Economics analysis of rice marketing in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

J. Zalkuwi*

Department of Agricultural Economics and extension, Faculty of Agricultural sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 25 September 2019; accepted for publication 8 November 2019)

Abstract. The purpose of the study was to make an economic analysis of rice marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Rice marketing system, constraints associated with cost and return of rice marketing and problem of rice marketing were examined. A total of 60 respondents were selected using multi-stage random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was designed in line with the objective of the study and administered by means of interview scheduled in generating the data analyzed. Both descriptive (frequency, tables and percentages) and inferential statistics (profitability analysis, total cost and return) were employed to the analyzed the data. The result of the analysis showed that the major form of processed rice that is marketed in the area is regular milled white rice. The gross margin obtained was N235690.00 (US$656.55) showing that the marketing of rice is profitable. From the study, the profitability ratio shows that it is viable with every N1.00 invested in rice marketing giving a return of N2. The major constraints associated with rice marketing include high cost of transportation and inadequate processing facilities. The study suggests an improvement of the road network system and provision of agricultural credit to enable rice traders expand the volume of their operations. It was also recommended that agricultural training workshop in rice marketing should be used from time to time to educate producers and marketers on storage and distribution processes.

Effect of different storage materials on the seed temperature, seed moisture content and germination of wheat under farmer’s field condition of Kailali district, Nepal

N. Khatri1*, D. Pokhrel1, B.P. Pandey1, K.R. Pant1, M. Bista2

1National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal 2Regional Agriculture Research Station, Lumle, Kaski, Nepal

(Manuscript received 19 July 2019; accepted for publication 30 October 2019)

Abstract. A study was conducted at four Village Development Committees (Masuriya, Udashipur, Basauti and Pahalmanpur) of Kailali dis- trict, Far western Region, Nepal in 2016/17 to find out the effect of different storage materials on the seed moisture content and germination percentage of wheat. Seeds of wheat were packed using five storage materials (metal seed bin, earthen pot, purdue improved crop storage / Pics/ bag, gunny bag and super grain bag). The stored seed samples were drawn at three-month intervals starting from May 2016 to January 2017. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications. The results of analysis of variance revealed that the effect of storage materials was significant (P≤0.05) on seed moisture content and seed germination of wheat. After nine months of storage, the seeds stored in Pics bag recorded the lowest moisture (13.3%) and temperature (26.4°C), and the highest germination percentage (91.75%). The lowest quality performance (high moisture and temperature, low germination) of stored seeds was observed in an earthen pot. From the results obtained, it was concluded that wheat seed could be stored for a long time in Pics bag without deteriorating its quality parameters.


Flower characteristics and sexual compatibility of Italian olive cultivar Coratina under Syrian coast conditions

M. A. Mhanna1*, F.W. Douay2, M. Rajab1

1General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Latakia, Syria 2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria

(Manuscript received 13 August 2019; accepted for publication 27 September 2019)

Abstract. The study was conducted for four years (2016 to 2019) in Olive germoplasm collection at Bouka, Latakia, Syria, to evaluate flower characteristics and sexual compatibility of olive cultivar Coratina under Syrian coast conditions. “Coratina” was characterized by low level of pistil abortion, average number of flowers per inflorescence and good pollen germinablity. ISI of “Coratina” showed that this cultivar was highly self- incompatible. A new threshold depends on flowering load and final fruit set were adapted to evaluate pollinizers. The two autochthonous olive cultivars “Khodeiri” and “Dermlali” were good pollinizers for “Coratina” but with some annual differences in pollination efficiency. Reverse pollination results confirmed that “Khoderi” is inter-compatible with „Coratina“ in both directions. It is suggested to plant “Coratina” in mixed orchards with “Khoderi” because they’re inter-compatible, having regular bearing habit and overlapping in flowering period.

Analysis of legislation on the designation of sites and routes on agricultural land

V. Velkovski*

Department of Agricultural Economics, Economic Academy “Dimitar A. Tsenov”, 5250 Svishtov, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 June 2019; accepted for publication 20 September 2019)

Abstract. The article deals with aspects of the Bulgarian agricultural and ecological legislation, which regulate the processes of location of sites and routes on the agricultural lands in carrying out construction and other spatial planning activities. The purpose of the study is to identify some legal imperfections in this area and to justify the need for their correction, reversal or development. To achieve the goal, a methodology based on Bulgarian legal-order tracking of regulations and the analysis of the actions of the subjects implementing them is used. Expected results in this regard are associated with ignoring the negative impact of the imperfections of the legal base on the sustainability of agro-development measures.

Evaluation of technological traits of Bulgarian and imported merino wool batches

D. Pamukova*

Department of Animal Science – Ruminants and Dairy Farming, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 August 2019; accepted for publication 22 November 2019)

Аbstract. The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative evaluation of technological traits of industrial batches of Bulgarian and imported semifine wool. The study was carried out in an industrial setting in cooperation with Kolhida Ltd, Sliven. A total of 18 batches originating from Bulgaria (n=10), Serbia (n=6) and the Netherlands (n=2) among which 4 batches of greasy wool, 7 batches of clean wool and 7 batches of wool sliver were studied. The primary processing of wool batches comprising classification, washing and carding was performed by textile enterprise’s standard technology. After the classification, the relative shares of wool types from the total amount of greasy wool in a batch were determined. The washing yield of classified greasy medium wool was calculated. The following laboratory analyses of clean wool were carried out: fibre diameter (μm), mean weighted length (mm), short fibre percentage (%), fatness (%), mineral matter content (dustiness %), vegetable matter content (%) and moisture (%). For slivers, sliver yield (%), fibre diameter (measured with OFDI), mean weighted length (mm), length В (mm), short fibre percentage (%) and moisture (%) were determined. In Bulgarian and Serbian batches, high-grade wool types predominated with highest share of the merino worsted wool (70.54% and 63.70%; 60.66% and 46.64%, respectively). The highest industrial washing yield was that of Dutch wool – 63.89%. Yields of Serbian and Bulgarian batches were similar (53.73%-56.39% and 53.20%-55.89%, respectively). The highest mean weighted length of fibres was determined for Dutch wool – 74.87 mm. Serbian and Bulgarian batches were comparable with respect to this trait: 63.95-65.71 mm and 62.92-65.88 mm respectively. The vegetable matter in studied wool batches was higher than requirements of the standard – from 1.29% tо 2.24% vs the reference of 1.2%. The highest vegetable matter content was found in the wool from two Bulgarian batches (1.65% and 2.24%), one Serbian (1.82%), and the Dutch batch (1.92%). Sliver yield varied from 81.31% tо 86.91% in studied wool slivers. The highest values of this trait were found out in 3 Bulgarian wool slivers (86.91%; 85.79% and 84.48%) and the Dutch sliver (84.13%).

Technology adoption in maize farming: a comparative analysis between improved seed users and local seed users of Argakachi district of Nepal

S. Adhikari, B.R. Dahal*, V. Bist
Agriculture and Forestry University Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
(Manuscript received 10 July 2019; accepted for publication 24 September 2019)

Abstract. Maize is one of the top agricultural commodities that has great share in the Agricultural Government Development Plan of Nepal. Despite being a major crop, productivity of maize is quite lower than global average. In this context, a study was undertaken to determine the extent of technology adoption between improved and local seed users of Arghakhanchi district of Nepal. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered among 120 randomly selected farmers during the month of January 2018. The extent of technology adoption was measured on sowing time, seed replacement, variety change, seed rate, application of fertilizer, weeding and plant protection. The empirical evidence suggested that, extent of technology adoption and benefit cost ratio were magnificently higher for improved seed users than local seed users. So, there is still a gigantic scope to improve maize productivity in the area by adoption of recommended technology of maize farming. The probability of adoption of recommended technology (improved seed) for maize farming was found to be higher for those with access to extensive service. Overall, our study pointed out that extension facility is a key strategy to make famers aware of the new technologies and a crucial factor to increase the chance of adoption.

Effect of harvest time of paddy on milled rice yield and broken kernels

V. Ilieva1, N. Markova Ruzdik1*, D. Vulcheva2, Lj. Mihajlov1, M. Ilievski1

1Department for Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, “Goce Delchev” University, “Krste Misirkov” bb, 2000 Stip, Republic of North Macedonia
2Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 15 August 2019; accepted for publication 28 October 2019)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal harvest time to achieve maximum milled rice yield and quality of white rice in some newly introduced Italian rice varieties grown under agro-ecological conditions in the region of Kocani town, Republic of North Macedonia. During the 2014 and 2015, fourteen rice varieties were cultivated to estimate the milled rice yield and broken kernels from three different harvest times. From each rice variety, samples with moisture content between 20-22% (I variant), 18-20% (II variant) and 16-18% (III variant) were taken. From the third harvest variant the highest percentage of milled rice yield (65.23%) was obtained but also the highest rate of broken kernels (12.79%). From the remaining two harvests, almost identical milled rice yields were received (64.19% from the first variant and 64.33% from the second variant), but in terms of broken kernels, there were significant differences. The optimum moisture content during the harvest in order to obtain maximum yield and quality of milled rice ranged from 18% to 20%. The varieties Arsenal, Sprint and Mirko had the most favorable values for milled rice yield and broken kernels.

Induction and recovery from anaesthesia in fry of European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) exposed to clove oil

V. Krasteva*, A. Zaikov
Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 20 June 2019; accepted for publication 11 August 2019)

Abstract. The purpose of the study is to establish the efficacy of different concentrations of clove oil and the time needed for induction and recovery from anesthesia of European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) fry. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions with 50 specimens with body weight 1.11±0.25g and body length 5.45±0.60cm. For the aim of this paper the following five concentrations of clove oil are used: 0.01 ml.l-1, 0.02 ml.l-1, 0.03 ml.l-1, 0.04 ml.l-1 and 0.05 ml.l-1. At the lowest concentration (0.01ml.l-1) the effect is sedative and the fry do not reach the phase of complete immobilization. The application of 0.02 ml.l-1 concentration of clove oil is not beneficial for practical usage, with only 30% of the fish reaching phase 4 of anesthesia. At the highest concentrations (0.04 ml.l-1 and 0.05 ml.l-1) all of the fry were anesthetized for a short time, but the process of recovery was not successful for all of the fry. All of the fry reach phase of anesthesia and recovery without loses at 0.03 ml.l-1. This concentration is advisable for anesthesia of European catfish fry during different manipulations.

Effect of rations with fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea on growth performance and organ weights of rabbit bucks

O. Pius*, T. Ahemen, P.A. Addass

Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, College of Animal Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 22 June 2019; accepted for publication 18 September 2019)

Abstract. Thirty rabbit bucks of mixed breeds (New Zealand white x Chinchilla) with average live weight of 852g, aged between 12 and 14 weeks were subjected to a feeding trial for 14 weeks, to determine the effects of diets with different ratio concentrate to fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea (FLGA) on growth performance, relative carcass weight and relative organ weights of rabbit bucks. The rabbits were randomly allo- cated into five treatments: Treatment 1-T1 (100g concentrate /C/: 0g FLGA), Treatment 2-T2 (75g C: 25g FLGA), Treatment 3-T3 (50g C: 50g FLGA), Treatment 4-T4 (25g C: 75g FLGA) and Treatment 5-T5 (00g C: 100g FLGA). The results obtained in this study showed that all the growth performance parameters and relative carcass weights differed significantly (P<0.05) across treatments. Apart from relative liver and lungs weights, which differed significantly (P<0.05) across treatments, other viscera organs were not affected by the dietary treatments. The results revealed that rabbit bucks in T2 and T3 performed better, rabbits in T4 performed the least, while rabbit bucks in T5 could not survive beyond two weeks. Concentrate to FLGA at the ratios of 75g C: 25 FLGA (T2) and 50g C: 50g FLGA (T3) are therefore, recommended as the best combinations for rabbit breeding bucks.

Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in maize dry biomass under the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization

L. Nenova*, M. Benkova, Ts. Simeonova, I. Atanassova

Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection “N. Pouskarov”, 7 Shosse Bankya str., 1331 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 August 2019; accepted for publication 8 November 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different fertilizer doses on the content of macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in dry biomass and grain of maize during the 2016 – 2018 period. A field experiment with fertilization of maize was carried out on Alluvial-meadow soil (Fluvisol) in the region of Tsalapitsa village, near Plovdiv. Three variants of mineral fertilization were studied V2 (N15P10K0), V3 (N20P15K0) and V4 (N25P20K0), and a control variant V1 (N0P0K0) – without fertilization. It was established that N% content in maize dry biomass was affected significantly by the variants of fertilization (18% of the variance). Significant differences (P≤0.05) between the control variant and all the variants of fertilization were established. Increasing the fertilizer dose, nitrogen content in dry biomass increased, too. The highest was the average content of nitrogen in maize leaves (0.94%), followed by the cobs (0.71%) and the lowest was the content in the stems (0.58%). Phosphorus and potassium content of dry biomass were affected significantly by the year of the study (10% and 9% of the variance, respectively). At the 7-8th leaf growth stage of maize, the highest nutrients content (N, P, K) in dry biomass were reported. With aging of plants the nutrient content in their biomass decreased. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in maize grain was significantly affected by the year of the experiment. Mineral fertilization had impact mostly on the nitrogen content of the grain, which was the highest in V3 variant, accepted as optimal – 0.66% on average.