Gender analysis of educational inequality among rural children of school-age in Kwara State, Nigeria

R.O. Babatunde, A.E. Omoniwa, M.N. Ukemenam


Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 3 June 2019; accepted for publication 25 July 2019)


Abstract. Educational inequality has been accepted widely as an indicator of wellbeing. However, in most developing countries, very little attention has been paid to it. This article examined the gender differences in educational inequality among rural children of school-age in Kwara state, Nigeria. Using a three-stage random sampling technique, 200 rural households were sampled for data collection. Analytical tools used are descriptive statistics, the Gini-coefficient and the Ordinary Least Square regression analysis. The result of the analysis showed educational inequality for boys and girls was 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. Educational inequality among children of school-age was significantly determined by the age of household heads, education status of the household heads, marital status, main occupation of the household head, household size, dependency ratio, farm size, cost of schooling, average time spent by children in farm work and asset-base of the households. It was therefore recommended that strategies that will promote mothers’ education be put in place as well as the provision of accessible credit schemes. This can help in the hiring of labour for farm and non-farm businesses thereby increasing production, while providing the household with more funds to enroll their children in schools.

Survival of the fittest: the choice between local and imported rice consumption in Delta central agricultural zone, Delta state, Nigeria

T.M. Gbigbi


Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Delta State University Asaba Campus, PMB 95074, Asaba, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 4 April 2018; accepted for publication 5 June 2019)


Abstract. This study analyzes the determinants of rice consumption preference for local or imported type in Delta State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to identify the socio-economic characteristics of rice consumers, ascertain the forms rice is prepared and consumed by respondents, examine the factors influencing rice consumption preference, and identify reasons for household’s preference for local or imported rice consumption in the study area. Primary data were collected from households using a structured questionnaire. The multistage procedure was used to select 200 respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regressions. The result revealed that 69% of female were more involved in rice consumption preference than their male counterparts. The mean age was 42 years and the respondents can read and write. About 56.4% were married and the average household size was seven persons. The average monthly income of respondents was N 22372.50 (62.84 USD). The results also show that 44% of households preferred their rice being consumed as white rice and stew. The major reasons for the choice in rice type were because of its availability, cleanliness, taste and swelling capacity. The factors that influence rice consumption pattern were gender, age, price per kg of rice, household size, educational level and income level. It is recommended that the farmers should be encouraged to process their grains in a manner that they will be clean.

Change in use of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes – procedures, aspects, problems

  1. Velkovski


Department of Agricultural Economics, Economic Academy “Dimitar A. Tsenov”, 5250 Svishtov, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 3 June 2019; accepted for publication 15 July 2019)


Abstract. The change of the designation of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes is related to investment intentions for realization of developmental events on the agricultural territories, which are mainly of a constructional nature. In a legal and technological aspect, this process is regulated in Chapter Five of the Agricultural Land Conservation Act (1996) and Chapter Five of the Rules for Implementation of Agricultural Land Conservation Act (1996). Other specific legal details in this respect are subject to regulation in a number of other legal acts: Spatial Development Act (2001), Black Sea Coast Spatial Development Act (2008), Cadastre and Land Register Act (2000), Ordinance No. 7/22.12.2003 on rules and norms for the construction of the different types of territories and development zones, Ordinance No. 8/14.06.2001 on the volume and content of development plans, Ordinance No. 4/21.05.2001 on the scope and content of investment projects, etc. The aim of the study is to justify the necessity to change land use on a reasonable scale as a necessary instrument in the agricultural sector, by monitoring and analyzing the current legal framework and some literary sources. In this connection, the methodology of the legal analysis and the methodology of the SWOT analysis are used. The expected results are oriented towards the formulation of some proposals concerning the improvement of the mechanisms for the change of the purpose of the agricultural land.

Efficiency of cardboard solar heater boxes for disinfestations of stored grains against arthropod pest

  1. Abdullahi1, R. Muhamad2, O. Dzolkhifli2, U.R. Sinniah3


1Department of Crop Protection, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076 Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

2Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

3Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia


(Manuscript received 31 March 2019; accepted for publication 17 June 2019)


Abstract. The solar heater box is a modest technology that enables easy collection and retention of solar radiation as heat at levels lethal to stored product arthropod pest inside the box. This study was designed to construct solar heater boxes of appreciable capacities to hold large quantities of grains, assess their heat-trapping efficiency and the influence of beans quantity and exposure time on same. Solar heater boxes of five different sizes were constructed for this study. Their heat-trapping capacity was evaluated by exposure to the sunlight for 5h. The influence of bean quantity and exposure on heat capture capabilities of the best performing solar heater box was evaluated using five different quantities of cocoa beans (9, 12, 15, 18 and 21kg) for 2h of exposure period. The result for heat trapping capacity shows that the largest solar heater box trapped the highest mean between and within bean temperatures (69.38±4.97 and 69.45±3.97C, respectively) in 5h of exposure time. The result of the experiment on the effect of bean quantity and exposure time on heat-trapping efficiency show the highest temperature was obtained at 120min exposure time using 9kg of cocoa beans for both between and within bean temperature (70.00±0.73 and 71.23±0.85oC, respectively). The implications of these findings in applying this technology for stored product arthropods pest management on durable commodities were discussed.

Energy use pattern and greenhouse gas emission in systems for greenhouse vegetable production

  1. Nourani1, A. Bencheikh2


1Scientific and Technical Research Center on Arid Regions (CRSTRA), University Campus Mohamed Khider, Biskra, Algeria

2Science of Nature and Life Department of SNV, The African University Ahmed Draia, Adrar, Algeria


(Manuscript received 5 June 2019; accepted for publication 25 July 2019)


Abstract. Algeria has experienced a notable agricultural development driven by a prosperity in market gardening in plastic greenhouses due of the favorable climatic conditions and the government’s policy. For that, a survey has been conducted in order to determine the energy use pattern for greenhouse vegetable production, also to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for this system of production in Biskra province, Algeria. The results revealed that the total energy required for vegetable protected production is 119.68 GJ per hectare where the infrastructure was the highest energy consumer followed by the electricity and fertilizers with a share of 22%, 20% and 19%, respectively. The energy use efficiency (energy ratio) was calculated as 0.82, showing the inefficiency use of energy in the protected vegetable production. The inputs of farmyard manure, followed by infrastructure and electricity in greenhouse vegetable production generated the highest proportion of gas emissions with values 35%, 33% and 23%, respectively. According to these results, management of electricity and diesel fuel consumption are possible using solar energy to decrease total GHG  emission in greenhouse vegetable production in Biskra province.

Determination of some heavy metals in vegetable garden soil and waste dumpsite soil in Mubi North, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Z.B. Mshelia


Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, P.M.B. 25 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 April 2019; accepted for publication 25 June 2019)


Abstract. A research conducted on soil samples using different depths were carried out on the determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As) in Wuro-Gude vegetable garden soil and waste dumpsite soil, Mubi Metropolis Adamawa State, Nigeria. The soil samples were collected on different depths and were transported to the department of animal production laboratory for digestion. The mixtures were digested with tri-acid mixture (HNO3: HCO4: H2SO4) and determination of the heavy metals was done using a Buck Scientific 200A Model, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). It was found that the heavy metals concentration in both types of soils at the depth of 5, 15 and 25cm was as follows: a) Vegetable garden soil: Ni – 7.33mg/g, 5.06mg/g and 3.04mg/g; Zn – 16.31mg/g, 13.08mg/g and 8.37mg/g; Cu – 6.94mg/g, 4.77mg/g and 3.28mg/g; Pb – 1.07mg/g, 0.57mg/g and 0.42mg/g and Cd – 0.35mg/g, 0.31mg/g and 0.29mg/g, respectively; As was not detected in all the depths; b) Waste dumpsite soil: Ni – 6.75mg/g, 4.33mg/g and 1.95mg/g; Zn – 14.67mg/g, 12.55mg/g and 9.04mg/g; Cu – 8.34mg/g, 5.72mg/g and 3.82mg/g; Pb – 2.15mg/g, 1.06mg/g and 0.67mg/g and Cd – 0.68mg/g, 0.57mg/g and 0.84mg/g, respectively; As was not detected in all the samples. All measured heavy metals concentrations were within the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization, except Cd which was above the permissible limit in waste dumpsite soil. Therefore, waste dumpsite soil should not be used for farming and effort should be made to educate the public on the health effect of these metals when ingested, to avoid bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain.


Sensitivity to herbicides of two spring forage pea cultivars

  1. Ivanov, M. Dimitrova


Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 22 February 2019; accepted for publication 28 May 2019)


Abstract. An important element of spring pea growing technology is weed control as the crop is highly sensitive to them, especially in the early stages of its development. The use of various herbicide preparations with a diverse mechanism and spectrum of action, changes in weed associations under the influence of various factors, as well as the selection of new varieties necessitates a constant study of the problem of the efficacy of herbicide preparations and the sensitivity of varieties to them. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity of two cultivars of spring forage pea to different herbicide preparations. During the period 2006-2008 in the village of Lyubenova mahala, Stara Zagora region, a three-factor field experiment was conducted by the fractional parcel method in four replications and size of the harvest plot 10m2. Factor A includes cultivars of spring peas, factor B – herbicide variants, factor C – doses of herbicides. It has been proven that the plants of both varieties, Pickardi and Amitie, are killed by 2.4 D, both in single and double dose. The highest average plant height was recorded in the Amitie cultivar treated with Basagran 600 SL herbicide at the double dose (3.0 L/ha). The highest were the values of the parameter number of beans per plant obtained in the Amitie cultivar treated with Basagran 600 SL and Pivot 100 SL – 0.8 L/ha, in the soil. A statistically proven highest average value of the parameter seed mass per plant was obtained in the Amitie variety treated with the Basagran 600 SL herbicide (12.667g) and the lowest – in Pickardi with the herbicide Pivot (10.330g).

Analysis of cowpea price forecasting in Adamawa state, Nigeria

  1. Joshua, J. Zalkuwi


Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 March 2019; accepted for publication 5 June 2019)


Abstract. The study was conducted to analyze cowpea price forecasting in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The sources of data for the study were secondary data which were collected from State Planning Commission of Adamawa State for a period of 5 years (2013-2017). Purposive sampling techniques were used for selection of the study area. Dicky Fuller Test and Simple Exponential Smoothing Model were used as analytical tools. The unit root test analysis revealed almost all the markets price series were non-stationary at level except Jambutu market (AD5) at 5% significant level but became stationary after first difference. The result of Exponential Smoothing Model showed that there will be upward trend of cowpea prices in Adamawa State in February and October – November in the year 2018 and therefore, it is recommended that provision of better infrastructural facilities such as construction of accessible and motorable roads, and communication network by government and NGOs. This would reduce transfer cost which usually gets translated to the prices of the cowpeas, especially across markets in critical distance.

After-effect of foliar-applied herbicides for broad-leaved weeds on the primary germ weight of cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

  1. Barakova, St. Georgiev


Field Crops Institute, 6200, Chirpan, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 25 June 2019; accepted for publication 15 August 2019)


Abstract. The trial was carried out during 2013-2015, with twelve cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Influence of herbicides Bazagran 480 SL (bentazone)- 1.5 L/ha, Pulsar 40 (imazamox) – 1.2 L/ha and Express 50 VG (tribenuron-methyl) – 50 g/ha was studied. These herbicides were used during the budding stage of cotton. From the viewpoint of cotton growing technology, technologically the most valuable are cultivars Helius, Trakia, Viki, Filipopolis, Boyana, Avangard, Natalia, Darmi, Dorina and Nelina, in foliar treatment with herbicide Bazagran 480 SL. Technologically the most valuable are cultivars Chirpan-539, Helius, Viki, Boyana and Natalia in foliar treatment with herbicide Pulsar 40. Technologically the most valuable are cultivars Helius, Trakia, Viki and Nelina in foliar treatment with herbicide Express 50 VG. These variants combine high primary germ weight and high stability of this index during the different years.

Fertilizer monitoring using micromachined cantilever

Venkatesh K.P. Rao


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, 333031-Rajasthan, India


(Manuscript received 16 June 2019; accepted for publication 1 August 2019)


Abstract. In this study, we will create a grid of micro electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, which will measure the contents of soil, especially urea. This will inform the farmers about the condition of soil in real time, and thus allowing them to know how much fertilizer they need to add. MEMS sensor is placed in the soil to measure the soil content by chemical reaction with the fertilizers; its accuracy can be improved if these sensors are placed on multiple points, i.e., they are placed in a grid. In the present study, we designed micro-cantilever based gas detectors, to detect ammonia present in the fertilizers. Several designs were proposed to find the best fit for this purpose. Numerical studies have been carried out on the proposed designs, to evaluate the displacement sensitivity and the voltage developed in the piezoelectric layer, and the triangular cantilever was found to be the most sensitive cantilever for that purpose.