Assessing resource utilisation in beef cattle feedlot system in Adamawa State, Nigeria

M.R. Ja’afar-Furo1*, M.Y. Hamid1, A.Y. Thlaffa1, A. Sulaiman2

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria
2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 20 July 2020; accepted for publication 24 March 2021)

Abstract. This study assessed resource utilisation in beef cattle fattening units in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with the intent of highlighting some crucial areas that may require policy intervention for improvement. Purposive, multistage and random sampling methods were employed in selection of 270 beef cattle fatteners in the area studied. Structured questionnaire and group discussion were used in sourcing for data. The latter were analysed through descriptive statistics and efficiency methods of Data Enveloping Analysis (DEA). Results indicated that Sokoto gudali (72.60%) and Rahaji (20.00%) were the major cattle breeds adopted for fattening. While a total of 70.70% of fatteners fed bulls for a period of 4-6 months and in the open without shade (77.80%), the use of combination of crop residues and conventional feeds was the most popular (74.81%) in feeding stock in the State. Further, the most important resources were initial cost of bulls and cost of feeds with N169,056.00 and N10,559.00 per bull, respectively. Resources were found to be efficiently utilised within the beef cattle feedlot farms with Constant Return to Scale (CRS), Non-Increasing Return to Scale (NIRTS), Variable Return to Scale (VRS), Scale Efficiency (SE) and Return to Scale RTS) models mean scores of 84.44%, 84.44%, 91.48%, 84.74%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusively, it could be stated that indigenous breeds of Sokoto gudali and Rahaji were the main bulls used for fattening in the State, and a mixture of crop residues and conventional feeds was the popular plane of feeding stock, with most farms utilising resources efficiently. Stemming from the findings, soft credit facilities to accord fatteners afford initial off-setting cost of bulls and frequent extension services to same, for modernisation of beef cattle feedlot system are highly recommended.

Economic values of productive and functional traits in sheep of Bulgarian dairy synthetic population

S. Slavova*, S. Laleva

Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 4 September 2020; accepted for publication 8 March 2021)

Abstract: The subject of the current research was to calculate profitability and economic values of production and functional traits in sheep of Bulgarian dairy synthetic population, reared at the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora. The study period was 7 years (2010-2016) and the average annual number of ewes in the flock was 188. The semi-intensive production system practised involved winter indoor lambing and summer grazing on pasture. Data were processed using the Program for calculating economic weights for sheep EWSH2. Profit and profitability in the flock had negative values – (-52.70 BGN) and -19.3%. Marginal economic values of the most important traits in dairy sheep – milk production and number of lambs born per ewe were estimated to 0.707 BGN per liter and 65.40 BGN per lamb, respectively. Litter size, milk yield, conception rate of ewes and ewe lambs and productive lifetime of ewes showed the highest economic importance. A very low economic weight was calculated for the wool production due to the market prices of wool. Conception rate of female animals and productive lifetime of ewes need to be more thoroughly investigated, as they are not currently an object of selection in dairy sheep breeding. Achieving competitive and economically sustainable productive systems in sheep farming is associated with a constant desire to increase the economic value of animals.

Non-parametric decomposition of total factor productivity growth in yam production in North-Central Nigeria

R.G. Isonguyo*, M.A Ojo, A.J. Jirgi, E.S. Yisa

Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 5 October 2020; accepted for publication 18 February 2021)

Abstract. Non-parametric analysis of total factor productivity change in yam production in North-Central Nigeria from 1992 to 2016 was carried out with the use of secondary data. The secondary production data of yam for that period were collected from Food and Agriculture Statistical (FAOSTAT) data bank. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index (MTFPI) based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), was used to empirically analyse the total factor productivity of the yam, while Tobit regression was used to analyse the determinants of total factor productivity in the study area. The results of the MTFPI analysis reveal that yam contributed 1.4% of technical efficiency change to productivity growth over the period studied. The technological contributions to productivity growth regressed at 1.8%. The study revealed the productivity growth of yam to be 0.2%. Tobit regression result showed credit borrowed, government policy (Agricultural Transformation Agenda – ATA), capital, and labour to have significant and positive relationships with the productivity of the crop at either p≤0.05 or p≤0.001 level of probability, which implies that increase in them led to increase in the crop’s productivity. Capital-labour was statistically significant but negatively related to yam productivity at p≤0.01, which implied that utilization of labour in a greater proportion than capital led to reduction or regress in its productivity growth. The study recommends farmers’ training on farm practices and techniques to increase yam productivity. They should be encouraged to accept improved yam varieties from research institutes, properly allocate the production resources and adopt improved technology to achieve productivity growth in the study area.

Estimation of efficiency and transportation cost as factors in cereal marketing in a typical rural Nigeria

M.R. Ja’afar-Furo1*, Y. Yohanna1, A. Sulaiman2, A. Abdullahi3

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University,
PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria
2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
3Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Adamawa State University, PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 26 April 2020; accepted for publication 15 October 2020)

Abstract. This study estimated the efficiency of cereal marketing and effect of transportation cost on gross receipts of traded grains in a typical rural Nigeria. A total of 120 cereal marketers were selected through a simple random method. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data which was complemented by oral interview and group discussion for a period of one month (24th July – 23rd August 2019). Descriptive statistics, Marketing efficiency, and Multiple Regression were employed in making data analysis. Results indicated that most of the respondents were males (70.85%), married (66.67%) with a household size of 6-10 persons, and within the age range of 40-49 years (51.67%) with a larger proportion (41.67%) having had secondary education. The majority (54.17%) had cereal marketing as their main occupation and sourced business capital from personal savings. The most prioritized method of transportation among the marketers was the use of motor vehicles, and maize was ranked as the most traded staple among the respondents. Regression results revealed coefficients of 0.3758 and 0.5296 for transportation cost and miscellaneous services which were both significant at p<0.001 as the most influential variables to gross receipts of cereal marketing in the surveyed area. Further, the findings showed a marketing efficiency of 728.80%, implying a very highly efficient or profitable marketing system among the cereal marketers. The most notable challenges experienced were high transportation cost (83.33%), insecurity, inadequacy of capital among the marketers, and poor transportation facilities in descending order. Conclusively, it could be said that slightly enlightened married men who sourced capital from their personal savings dominated cereal marketing in typical rural Nigeria. And the cereal marketing was confirmed to be highly efficient in the area studied. It is, therefore strongly endorsed that agencies that intend to improve cereal marketing in the area under consideration and other rural communities in the country should address the challenges highlighted.

Influence of the age of first insemination and first calving in Holstein – Friesian heifers on farm economic efficiency

K. Stankov*

Department of Management, Faculty of Economics, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 15 June 2019; accepted for publication 23 September 2020)

Abstract. The present study aims to assess the influence of the age of first insemination and first calving in Holstein-Friesian heifers on the cost of breeding and the cost of their marketing as breeding animals. For this purpose, a study was conducted on 7 farms (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) situated in Central and Southern Bulgaria in which Holstein-Friesian cattle are bred. The results of the study indicated that the age of first insemination in the controlled farms was 17.2 months on average, and the age of first calving (AFC) was 26.6 months, which was within the established norms for the Holstein-Frisian breed raised in the country. The heifers from farm A, which entered breeding age the earliest (at 16 months), as well as the age of first calving (25.3 months) had the longest utilisation period – 4.9 lactations. However, they did not develop the highest milk yield either and the economic performance from their raising was low. The heifers on farm F, with age of first insemination of 17.3 months, and first calving age of 26.8 months, and the ones from farm G, with ages 17.4 and 26.6 months, respectively, developed maximum milk yield per lactation. The expenses for raising a heifer of the Holstein-Frisian breed varied from BGN 1922 up to BGN 2389, with an average sum of cost for the studied farms amounting to BGN 2123. This indicated that the raising of heifers from a high-yield breed was an expensive undertaking, but when taking the necessary care for their breeding at a younger age during the period of use they developed higher milk productivity.

Effect of clinical mastitis at Holstein-Friesian cows on the farm economic efficiency

K. Stankov

Department of Management, Faculty of Economics, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 22 August 2020; accepted for publication 16 October 2020)

Abstract. A study was conducted on the effect of clinical mastitis at Holstein-Friesian cows on the economic performance of dairy farms with different capacity. The study included three high-capacity farms in Bulgaria. The cows in all three farms are free-stall reared (freely in groups) and fed total mixed rations (TMR), in accordance with the animals’ milk yields, with milking performed at a milking parlor. In each farm, the cows were separated into two groups – ones affected by clinical mastitis and healthy cows throughout the entire 305-day lactation period. The results from the study indicated that dairy capacity was high for both groups, with 7567.5 kg for the healthy cows during the 305-day period, and 7429.7 kg for the afflicted ones. The fat content of milk from healthy cows was 3.5% with 3.24% milk protein, with the values being 3.43% and 3.18%, respectively, for the afflicted cows. The cows with mastitis in the three studied farms exhibited lowered economic results. Profit from the healthy cows was higher, by 8.4% in the third farm up to 21.2% for the second farm, compared to the results for the affected cows. Cost-efficiency is also higher for the healthy cows, and the production cost of 1 kg of milk was lower, which was due to the higher marketing of milk for processing and the better purchase price. Apart from the worse economic performance of the cows affected by clinical mastitis, their productive longevity and total lifetime utilization registered at the time of culling was reduced from 8.2% for the second up to 12.6% for the first farm.