Flower characteristics and sexual compatibility of Italian olive cultivar Coratina under Syrian coast conditions

M. A. Mhanna1*, F.W. Douay2, M. Rajab1

1General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Latakia, Syria 2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria

(Manuscript received 13 August 2019; accepted for publication 27 September 2019)

Abstract. The study was conducted for four years (2016 to 2019) in Olive germoplasm collection at Bouka, Latakia, Syria, to evaluate flower characteristics and sexual compatibility of olive cultivar Coratina under Syrian coast conditions. “Coratina” was characterized by low level of pistil abortion, average number of flowers per inflorescence and good pollen germinablity. ISI of “Coratina” showed that this cultivar was highly self- incompatible. A new threshold depends on flowering load and final fruit set were adapted to evaluate pollinizers. The two autochthonous olive cultivars “Khodeiri” and “Dermlali” were good pollinizers for “Coratina” but with some annual differences in pollination efficiency. Reverse pollination results confirmed that “Khoderi” is inter-compatible with „Coratina“ in both directions. It is suggested to plant “Coratina” in mixed orchards with “Khoderi” because they’re inter-compatible, having regular bearing habit and overlapping in flowering period.

Analysis of legislation on the designation of sites and routes on agricultural land

V. Velkovski*

Department of Agricultural Economics, Economic Academy “Dimitar A. Tsenov”, 5250 Svishtov, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 June 2019; accepted for publication 20 September 2019)

Abstract. The article deals with aspects of the Bulgarian agricultural and ecological legislation, which regulate the processes of location of sites and routes on the agricultural lands in carrying out construction and other spatial planning activities. The purpose of the study is to identify some legal imperfections in this area and to justify the need for their correction, reversal or development. To achieve the goal, a methodology based on Bulgarian legal-order tracking of regulations and the analysis of the actions of the subjects implementing them is used. Expected results in this regard are associated with ignoring the negative impact of the imperfections of the legal base on the sustainability of agro-development measures.

Change in use of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes – procedures, aspects, problems

  1. Velkovski


Department of Agricultural Economics, Economic Academy “Dimitar A. Tsenov”, 5250 Svishtov, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 3 June 2019; accepted for publication 15 July 2019)


Abstract. The change of the designation of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes is related to investment intentions for realization of developmental events on the agricultural territories, which are mainly of a constructional nature. In a legal and technological aspect, this process is regulated in Chapter Five of the Agricultural Land Conservation Act (1996) and Chapter Five of the Rules for Implementation of Agricultural Land Conservation Act (1996). Other specific legal details in this respect are subject to regulation in a number of other legal acts: Spatial Development Act (2001), Black Sea Coast Spatial Development Act (2008), Cadastre and Land Register Act (2000), Ordinance No. 7/22.12.2003 on rules and norms for the construction of the different types of territories and development zones, Ordinance No. 8/14.06.2001 on the volume and content of development plans, Ordinance No. 4/21.05.2001 on the scope and content of investment projects, etc. The aim of the study is to justify the necessity to change land use on a reasonable scale as a necessary instrument in the agricultural sector, by monitoring and analyzing the current legal framework and some literary sources. In this connection, the methodology of the legal analysis and the methodology of the SWOT analysis are used. The expected results are oriented towards the formulation of some proposals concerning the improvement of the mechanisms for the change of the purpose of the agricultural land.

Efficiency of cardboard solar heater boxes for disinfestations of stored grains against arthropod pest

  1. Abdullahi1, R. Muhamad2, O. Dzolkhifli2, U.R. Sinniah3


1Department of Crop Protection, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076 Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

2Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

3Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia


(Manuscript received 31 March 2019; accepted for publication 17 June 2019)


Abstract. The solar heater box is a modest technology that enables easy collection and retention of solar radiation as heat at levels lethal to stored product arthropod pest inside the box. This study was designed to construct solar heater boxes of appreciable capacities to hold large quantities of grains, assess their heat-trapping efficiency and the influence of beans quantity and exposure time on same. Solar heater boxes of five different sizes were constructed for this study. Their heat-trapping capacity was evaluated by exposure to the sunlight for 5h. The influence of bean quantity and exposure on heat capture capabilities of the best performing solar heater box was evaluated using five different quantities of cocoa beans (9, 12, 15, 18 and 21kg) for 2h of exposure period. The result for heat trapping capacity shows that the largest solar heater box trapped the highest mean between and within bean temperatures (69.38±4.97 and 69.45±3.97C, respectively) in 5h of exposure time. The result of the experiment on the effect of bean quantity and exposure time on heat-trapping efficiency show the highest temperature was obtained at 120min exposure time using 9kg of cocoa beans for both between and within bean temperature (70.00±0.73 and 71.23±0.85oC, respectively). The implications of these findings in applying this technology for stored product arthropods pest management on durable commodities were discussed.

Energy use pattern and greenhouse gas emission in systems for greenhouse vegetable production

  1. Nourani1, A. Bencheikh2


1Scientific and Technical Research Center on Arid Regions (CRSTRA), University Campus Mohamed Khider, Biskra, Algeria

2Science of Nature and Life Department of SNV, The African University Ahmed Draia, Adrar, Algeria


(Manuscript received 5 June 2019; accepted for publication 25 July 2019)


Abstract. Algeria has experienced a notable agricultural development driven by a prosperity in market gardening in plastic greenhouses due of the favorable climatic conditions and the government’s policy. For that, a survey has been conducted in order to determine the energy use pattern for greenhouse vegetable production, also to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for this system of production in Biskra province, Algeria. The results revealed that the total energy required for vegetable protected production is 119.68 GJ per hectare where the infrastructure was the highest energy consumer followed by the electricity and fertilizers with a share of 22%, 20% and 19%, respectively. The energy use efficiency (energy ratio) was calculated as 0.82, showing the inefficiency use of energy in the protected vegetable production. The inputs of farmyard manure, followed by infrastructure and electricity in greenhouse vegetable production generated the highest proportion of gas emissions with values 35%, 33% and 23%, respectively. According to these results, management of electricity and diesel fuel consumption are possible using solar energy to decrease total GHG  emission in greenhouse vegetable production in Biskra province.

Determination of some heavy metals in vegetable garden soil and waste dumpsite soil in Mubi North, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Z.B. Mshelia


Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, P.M.B. 25 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 April 2019; accepted for publication 25 June 2019)


Abstract. A research conducted on soil samples using different depths were carried out on the determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As) in Wuro-Gude vegetable garden soil and waste dumpsite soil, Mubi Metropolis Adamawa State, Nigeria. The soil samples were collected on different depths and were transported to the department of animal production laboratory for digestion. The mixtures were digested with tri-acid mixture (HNO3: HCO4: H2SO4) and determination of the heavy metals was done using a Buck Scientific 200A Model, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). It was found that the heavy metals concentration in both types of soils at the depth of 5, 15 and 25cm was as follows: a) Vegetable garden soil: Ni – 7.33mg/g, 5.06mg/g and 3.04mg/g; Zn – 16.31mg/g, 13.08mg/g and 8.37mg/g; Cu – 6.94mg/g, 4.77mg/g and 3.28mg/g; Pb – 1.07mg/g, 0.57mg/g and 0.42mg/g and Cd – 0.35mg/g, 0.31mg/g and 0.29mg/g, respectively; As was not detected in all the depths; b) Waste dumpsite soil: Ni – 6.75mg/g, 4.33mg/g and 1.95mg/g; Zn – 14.67mg/g, 12.55mg/g and 9.04mg/g; Cu – 8.34mg/g, 5.72mg/g and 3.82mg/g; Pb – 2.15mg/g, 1.06mg/g and 0.67mg/g and Cd – 0.68mg/g, 0.57mg/g and 0.84mg/g, respectively; As was not detected in all the samples. All measured heavy metals concentrations were within the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization, except Cd which was above the permissible limit in waste dumpsite soil. Therefore, waste dumpsite soil should not be used for farming and effort should be made to educate the public on the health effect of these metals when ingested, to avoid bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain.


Sensitivity to herbicides of two spring forage pea cultivars

  1. Ivanov, M. Dimitrova


Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 22 February 2019; accepted for publication 28 May 2019)


Abstract. An important element of spring pea growing technology is weed control as the crop is highly sensitive to them, especially in the early stages of its development. The use of various herbicide preparations with a diverse mechanism and spectrum of action, changes in weed associations under the influence of various factors, as well as the selection of new varieties necessitates a constant study of the problem of the efficacy of herbicide preparations and the sensitivity of varieties to them. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity of two cultivars of spring forage pea to different herbicide preparations. During the period 2006-2008 in the village of Lyubenova mahala, Stara Zagora region, a three-factor field experiment was conducted by the fractional parcel method in four replications and size of the harvest plot 10m2. Factor A includes cultivars of spring peas, factor B – herbicide variants, factor C – doses of herbicides. It has been proven that the plants of both varieties, Pickardi and Amitie, are killed by 2.4 D, both in single and double dose. The highest average plant height was recorded in the Amitie cultivar treated with Basagran 600 SL herbicide at the double dose (3.0 L/ha). The highest were the values of the parameter number of beans per plant obtained in the Amitie cultivar treated with Basagran 600 SL and Pivot 100 SL – 0.8 L/ha, in the soil. A statistically proven highest average value of the parameter seed mass per plant was obtained in the Amitie variety treated with the Basagran 600 SL herbicide (12.667g) and the lowest – in Pickardi with the herbicide Pivot (10.330g).

Biotic stress factors in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under various environmental conditions in Trakia Region

İ. Öztürk*

Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 December 2018; accepted for publication 16 April 2019)

Abstract. Barley is an important crop in Trakia region, Turkey and due to various environmental factors it can suffer some biotic stress and yield loss in the region. This research was carried out in two locations (Edirne and Tekirdağ) of Trakia region during 2013-2014 growing year. The experiment was set up with 25 advanced genotypes in completely randomized blocks with four replications at two locations. Grain yield, plant height, days to heading, leaf rust, net blotch, powdery mildew and relationship among these characters were investigated. According to the results, there was significant difference among genotypes for grain yield, biotic stress factors and other characters. The mean grain yield of the genotypes was 6866 kg ha-1. TEA1619-11 had the highest grain yield with 7667 kg ha-1. TEA2311-19 (7593 kg ha-1) and Harman (7593 kg ha-1) were the other highest yielding genotypes. Due to various environmental conditions, there was significant difference between locations. Mean yield in Edirne location was 7841 kg ha-1 and in Tekirdağ location it was 5891 kg ha-1. TEA1619-8 and TEA1619-9 sister lines had the shortest plant height and early genotypes had higher grain yield. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) is the mainly prevalent disease in Trakya region. Leaf rust and powdery mildew had negative effect and decreased grain yield. TEA1619-12, TEA1619-17, TEA2311-19 and TEA1980-25 genotypes were resistant at both locations. TEA1980-25 was an outstanding line to net blotch, leaf rust and powdery mildew. It was determined that increase of net blotch had negative effect and decreased the grain yield in the genotypes.

Effect of salinity on morpho-physiological parameters and nitrogen content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Koulali Fatiha1, Hassani Abdelkrim1, Bekki Abdelkader2

1Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and Nutrition in dry areas, IbnKhaldoun
University, Tiaret, Algeria
2Biotechnology Laboratory of Rhizobia and Plant Breeding, Faculty of
Sciences, Oran University, Es Senia, Algeria

(Manuscript received 17 December 2018; accepted for publication 7 March
*e-mail: fatihacom2007@yahoo.fr

Abstract. To characterize the effect of salt stress on six varieties of chickpea (Cicer areitenumL.): ILC 32/79, Flip 84/92C, Ghab4, Belkhadem, Collection 28 and F97/555, morphological and physiological parameters of the plants were studied to determine which can be cultivated under salty conditions. The genotypes were subjected to three increasing concentrations of NaCl (50, 75 and 100mM) and compared to an unstressed control (0mM NaCl).The results showed the studied genotypes behaved differently depending on saline concentrations, and plant water content decreased depending on NaCl concentrations, with a higher reduction in root dry matter. The root dry weight/shoot dry weight ratio decreased with high NaCl concentrations that caused reductions in root volume, number of nodules, and total nitrogen. It appeared the ILC 32/79 and collection 28 varieties were the most salinity-tolerant genotypes.

Bulk density and organic carbon contents of soil pedons influenced by different tree species

C.M. Ahukaemere1, D.N. Osujieke2, V.O. Ugwa1, A.O. Ogwuche1

1Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
2Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020 Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 1 November 2018; accepted for publication 24 March 2019)

Abstract. Bulk density and organic matter content of soil are important soil attributes used in predicting the productivity potentials of soil and overall soil quality. The distribution of soils bulk density and organic carbon in horizons of soil pedons under different three tree species (Hevea brasiliensis – rubber, Pentaclethra macrophylla – oil bean and Irvingia gabonensis – ogbono) in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria were investigated. A random survey method was used in field sampling. In all, three profile pits were dug, one in each site. A total of 36 soil samples were collected and analyzed for the study. Samples were collected at different horizon levels (A, AB, Bt1 and Bt2). Three representative samples were collected from each horizon. Bulk density, organic carbon and other routine analyses were performed using routine laboratory techniques. Mean, coefficient of variation and correlation analyses were analyzed. From the results obtained bulk density increased with depth, ranging from 1.05-1.81 g cm-3 in the rubber plantation, 1.02-1.70 g cm-3 in ogbono plantation and 1.11-1.57 g cm-3 in oil bean plantation. Bulk density decreased with the increase the organic carbon content. However, mean bulk density values irrespective of tree species did not exceed critical limits ranging from 1.28 to 1.32 g cm-3 as appropriate. Organic carbon ranged from 0.06-0.89 g kg-1 in rubber plantation, 0.42-0.87 g kg-1 in ogbono plantation and 0.72-1.25 g kg-1 in oil bean plantation. The epipedal horizons contained higher organic carbon than the endo-pedal horizons. The average organic carbon contents of the pedons were lower than the critical value irrespective of the tree species. The oil bean plantation had higher organic carbon and total nitrogen than the ogbono and rubber plantation while the ogbono plantation contained higher available phosphorus than the other two plantations studied.