Energy use pattern and greenhouse gas emission in systems for greenhouse vegetable production

  1. Nourani1, A. Bencheikh2


1Scientific and Technical Research Center on Arid Regions (CRSTRA), University Campus Mohamed Khider, Biskra, Algeria

2Science of Nature and Life Department of SNV, The African University Ahmed Draia, Adrar, Algeria


(Manuscript received 5 June 2019; accepted for publication 25 July 2019)


Abstract. Algeria has experienced a notable agricultural development driven by a prosperity in market gardening in plastic greenhouses due of the favorable climatic conditions and the government’s policy. For that, a survey has been conducted in order to determine the energy use pattern for greenhouse vegetable production, also to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for this system of production in Biskra province, Algeria. The results revealed that the total energy required for vegetable protected production is 119.68 GJ per hectare where the infrastructure was the highest energy consumer followed by the electricity and fertilizers with a share of 22%, 20% and 19%, respectively. The energy use efficiency (energy ratio) was calculated as 0.82, showing the inefficiency use of energy in the protected vegetable production. The inputs of farmyard manure, followed by infrastructure and electricity in greenhouse vegetable production generated the highest proportion of gas emissions with values 35%, 33% and 23%, respectively. According to these results, management of electricity and diesel fuel consumption are possible using solar energy to decrease total GHG  emission in greenhouse vegetable production in Biskra province.

Determination of some heavy metals in vegetable garden soil and waste dumpsite soil in Mubi North, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Z.B. Mshelia


Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, P.M.B. 25 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 April 2019; accepted for publication 25 June 2019)


Abstract. A research conducted on soil samples using different depths were carried out on the determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As) in Wuro-Gude vegetable garden soil and waste dumpsite soil, Mubi Metropolis Adamawa State, Nigeria. The soil samples were collected on different depths and were transported to the department of animal production laboratory for digestion. The mixtures were digested with tri-acid mixture (HNO3: HCO4: H2SO4) and determination of the heavy metals was done using a Buck Scientific 200A Model, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). It was found that the heavy metals concentration in both types of soils at the depth of 5, 15 and 25cm was as follows: a) Vegetable garden soil: Ni – 7.33mg/g, 5.06mg/g and 3.04mg/g; Zn – 16.31mg/g, 13.08mg/g and 8.37mg/g; Cu – 6.94mg/g, 4.77mg/g and 3.28mg/g; Pb – 1.07mg/g, 0.57mg/g and 0.42mg/g and Cd – 0.35mg/g, 0.31mg/g and 0.29mg/g, respectively; As was not detected in all the depths; b) Waste dumpsite soil: Ni – 6.75mg/g, 4.33mg/g and 1.95mg/g; Zn – 14.67mg/g, 12.55mg/g and 9.04mg/g; Cu – 8.34mg/g, 5.72mg/g and 3.82mg/g; Pb – 2.15mg/g, 1.06mg/g and 0.67mg/g and Cd – 0.68mg/g, 0.57mg/g and 0.84mg/g, respectively; As was not detected in all the samples. All measured heavy metals concentrations were within the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization, except Cd which was above the permissible limit in waste dumpsite soil. Therefore, waste dumpsite soil should not be used for farming and effort should be made to educate the public on the health effect of these metals when ingested, to avoid bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain.


Sensitivity to herbicides of two spring forage pea cultivars

  1. Ivanov, M. Dimitrova


Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 22 February 2019; accepted for publication 28 May 2019)


Abstract. An important element of spring pea growing technology is weed control as the crop is highly sensitive to them, especially in the early stages of its development. The use of various herbicide preparations with a diverse mechanism and spectrum of action, changes in weed associations under the influence of various factors, as well as the selection of new varieties necessitates a constant study of the problem of the efficacy of herbicide preparations and the sensitivity of varieties to them. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity of two cultivars of spring forage pea to different herbicide preparations. During the period 2006-2008 in the village of Lyubenova mahala, Stara Zagora region, a three-factor field experiment was conducted by the fractional parcel method in four replications and size of the harvest plot 10m2. Factor A includes cultivars of spring peas, factor B – herbicide variants, factor C – doses of herbicides. It has been proven that the plants of both varieties, Pickardi and Amitie, are killed by 2.4 D, both in single and double dose. The highest average plant height was recorded in the Amitie cultivar treated with Basagran 600 SL herbicide at the double dose (3.0 L/ha). The highest were the values of the parameter number of beans per plant obtained in the Amitie cultivar treated with Basagran 600 SL and Pivot 100 SL – 0.8 L/ha, in the soil. A statistically proven highest average value of the parameter seed mass per plant was obtained in the Amitie variety treated with the Basagran 600 SL herbicide (12.667g) and the lowest – in Pickardi with the herbicide Pivot (10.330g).

Biotic stress factors in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under various environmental conditions in Trakia Region

İ. Öztürk*

Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 December 2018; accepted for publication 16 April 2019)

Abstract. Barley is an important crop in Trakia region, Turkey and due to various environmental factors it can suffer some biotic stress and yield loss in the region. This research was carried out in two locations (Edirne and Tekirdağ) of Trakia region during 2013-2014 growing year. The experiment was set up with 25 advanced genotypes in completely randomized blocks with four replications at two locations. Grain yield, plant height, days to heading, leaf rust, net blotch, powdery mildew and relationship among these characters were investigated. According to the results, there was significant difference among genotypes for grain yield, biotic stress factors and other characters. The mean grain yield of the genotypes was 6866 kg ha-1. TEA1619-11 had the highest grain yield with 7667 kg ha-1. TEA2311-19 (7593 kg ha-1) and Harman (7593 kg ha-1) were the other highest yielding genotypes. Due to various environmental conditions, there was significant difference between locations. Mean yield in Edirne location was 7841 kg ha-1 and in Tekirdağ location it was 5891 kg ha-1. TEA1619-8 and TEA1619-9 sister lines had the shortest plant height and early genotypes had higher grain yield. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) is the mainly prevalent disease in Trakya region. Leaf rust and powdery mildew had negative effect and decreased grain yield. TEA1619-12, TEA1619-17, TEA2311-19 and TEA1980-25 genotypes were resistant at both locations. TEA1980-25 was an outstanding line to net blotch, leaf rust and powdery mildew. It was determined that increase of net blotch had negative effect and decreased the grain yield in the genotypes.

Effect of salinity on morpho-physiological parameters and nitrogen content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Koulali Fatiha1, Hassani Abdelkrim1, Bekki Abdelkader2

1Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and Nutrition in dry areas, IbnKhaldoun
University, Tiaret, Algeria
2Biotechnology Laboratory of Rhizobia and Plant Breeding, Faculty of
Sciences, Oran University, Es Senia, Algeria

(Manuscript received 17 December 2018; accepted for publication 7 March

Abstract. To characterize the effect of salt stress on six varieties of chickpea (Cicer areitenumL.): ILC 32/79, Flip 84/92C, Ghab4, Belkhadem, Collection 28 and F97/555, morphological and physiological parameters of the plants were studied to determine which can be cultivated under salty conditions. The genotypes were subjected to three increasing concentrations of NaCl (50, 75 and 100mM) and compared to an unstressed control (0mM NaCl).The results showed the studied genotypes behaved differently depending on saline concentrations, and plant water content decreased depending on NaCl concentrations, with a higher reduction in root dry matter. The root dry weight/shoot dry weight ratio decreased with high NaCl concentrations that caused reductions in root volume, number of nodules, and total nitrogen. It appeared the ILC 32/79 and collection 28 varieties were the most salinity-tolerant genotypes.

Bulk density and organic carbon contents of soil pedons influenced by different tree species

C.M. Ahukaemere1, D.N. Osujieke2, V.O. Ugwa1, A.O. Ogwuche1

1Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
2Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020 Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 1 November 2018; accepted for publication 24 March 2019)

Abstract. Bulk density and organic matter content of soil are important soil attributes used in predicting the productivity potentials of soil and overall soil quality. The distribution of soils bulk density and organic carbon in horizons of soil pedons under different three tree species (Hevea brasiliensis – rubber, Pentaclethra macrophylla – oil bean and Irvingia gabonensis – ogbono) in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria were investigated. A random survey method was used in field sampling. In all, three profile pits were dug, one in each site. A total of 36 soil samples were collected and analyzed for the study. Samples were collected at different horizon levels (A, AB, Bt1 and Bt2). Three representative samples were collected from each horizon. Bulk density, organic carbon and other routine analyses were performed using routine laboratory techniques. Mean, coefficient of variation and correlation analyses were analyzed. From the results obtained bulk density increased with depth, ranging from 1.05-1.81 g cm-3 in the rubber plantation, 1.02-1.70 g cm-3 in ogbono plantation and 1.11-1.57 g cm-3 in oil bean plantation. Bulk density decreased with the increase the organic carbon content. However, mean bulk density values irrespective of tree species did not exceed critical limits ranging from 1.28 to 1.32 g cm-3 as appropriate. Organic carbon ranged from 0.06-0.89 g kg-1 in rubber plantation, 0.42-0.87 g kg-1 in ogbono plantation and 0.72-1.25 g kg-1 in oil bean plantation. The epipedal horizons contained higher organic carbon than the endo-pedal horizons. The average organic carbon contents of the pedons were lower than the critical value irrespective of the tree species. The oil bean plantation had higher organic carbon and total nitrogen than the ogbono and rubber plantation while the ogbono plantation contained higher available phosphorus than the other two plantations studied.

Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of fifteen Bulgarian plants

A. Solak, S. Dyankova

Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 53 Cherni Vrah Str., 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 16 January 2019)

Abstract. Analyses were performed of the antimicrobial activity of 15 herbs and spices (lemongrass, sour cherry, horseradish, ginger, St. John’s wort, common centaury, fig, clove, rose geranium, dill, rosemary, oregano, savory, smoketree and wild thyme) widely spread and used in Bulgaria and of some combinations thereof by the agar disk diffusion method. Total phenol content was the highest in the smoketree extract (43.80±1.50 GAE/ml), followed by rosemary (27.80±1.20 GAE/ml), clove (25.17±0.26 GAE/ml), wild thyme (24.83±1.20 GAE/ml), and oregano (23.50±2.00 GAE/ml) extracts. It was established that ethanol extracts of many tested plants showed inhibitory action against S. aureus and E. coli. The most potent effect was observed with extracts of St. John’s wort, smoketree and clove. With combination of plant extracts, very good results were demonstrated in mixtures of St. John’s wort with wild thyme, with savory and with clove. The said extracts may be used as active constituents in biopolymer matrices for development of functional antimicrobial films needed for food and pharmaceutical industries.

Zoo-hygienic assessment of lighting in semi-open freestall barns for dairy cows

D. Dimov

Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 16 January 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to perform a zoo-hygienic assessment of lighting (natural and artificial) in different technological zones (stalls, manure and feed alleys) in semi-open freestall barns for dairy cows. The survey was conducted over a period of one year in 3 production buildings from 3 cattle farms located in three different areas of Southern Bulgaria – Stara Zagora District, Haskovo District and Plovdiv District. The building’s parameters were as follows: building No.1 – capacity 120 cows, 60.00/18.00/3.00m, 1080m2; building No.2 – capacity 120 cows, 66.00/18.00/3.00m, 1188m2 and building No.3 – capacity 500 cows, 90.00/45.00/3.30m, 4050m2. The premises lighting was measured with two combined apparatuses (Lutron EM-9300SD, 0-20000 lux and PU 150, 0-100000 lux), twice a month at 10.00, 12.00, 14.00, 16.00 and 18.00h at a height of 1m from the floor of the three technology zones. Summarized for all buildings, the light level varies widely by buildings, by seasons, by hours of reporting and by technological zones with limit values between 1 and 9810 lux. In all barns the most intense was the light above the feed alleys, followed by stalls and manure alleys; by hours of reporting during the day the level of lighting above the three technological zones was higher at midday (12.00-14.00h) compared to morning (10.00h) and afternoon (18.00h). Buildings No.1 and No.2 with a smaller built-up area provide more intensive lighting over all technological zones throughout all seasons compared to building No.3 with bigger built-up area: from 7.34 to 13.8 times over stalls, from 3.22 to 5.62 times over manure alleys and from 2.79 to 8.00 times over feed alleys. In buildings No.1 and No.2 there were prerequisites at least 16 hours of day light (photoperiod) to be provided during summer, autumn and spring, while in the winter months up to 8.00am and after 6.00pm the used artificial lighting was with low intensity and cannot provide the recommended over 160 lux intensity of the light. In building No.3 during most of the day for all seasons, the level of lighting above stalls and manure alley where the animals stay the longest time, the lighting level was lower than 160 lux. The factors ‘building’, ‘season’ and ‘hour of the day’ had a statistically significant effect (P<0.05-0.001) on the level of lighting in the three technological zones in the studied buildings. Of the associated factors, only the combination ‘season*hour of reporting’ had no significant effect on the lighting in the zones above the stalls and manure alleys.

Ecological stability and plasticity of maize hybrids in different groups of ripeness

M. Ilchovska

Maize Research Institute, 5835 Knezha, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 3 December 2018)

Abstract. Ecological stability and plasticity of maize hybrids in different groups of ripeness – Knezha 307, Knezha 435, Knezha 509 and Knezha M625 by the traits grain yield and length of the ear was evaluated. The ecological parameters were determined by using the method of Eberhart and Russell (1966) and of Pakudin and Lopatina (1984). In the period of study (2014-2017) the hybrids demonstrate different plasticity and stability by the examined traits. The results of the analysis of the variances demonstrate reliable differences of the hybrids and the conditions for the two traits and primarily reliable interaction genotype – environment. The variances of the regression Si2 of all hybrids for the trait grain yield reliably differ from their theoretical value which determines them as plastic, i.e. responsive to more favourable conditions of growth. According to the values of bi the hybrid Knezha 435 (bi<1) is stable by the trait grain yield, the hybrids Knezha 307 and Knezha M625 are with values of bi close to one and have relatively medium stability and Knezha 509 with bi>1 is unstable. With reliable values of Si2 for the trait length of the ear is only the hybrid Knezha M625. The ecological stability of the other hybrids was evaluated by the value of the coefficient of regression (bi). Increased stability by this trait is demonstrated by Knezha 435, followed by Knezha 509. Knezha 307 is with medium stability (bi=1.1) by the respective trait.

Antioxidant properties and phytochemicals of three brown macro algae from the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Strait

A.K. Ilknur1*, G. Turker2

1Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Turkey 2Department of Food Technology, Canakkale School of Applied Sciences, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Turkey

((Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 26 August 2018))

Abstract. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant properties and phytochemicals of brown algae Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link, Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C. Agardh, and Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy, collected from the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Strait, Turkey, in February 2018. The antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, condensed tannins, and total content of phenolics and flavonoids in ethanol extracts were quantified. P. pavonica showed the highest antioxidant potential as well as the maximum content of phenolics and carotenoids. The total flavonoid contents changed from 1375.43±2.37 μg/g Ext. (C. barbata) to 2250.92±46.60 μg/g Ext. (S. lomentaria). The highest condensed tannins were found in C. barbata. According to results obtained, C. barbata, S. lomentaria and P. pavonica possess antioxidant activity and could be used in the food and feed industries.