and spraying of plants with conventional plant protection products leads to reduction of attack from Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani in tomatoes.

Assessment of the yields of essential oil crops in Bulgaria through mathematical approaches

  1. Keranova

Department of Mathematics, Informatics and Physics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 9 April 2018; accepted for publication 23 May 2018)


Аbstract. The present study examines the yields of the following essential-oil crops: oil-yielding rose (Rosa Damascena), peppermint (Mentha piperita), lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) in Bulgaria from 2003 to 2013 based on mathematical approaches. Correlation and regression analyses have been applied using the capabilities of the IBM Statistics SPSS 24 and the MS Excel 2010 software. The study proves the existence of positive correlations between ‘year’ and ‘yield’ of the lemon balm (r=0.609*), between oil-yielding rose and lavender (r=0.620*) and between lavender and coriander (r=0.766**) and negative association between ‘year’ and the peppermint yield (r=-0.700*). Between yields of other crops – oil-yielding rose, coriander and lavender, and between year and the yields from these crops there are no statistically proven relations. Linear regression equations are presented, showing the relation between the year and the quantity of lemon balm and peppermint production.

An assessment of farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills in Ekiti State, Nigeria

S.E. Komolafe, G.B. Adesiji


Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 29 January 2018; accepted for publication 24 April 2018)


Abstract. This study assessed the farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Two-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 580 respondents. Questionnaire was used to collect data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data collected. Findings show that the majority of the respondents had access to yam entrepreneurial business training/seminar (75.5%), sources of information through agricultural extension agents (86.2%), radio (83.3%) and fellow farmers (79.5%), non-member of any crop related enterprise group (66.2%). The overall farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills was low among the majority (62.6%). Specifically, the knowledge level of respondents on cultivation skills (=67.0) was high while management skills (=39.5), co-operation/networking (=29.3), customer/marketing skills (=27.1) and opportunity skills (=21.3) of respondents were considered low. It was, therefore, concluded that farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills was low. Agri-entrepreneurship training in management skills, opportunity skills, customer and marketing skills, co-operation and networking skills is recommended and encouraging the less educated yam-based entrepreneurs to participate in the agri-entrepreneurship capacity building training.

Technical efficiency of cowpea farmers in Mubi south local government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria

  1. Joshua


Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 May 2018; accepted for publication 23 June 2018)


Abstract. The study analyzed the technical efficiency among cowpea farmers in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 100 respondents randomly selected cowpea farmers using multi-stage, purposive and simple random sampling process. The result of the stochastic frontier production function shows that sigma squared was 0.656 and significant at 1% level, indicating good fit and correctness of the distributional form assumed for the composite error term. The value of gamma was 0.522 and significant at 1% level, suggesting that 52% of the variability in the output of farmers was due to differences in their technical efficiency. The coefficients of farm size, seed, fertilizer, agro-chemicals and labor were positive and significant at varying levels indicating direct relationship with output of cowpea production. The analysis of the inefficiency variables revealed that education, farming experience and extension contact decreases technical inefficiency of the farmers. Mean technical efficiency (TE) was 0.78 with the minimum and maximum values of efficiency as 0.53 and 0.97, indicating that farmers have the potential to increase their TE by 21.2% in the short run given the current state of technology. To achieve this, policies by the government and nongovernmental agencies should be geared towards encouraging farmers’ education on farm management practices so that they would be able to allocate production resources more efficiently especially fertilizer and herbicide for optimum yield.

A study on entrepreneurship skill practices among rural women in Kwara state, Nigeria

G.B. Adesiji, S.O. Ibrahim, S.E. Komolafe


Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 18 March 2018; accepted for publication 21 May 2018)


Abstract. The study examined the entrepreneurial skill practices of rural women in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 147 respondents were selected. Primary data were collected with the use of questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for the study. Mean age of respondents was 38.5 years. The average entrepreneurship experience was 11 years. The most prominent enterprises undertaken by respondents were garri processing (83.7%), corn milling (82.3%), soap making (82.3%), livestock production (81.6%), selling of provision/petty trade (80.3%), grinding pepper (78.2%), tailoring (76.9%), selling of pepper (71.4%), and poultry farming (64.6%). Commonly practiced entrepreneurial skills were communication skills (74.1%), creative thinking skills (72.8%), time management skills (70.1%), decision making and risk management skills (68.0%) and organizational management (61.2%). Most indicated constraints faced were high interest on loan (70.8%), poor road structure (67.3%), high cost of input (66.0%), lack of storage facilities (63.9), poor electricity supply (62.0%), lack of production materials (61.2%) and environmental factors (60.5%). Findings also show that age, marital status, household size and years of experience of respondents had positive significant influence on entrepreneurial skills practised at p<0.01 level of significance. The study concluded that communication skills, creative thinking skills, and time management skills were most practised by rural women entrepreneurs in Kwara State. The study recommends the need for rural women entrepreneurs to form strong credit cooperative society in other to empower themselves financially as well as easy procurement of inputs at cheaper rate.