Biotic stress factors in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under various environmental conditions in Trakia Region

İ. Öztürk*

Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 December 2018; accepted for publication 16 April 2019)

Abstract. Barley is an important crop in Trakia region, Turkey and due to various environmental factors it can suffer some biotic stress and yield loss in the region. This research was carried out in two locations (Edirne and Tekirdağ) of Trakia region during 2013-2014 growing year. The experiment was set up with 25 advanced genotypes in completely randomized blocks with four replications at two locations. Grain yield, plant height, days to heading, leaf rust, net blotch, powdery mildew and relationship among these characters were investigated. According to the results, there was significant difference among genotypes for grain yield, biotic stress factors and other characters. The mean grain yield of the genotypes was 6866 kg ha-1. TEA1619-11 had the highest grain yield with 7667 kg ha-1. TEA2311-19 (7593 kg ha-1) and Harman (7593 kg ha-1) were the other highest yielding genotypes. Due to various environmental conditions, there was significant difference between locations. Mean yield in Edirne location was 7841 kg ha-1 and in Tekirdağ location it was 5891 kg ha-1. TEA1619-8 and TEA1619-9 sister lines had the shortest plant height and early genotypes had higher grain yield. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) is the mainly prevalent disease in Trakya region. Leaf rust and powdery mildew had negative effect and decreased grain yield. TEA1619-12, TEA1619-17, TEA2311-19 and TEA1980-25 genotypes were resistant at both locations. TEA1980-25 was an outstanding line to net blotch, leaf rust and powdery mildew. It was determined that increase of net blotch had negative effect and decreased the grain yield in the genotypes.

Effect of salinity on morpho-physiological parameters and nitrogen content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

K. Fatiha1, H. Abdelkrim1, B. Abdelkader2

1Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and Nutrition in dry areas, Ibn-Khaldoun University, Tiaret, Algeria
2Biotechnology Laboratory of Rhizobia and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Sciences, Oran University, Es-Senia, Algeria

(Manuscript received 17 December 2018; accepted for publication 7 March 2019)

Abstract. To characterize the effect of salt stress on six varieties of chickpea (Cicer areitenumL.): ILC 32/79, Flip 84/92C, Ghab4, Belkhadem, Collection 28 and F97/555, morphological and physiological parameters of the plants were studied to determine which can be cultivated under salty conditions. The genotypes were subjected to three increasing concentrations of NaCl (50, 75 and 100mM) and compared to an unstressed control (0mM NaCl).The results showed the studied genotypes behaved differently depending on saline concentrations, and plant water content decreased depending on NaCl concentrations, with a higher reduction in root dry matter. The root dry weight/shoot dry weight ratio decreased with high NaCl concentrations that caused reductions in root volume, number of nodules, and total nitrogen. It appeared the ILC 32/79 and collection 28 varieties were the most salinity-tolerant genotypes.

Bulk density and organic carbon contents of soil pedons influenced by different tree species

C.M. Ahukaemere1, D.N. Osujieke2, V.O. Ugwa1, A.O. Ogwuche1

1Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
2Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020 Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 1 November 2018; accepted for publication 24 March 2019)

Abstract. Bulk density and organic matter content of soil are important soil attributes used in predicting the productivity potentials of soil and overall soil quality. The distribution of soils bulk density and organic carbon in horizons of soil pedons under different three tree species (Hevea brasiliensis – rubber, Pentaclethra macrophylla – oil bean and Irvingia gabonensis – ogbono) in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria were investigated. A random survey method was used in field sampling. In all, three profile pits were dug, one in each site. A total of 36 soil samples were collected and analyzed for the study. Samples were collected at different horizon levels (A, AB, Bt1 and Bt2). Three representative samples were collected from each horizon. Bulk density, organic carbon and other routine analyses were performed using routine laboratory techniques. Mean, coefficient of variation and correlation analyses were analyzed. From the results obtained bulk density increased with depth, ranging from 1.05-1.81 g cm-3 in the rubber plantation, 1.02-1.70 g cm-3 in ogbono plantation and 1.11-1.57 g cm-3 in oil bean plantation. Bulk density decreased with the increase the organic carbon content. However, mean bulk density values irrespective of tree species did not exceed critical limits ranging from 1.28 to 1.32 g cm-3 as appropriate. Organic carbon ranged from 0.06-0.89 g kg-1 in rubber plantation, 0.42-0.87 g kg-1 in ogbono plantation and 0.72-1.25 g kg-1 in oil bean plantation. The epipedal horizons contained higher organic carbon than the endo-pedal horizons. The average organic carbon contents of the pedons were lower than the critical value irrespective of the tree species. The oil bean plantation had higher organic carbon and total nitrogen than the ogbono and rubber plantation while the ogbono plantation contained higher available phosphorus than the other two plantations studied.

Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of fifteen Bulgarian plants

A. Solak, S. Dyankova

Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 53 Cherni Vrah Str., 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 16 January 2019)

Abstract. Analyses were performed of the antimicrobial activity of 15 herbs and spices (lemongrass, sour cherry, horseradish, ginger, St. John’s wort, common centaury, fig, clove, rose geranium, dill, rosemary, oregano, savory, smoketree and wild thyme) widely spread and used in Bulgaria and of some combinations thereof by the agar disk diffusion method. Total phenol content was the highest in the smoketree extract (43.80±1.50 GAE/ml), followed by rosemary (27.80±1.20 GAE/ml), clove (25.17±0.26 GAE/ml), wild thyme (24.83±1.20 GAE/ml), and oregano (23.50±2.00 GAE/ml) extracts. It was established that ethanol extracts of many tested plants showed inhibitory action against S. aureus and E. coli. The most potent effect was observed with extracts of St. John’s wort, smoketree and clove. With combination of plant extracts, very good results were demonstrated in mixtures of St. John’s wort with wild thyme, with savory and with clove. The said extracts may be used as active constituents in biopolymer matrices for development of functional antimicrobial films needed for food and pharmaceutical industries.

Zoo-hygienic assessment of lighting in semi-open freestall barns for dairy cows

D. Dimov

Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 16 January 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to perform a zoo-hygienic assessment of lighting (natural and artificial) in different technological zones (stalls, manure and feed alleys) in semi-open freestall barns for dairy cows. The survey was conducted over a period of one year in 3 production buildings from 3 cattle farms located in three different areas of Southern Bulgaria – Stara Zagora District, Haskovo District and Plovdiv District. The building’s parameters were as follows: building No.1 – capacity 120 cows, 60.00/18.00/3.00m, 1080m2; building No.2 – capacity 120 cows, 66.00/18.00/3.00m, 1188m2 and building No.3 – capacity 500 cows, 90.00/45.00/3.30m, 4050m2. The premises lighting was measured with two combined apparatuses (Lutron EM-9300SD, 0-20000 lux and PU 150, 0-100000 lux), twice a month at 10.00, 12.00, 14.00, 16.00 and 18.00h at a height of 1m from the floor of the three technology zones. Summarized for all buildings, the light level varies widely by buildings, by seasons, by hours of reporting and by technological zones with limit values between 1 and 9810 lux. In all barns the most intense was the light above the feed alleys, followed by stalls and manure alleys; by hours of reporting during the day the level of lighting above the three technological zones was higher at midday (12.00-14.00h) compared to morning (10.00h) and afternoon (18.00h). Buildings No.1 and No.2 with a smaller built-up area provide more intensive lighting over all technological zones throughout all seasons compared to building No.3 with bigger built-up area: from 7.34 to 13.8 times over stalls, from 3.22 to 5.62 times over manure alleys and from 2.79 to 8.00 times over feed alleys. In buildings No.1 and No.2 there were prerequisites at least 16 hours of day light (photoperiod) to be provided during summer, autumn and spring, while in the winter months up to 8.00am and after 6.00pm the used artificial lighting was with low intensity and cannot provide the recommended over 160 lux intensity of the light. In building No.3 during most of the day for all seasons, the level of lighting above stalls and manure alley where the animals stay the longest time, the lighting level was lower than 160 lux. The factors ‘building’, ‘season’ and ‘hour of the day’ had a statistically significant effect (P<0.05-0.001) on the level of lighting in the three technological zones in the studied buildings. Of the associated factors, only the combination ‘season*hour of reporting’ had no significant effect on the lighting in the zones above the stalls and manure alleys.

Ecological stability and plasticity of maize hybrids in different groups of ripeness

M. Ilchovska

Maize Research Institute, 5835 Knezha, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 3 December 2018)

Abstract. Ecological stability and plasticity of maize hybrids in different groups of ripeness – Knezha 307, Knezha 435, Knezha 509 and Knezha M625 by the traits grain yield and length of the ear was evaluated. The ecological parameters were determined by using the method of Eberhart and Russell (1966) and of Pakudin and Lopatina (1984). In the period of study (2014-2017) the hybrids demonstrate different plasticity and stability by the examined traits. The results of the analysis of the variances demonstrate reliable differences of the hybrids and the conditions for the two traits and primarily reliable interaction genotype – environment. The variances of the regression Si2 of all hybrids for the trait grain yield reliably differ from their theoretical value which determines them as plastic, i.e. responsive to more favourable conditions of growth. According to the values of bi the hybrid Knezha 435 (bi<1) is stable by the trait grain yield, the hybrids Knezha 307 and Knezha M625 are with values of bi close to one and have relatively medium stability and Knezha 509 with bi>1 is unstable. With reliable values of Si2 for the trait length of the ear is only the hybrid Knezha M625. The ecological stability of the other hybrids was evaluated by the value of the coefficient of regression (bi). Increased stability by this trait is demonstrated by Knezha 435, followed by Knezha 509. Knezha 307 is with medium stability (bi=1.1) by the respective trait.

Antioxidant properties and phytochemicals of three brown macro algae from the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Strait

A.K. Ilknur1*, G. Turker2

1Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Turkey 2Department of Food Technology, Canakkale School of Applied Sciences, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Turkey

((Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 26 August 2018))

Abstract. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant properties and phytochemicals of brown algae Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link, Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C. Agardh, and Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy, collected from the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Strait, Turkey, in February 2018. The antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, condensed tannins, and total content of phenolics and flavonoids in ethanol extracts were quantified. P. pavonica showed the highest antioxidant potential as well as the maximum content of phenolics and carotenoids. The total flavonoid contents changed from 1375.43±2.37 μg/g Ext. (C. barbata) to 2250.92±46.60 μg/g Ext. (S. lomentaria). The highest condensed tannins were found in C. barbata. According to results obtained, C. barbata, S. lomentaria and P. pavonica possess antioxidant activity and could be used in the food and feed industries.

Effect of wheat straw and cellulose degrading fungi of genus Trichoderma on soil respiration and cellulase, betaglucosidase and soil carbon content

D. Draganova*, I. Valcheva, Y. Kuzmanova, M. Naydenov

Department of Microbiology and Ecological Biotechnologies, Faculty of Plant Protection and Agroecology, Agricultural University, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 June 2018; accepted for publication 31 August 2018)

Abstract. Due to the intensive soil exploitation and increased mineral fertilization, the degradation of plant residues in the soil is becoming more difficult and slower over the years. This disturbs the structure of the soil and the nutritional balance and leads to a reduction in soil fertility. To solve the problem, microorganisms capable of degrading plant residues in the soil can be used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fungi of genus Trichoderma on the biodegradation of wheat straw in the soil by observation of the change in cellulase enzyme activity in the soil and the increase in soil biological activity. The highest basal soil respiration was noted at T2TUR (65.76 μgCO2) and T6 (53.69 μgCO2). During the entire straw degradation period, the highest endoglucanase activity was observed at T4 (285.0 μgGlu) and T6 (275.56 μgGlu), whereas the highest β-glucosidase was noted at T6 (5220.3 μgPNP/g/h) and T1UKR (5020.0 μgPNP/g/h). The presence of cellulose-degrading fungi positively affected the increase in the total amount of microbial biomass at the end of the study period, whereas the amount of Corg was increased in all straw amended variants. At the beginning of the process, CMCase correlated with the microbial carbon (r=0.896 for Cmic) and β-glucosidase activity was closely connected with both soil organic carbon and microbial carbon (r=0.819 for Corg and r=0.866 for Cmic). At the end of the investigated period a stronger correlation with Corg was observed.

Agricultural characteristics of sugar factory waste products

B.B. Aşık, S. Dorak

 

Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.049

(Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 16 August 2018)

 

Abstract. In this study, physical and chemical properties of sugar factory waste (sugar beet seed wastes) were determined. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, EC, organic matter, C:N ratio, total concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn, and the content of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn. The EC values of waste material were 8.96-10.25 dS/m. pH values varied from 4.96 to 7.30. Organic matter content changed between 86.54 and 89.02%. C:N ratio changed from 18.68 to 24.49. Total N content varied from 2.10 to 2.70%. Waste material contains different quantities of plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, etc.). The physicochemical characterization is important when planning the use and management of organic waste. Heavy metal concentrations of seed waste were below the regulatory limits of Turkey and the European Union. Finally, the compost from sugar factory waste products is of good quality and suitable for use as fertilizer in agriculture.

 

Theoretical analysis of the heat energy savings in wood pellets production

  1. R. Georgiev, K. Peychev, V. Dimova, Georgiev

 

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.048

(Manuscript received 4 June 2018; accepted for publication 6 August 2018)

 

Abstract. The report includes a theoretical analysis of the heat energy savings in the drying of wood biomass with desiccant fumes. With the current technological schemes for drying wood pellets most heat is lost with the exhaust fumes.To use the heat of exhaust fumes it is propose to utilize these by a heat exchanger recuperator type, which transfers part of the heat of the exhaust gas to the fresh air entering the dryer installation. Thus, about 25% of the heat for drying biomass can be saved. The report examines the relationship between outdoor temperature and condensation of moisture from the exhaust gases on the relative share of energy saved using a heat exchanger.