Estimation of efficiency and transportation cost as factors in cereal marketing in a typical rural Nigeria

M.R. Ja’afar-Furo1*, Y. Yohanna1, A. Sulaiman2, A. Abdullahi3

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University,
PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria
2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
3Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Adamawa State University, PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 26 April 2020; accepted for publication 15 October 2020)

Abstract. This study estimated the efficiency of cereal marketing and effect of transportation cost on gross receipts of traded grains in a typical rural Nigeria. A total of 120 cereal marketers were selected through a simple random method. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data which was complemented by oral interview and group discussion for a period of one month (24th July – 23rd August 2019). Descriptive statistics, Marketing efficiency, and Multiple Regression were employed in making data analysis. Results indicated that most of the respondents were males (70.85%), married (66.67%) with a household size of 6-10 persons, and within the age range of 40-49 years (51.67%) with a larger proportion (41.67%) having had secondary education. The majority (54.17%) had cereal marketing as their main occupation and sourced business capital from personal savings. The most prioritized method of transportation among the marketers was the use of motor vehicles, and maize was ranked as the most traded staple among the respondents. Regression results revealed coefficients of 0.3758 and 0.5296 for transportation cost and miscellaneous services which were both significant at p<0.001 as the most influential variables to gross receipts of cereal marketing in the surveyed area. Further, the findings showed a marketing efficiency of 728.80%, implying a very highly efficient or profitable marketing system among the cereal marketers. The most notable challenges experienced were high transportation cost (83.33%), insecurity, inadequacy of capital among the marketers, and poor transportation facilities in descending order. Conclusively, it could be said that slightly enlightened married men who sourced capital from their personal savings dominated cereal marketing in typical rural Nigeria. And the cereal marketing was confirmed to be highly efficient in the area studied. It is, therefore strongly endorsed that agencies that intend to improve cereal marketing in the area under consideration and other rural communities in the country should address the challenges highlighted.

Influence of the age of first insemination and first calving in Holstein – Friesian heifers on farm economic efficiency

K. Stankov*

Department of Management, Faculty of Economics, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 15 June 2019; accepted for publication 23 September 2020)

Abstract. The present study aims to assess the influence of the age of first insemination and first calving in Holstein-Friesian heifers on the cost of breeding and the cost of their marketing as breeding animals. For this purpose, a study was conducted on 7 farms (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) situated in Central and Southern Bulgaria in which Holstein-Friesian cattle are bred. The results of the study indicated that the age of first insemination in the controlled farms was 17.2 months on average, and the age of first calving (AFC) was 26.6 months, which was within the established norms for the Holstein-Frisian breed raised in the country. The heifers from farm A, which entered breeding age the earliest (at 16 months), as well as the age of first calving (25.3 months) had the longest utilisation period – 4.9 lactations. However, they did not develop the highest milk yield either and the economic performance from their raising was low. The heifers on farm F, with age of first insemination of 17.3 months, and first calving age of 26.8 months, and the ones from farm G, with ages 17.4 and 26.6 months, respectively, developed maximum milk yield per lactation. The expenses for raising a heifer of the Holstein-Frisian breed varied from BGN 1922 up to BGN 2389, with an average sum of cost for the studied farms amounting to BGN 2123. This indicated that the raising of heifers from a high-yield breed was an expensive undertaking, but when taking the necessary care for their breeding at a younger age during the period of use they developed higher milk productivity.

Effect of clinical mastitis at Holstein-Friesian cows on the farm economic efficiency

K. Stankov

Department of Management, Faculty of Economics, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 22 August 2020; accepted for publication 16 October 2020)

Abstract. A study was conducted on the effect of clinical mastitis at Holstein-Friesian cows on the economic performance of dairy farms with different capacity. The study included three high-capacity farms in Bulgaria. The cows in all three farms are free-stall reared (freely in groups) and fed total mixed rations (TMR), in accordance with the animals’ milk yields, with milking performed at a milking parlor. In each farm, the cows were separated into two groups – ones affected by clinical mastitis and healthy cows throughout the entire 305-day lactation period. The results from the study indicated that dairy capacity was high for both groups, with 7567.5 kg for the healthy cows during the 305-day period, and 7429.7 kg for the afflicted ones. The fat content of milk from healthy cows was 3.5% with 3.24% milk protein, with the values being 3.43% and 3.18%, respectively, for the afflicted cows. The cows with mastitis in the three studied farms exhibited lowered economic results. Profit from the healthy cows was higher, by 8.4% in the third farm up to 21.2% for the second farm, compared to the results for the affected cows. Cost-efficiency is also higher for the healthy cows, and the production cost of 1 kg of milk was lower, which was due to the higher marketing of milk for processing and the better purchase price. Apart from the worse economic performance of the cows affected by clinical mastitis, their productive longevity and total lifetime utilization registered at the time of culling was reduced from 8.2% for the second up to 12.6% for the first farm.

Diversity of Lactobacillus microflora in homemade raw sausages during the ripening

S. Stojanovski1*, G. Cilev2, B. Trajanoska3, K. Stamatova-Yovcheva4, D. Yovchev4

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, 7000 Bitola, North Macedonia
2Department of Food Quality and Safety, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, 7000 Bitola, North Macedonia
3Veterinary clinic “Makseraja”, 7500 Prilep, North Macedonia
4Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 14 September 2020; accepted for publication 23 November 2020)

Abstract. The main purpose of our study is to prove the diversity of the Lactobacillus microflora in domestic raw sausages during ripening. Raw sausages from pork meat (bacon from the neck, front pig shoulder, pork belly) with the addition of salt, red chili pepper and mint were prepared for that purpose. They matured in a maturation chamber for 60 days. A total of 6 samples from different stages of natural ripening of raw sausages were taken for testing. The raw sausage samples were diluted in saline solution, homogenized, serially diluted in the same solution and plated on MRS agar; the plates were incubated at 42°C for 24 – 48 h. A total of 24 strains were isolated and identified as Lactobacillus spp. based on their growth, gram-stain activity, catalase and oxidase. Their affiliation to this genus was confirmed by PCR with genus specific primers, 16S ribosomal RNA. The results show different Lactobacillus species: Lactobacillus plantarum – 37%, Lactobacillus sakei – 28%, Lactobacillus brevis – 20% and Lactobacillus curvatus 15%.

Symbiotic effect on some microbiological species and physicochemical properties in milk in subclinical mastitis of dairy cows

I. Abdennebi1, C.R. Messai2, N. Ouchene3,5*, N.A. Ouchene-khelifi3,5, L. Ghallache4, K. Ait-Oudhia5,6,
T.M. Hamdi1, D. Khelef2

1Laboratory of Food Hygiene and Quality Insurance System, High National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
2Animal Health and Production Laboratory, High National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
3Institute of Veterinary Science, University Blida1, Street Soumaa BP270, 09000 Blida, Algeria
4Environment, Health and Animal Production Laboratory, Institute of Veterinary and Agronomic Sciences,
Batna, Algeria
5Laboratory of Biotechnologies related to animal reproduction, University Blida1, Street Soumaa BP270,
09000 Blida, Algeria
6High National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria

(Manuscript received 10 September 2020; accepted for publication 3 November 2020)

Abstract. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is the most common form of mastitis and the greatest cause for concern in dairy cows. The overuse of antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis leads to the development of resistance, resulting in the use of symbiotics. The study was carried out between February and May 2017 at a pilot dairy cattle farm in the Tipaza region (north-central Algeria) aiming to investigate the effect of a symbiotic on SCM. California Mastitis test (CMT) was used to diagnose SCM in a total of 240 dairy cows. A number of 58/240 (24.16%) cows were found to have SCM. These mastitis cows were then divided into two lots; an experimental lot of 37 cows and a control lot of 21 cows. A symbiotic was administered to the experimental lot once a month for three months. Cell count, microbiological analysis and analysis of certain physicochemical parameters of the milk were applied before and after each administration of the symbiotic. The results revealed that the average somatic cells count (SCC) in cows from the control lot was higher than that of cows from the experimental lot throughout the study period (p<0.0001). Staphylococci were isolated from 51/58 (87.93%) of the mastitis cows, of which 21 (36.20%) were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and 30 (51.72%) with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 36/58 (62.07%) of the mastitis cows, of which 21 (36.20%) were due to Escherichia coli strain and 15 (25.86%) to other strains of Enterobacteriaceae. After administration of the symbiotic, the prevalence of S. aureus and E. coli decreased significantly in the experimental lot compared to the control lot (p<0.001). The physicochemical characteristics of the milk were not altered by the administration of the symbiotic. All these results show that the symbiotic constitutes an adequate solution to replace antibiotics in the treatment of SCM.

Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from garri on Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical and environmental samples

H.I. Atta1*, A. Gimba1, T. Bamgbose1,2

1Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2Indian Council of Medical Research – National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR-NIMR), Sector 8,
Dwarka, New Delhi, India

(Manuscript received 15 May 2020; accepted for publication 9 October 2020)

Abstract. The production of bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria affords them the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria; they are particularly important in the biocontrol of human and plant pathogens. Lactic acid bacteria have been frequently isolated from fermented foods due to the high acidity these foods contain. In this study, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from garri, a popular Nigerian staple food, which is fermented from cassava, and their antagonistic activity against clinical and environmental isolates of Escherichia coli was determined. The species of Lactobacillus isolated include: Lactobacillus plantarum (50%), Lactobacillus fermentum (20%), Lactobacillus acidophilus (20%), and Lactobacillus salivarius (10%). Growth inhibition of the strains of E.coli was observed in Lactobacillus plantarum that inhibited the growth of both. The clinical and environmental isolates of E. coli were inhibited by Lactobacillus plantarum, while Lactobacillus acidophilus showed activity against only the clinical isolate. The greatest zone of inhibition against the strains of E. coli was recorded by Lactobacillus acidophilus (22.7±1.53 mm). The bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus species have a good potential in the biocontrol of pathogens, and should be the focus of further studies on antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Influence of Panamin Animal and Panamin Detox on milk coagulation properties of dairy cows

D. Yordanova*, T. Angelova, J. Krastanov, D. Miteva, V. Karabashev, G. Kalaydzhiev

Agricultural institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 July 2020; accepted for publication 16 September 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in milk coagulation properties in three groups of dairy cows receiving the dietary supplements Panamin Animal and Panamin Detox. The present group production experiment was conducted in the experimental cattle farm of the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora with three groups (two experimental and one control) each comprising 11 lactating dairy cows between November 2016 and March 2017. The cows are kept freely, the milking is in a hall “Fish bone”, and the groups were fed balanced rations compliant with milk yield and live body weight of cows, supplemented with 0.50 g/day of two natural dietary additives – Panamin Animal and Panamin Detox in line with recommendations of the manufacturer. The following parameters were monitored: rennet coagulation time (min) – RCT and curd firmness (mm) – a30. The analysis of individual milk coagulation properties was done on 436 milk samples from cows. Individual milk samples were obtained during the morning milking without adding preservative. The analysis of milk coagulation ability was evaluated at the laboratory of the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora by means of Computerized Renneting Metter – Polo Trade, Italy. The obtained phenotypes were corrected for main factors influencing test-day milk yield. The used model considered each test day milk yield as independent observation and unbiased estimates of traits were obtained by a linear mixed-effects model. The supplementation of cows’ ration with dietary supplements Panamin Detox and Panamin Animal had a statistically significant beneficial effect on milk coagulation properties of milk (p<0.001). The statistical analysis of group differences in RCT and curd firmness showed highly significant differences between Panamin Animal and control groups for both traits (p<0.001). There was also a highly relevant difference in curd firmness of milk from cows given Panamin Detox supplement and control cows (p<0.001). Data were processed with statistical software products Systat 13 and Pest (Groeneveld), and graphs were generated in MS Excel.

Vulnerability of sweet cherry cultivars to continuous periods of spring frosts in Plovdiv, Bulgaria

S. Malchev, S. Savchovska*

Fruit Growing Institute – Plovdiv, 12 Ostromila Str., 4004 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 31 August 2020; accepted for publication 16 October 2020)

Abstract. The periods with continuous freezing air temperatures reported during the spring of 2020 (13 incidents) affected a wide range of local and introduced sweet cherry cultivars in the region of Plovdiv. They vary from -0.6°C on March 02 to -4.9°C on March 16-17. The duration of influence of the lowest temperatures is 6 and 12 hours between March 16 and 17. The inspection of fruit buds and flowers was conducted twice (on March 26 and April 08) at different phenological stages after continuous waves of cold weather conditions alternated with high temperatures. During the phenological phase ‘bud burst’ (tight cluster or BBCH 55) some of the flowers in the buds did not develop further making the damage hardly detectable. The most damaged are hybrid El.28-21 (95.00%), ‘Van’ (91.89%) and ‘Bing’ (89.41%) and from the next group ‘Lapins’ (85.98%) and ‘Rosita’ (83.33%). A larger intermediate group form ‘Kossara’ (81.67%), ‘Rozalina’ (76.00%), ‘Sunburst’ (75.00%), ‘Bigarreau Burlat’ (69.11%) and ‘Kuklenska belitza’ (66.67%). Candidate-cultivar El.17-90 ‘Asparuh’ has the lowest frost damage values of 55.00% and El.17-37 ‘Tzvetina’ with damage of 50.60%.

Species composition and density of weeds in a grain maize crop depending of soil tillage

P. Yankov*, M. Drumeva

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering and Technologies,
Technical University of Varna, 1 Studentska Str., 9010 Varna, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 September 2020; accepted for publication 26 October 2020)

Abstract. The study was carried out during 2014-2016 on slightly leached chernozem soil type. The species composition and density of weeds were studied in grain maize grown after previous crop wheat under the following main soil tillage types: ploughing at 24-26 cm, chisel plough at 24-26 cm and no-tillage (direct sowing). The additional tilths of the areas with ploughed and loosened soil included single disking in autumn and double pre-sowing harrowing in spring. A total herbicide was applied for control of the emerging weeds in the variant with direct sowing. The weed control was done according to the standard technology for growing of the crop in this region – treatment with herbicides at stage 3rd-5th leaf of the plants. Weed infestation was read in spring prior to the pre-sowing tillage, immediately before the vegetation treatment with herbicides, and after harvesting. The type of main soil tillage had a statistically significant effect on the species composition and the density of weeds in the grain maize crops grown after previous crop wheat. The use of ploughing, in parallel with the use of chemicals for weed control, decreased the weed infestation in the maize crops. The lower density of weeds under this main soil tillage type was related to changes in the composition and the relative percentage of the respective species in the total infestation. The use of tilths without turning the surface layer and no-tillage in the crop rotation, in spite of the application of herbicides, contributed to the increase of the amount of weeds. The reason for this was the higher variability of weed species typical for shallow tillage types.

Evapotranspiration in Sudan grass second culture grown under non – irrigated and optimal irrigated conditions

R. Bazitov*

Agricultural institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 August 2020; accepted for publication 19 October 2020)

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to establish the evapotranspiration of Sudan grass variety Engje-1, grown as a second crop for silage on meadow-cinnamon soil for the region of Southern Bulgaria under irrigation conditions and without irrigation. For this purpose, an experiment with Sudan variety Endje-1 was conducted in the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora on soil type meadow-cinnamon soil, after its predecessor barley. The Sudan grass is harvested in the brooming stage. Two variants were explored: Variant 1 – without irrigation (control) and Variant 2 – with optimal irrigation, 70-75% of field capacity (FC). Evapotranspiration of Sudan grass grown as a second crop under non-irrigated conditions, depending on the nature of the year, ranges from 168.7 mm to 183.7 mm. Under conditions of irrigation, the largest share in the formation of the water consumption is occupied by the irrigation norm – 87.1% on average (from 86.3 to 90.8%). Under irrigated conditions, the relative participation of the initial water reserve in the formation of evapotranspiration significantly decreases.