Soil structure indices under different tillage systems of sandy loam soil in Hadejia, Jigawa state, Nigeria

A. Nabayi1*, H.A. Santuraki1, A.H. Girei1, N.G. Hayatu2, F.D. Haruna3, S.A. Yusif2, S.A. Lukman2

1Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa state, PMB 7156, Nigeria
2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, PMB 2346 Sokoto state, Nigeria
3Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutsinma, Katsina State, PMB 5001, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 10 January 2020; accepted for publication 4 March 2020)

Abstract. Soil structural indices have a significant effect on the nutrients retention and crop yield. Studies on soil structure indices in the semi-arid zone are minimal despite their importance in controlling water and water transmission, root elongation and erosion. A study was conducted in the area of Hadejia to evaluate the influence of tillage systems (TS) and sampling depths on some selected soil structure indices. The TS were four (4); conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), zero tillage (ZT) and chisel plough (CP), while the sampling depths were two – 0-15cm and 15-30cm. Randomised complete block design (RCBD) was used in factorial arrangement. The result showed that the soil is sandy loam in texture irrespective of the TS. Lower dispersion ratio (DR) was observed in ZT with greater aggregate silt + clay (ASC) and water stability index (WSI) which differed significantly (p<0.01) from one another. Pearson’s correlation and simple linear regression analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) positive and negative relationships between organic matter (OM) content of the soil with ASC, WSI and DR, respectively. Negative correlation of OM with DR stressed the significance of OM in decreasing DR of the soil which further explains lower DR by ZT because of greater OM content (p<0.05). Sodium (Na), sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) were in the order of RT>ZT>CT>CP with RT having the highest that differed significantly (p<0.05) from other TS. Lower values in CT and CP could be a result of leaching due to the lower surface residues relative to conservational tillage systems. Conclusively, the best tillage systems to improved soil structural indices are conservation tillage (ZT and RT) systems, particularly ZT.

The effect of laundry grey water irrigation on the growth response of selected local bean species in Nigeria

B. Ikhajiagbe1,2, E.O. Ohanmu1,3*, P.O. Ekhator1, P.A. Victor1

1Environmental Biotechnology and Sustainability Research Group, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
2Applied Environmental Biosciences and Public Health Research Group, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Edo University Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 25 July 2019; accepted for publication 5 February 2020)

Abstract. This study examined the growth responses of some selected local bean (pulses) varieties in Nigeria; Vigna unguiculata (Ife brown), Vigna unguiculata (Ekpoma Local), Phaseolus vulgaris, Cajanus cajan and Glycine max, cultivated on soil irrigated with laundry-based grey water. Healthy seeds of all bean species were sown in plastic bowls of three replicates each and irrigated daily with similar quantities of the respective grey water. The effect of the grey water on the germination, growth and yield of all the beans was observed for a period of four months. The result obtained revealed that grey water had a negative effect on the growth and yield of all the beans as there was a decrease in the percentage emergence of all seedlings, height of emergent seedlings and number of flowers and pods produced. Grey water also altered the chlorophyll content and total crude protein of all the beans subjected to the treatment. The effect of grey water on plant is as a result of accumulation of excess salts contained in grey water on the soil.

Efficacy of different herbicide combinations for weed control in irrigated maize silage

R. Bazitov*

Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 October 2019; accepted for publication 13 January 2020)

Abstract: The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy of herbicide combinations between Tender EC and Titus + Magneto SL, and Wing P and Mistral Opti applied in a field of maize under the conditions of mixed irrigation. The study has been carried out with maize cultivated on meadow-cinnamon soil at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora for the period 2014-2016. The research was conducted with a mid-grade hybrid corn LG35.62 with the same background of fertilization and irrigation with the following variants: 1) Control (without herbicides); 2) Wing P – 4000 ml/ha and Mistral Opti – 210 ml/ha, and 3) Tender EC – 1500 ml/ha and a mixture of Titus – 40 g/ha + Magnet SL – 1200 ml/ha. Increasе of maize yield by 41.6% (on average) in comparison with the control variant and by 28.9% compared to the variant Wing P and Mistral Opti was found.

Phytoplankton blooms in front of cape Galata (Black Sea) during the period 2008-2017

D. Klisarova*, D. Gerdzhikov
Institute of Fish Resources, 4 Primorski Blvd., 9000 Varna, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 7 November 2019; accepted for publication 21 January 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to identify the peculiarities of the development of phytoplankton blooms (annual and seasonal dynamics) in front of cape Galata, Bulgarian Black Sea coast in the period 2008-2017. In that area up to 30 nautical miles (nm), from 6 stations (G-1, G-3, G-5, G-10, G-20 and G-30, respectively at 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 nm from the coast), 187 phytoplankton samples were collected. A total of six phytoplankton species were recorded, developing with the following blooming concentrations: Emiliania huxleyi, Oscillatoria sp., Merismopedia sp., small Flagellates (Cryptophyceae), Prorocentrum cordatum (minimum) and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. It was found that the reported in previous periods trend of increasing phytoplankton biomass in front of cape Galata had already changed. Compared to the observed quantities in the period 1993-2007, the current phytoplankton values in the surface layer (up to 30 nm in front of cape Galata) were 1.63 times lower in abundance and 5.60 times lower in biomass.

Flower characteristics and sexual compatibility of Italian olive cultivar Coratina under Syrian coast conditions

M. A. Mhanna1*, F.W. Douay2, M. Rajab1

1General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Latakia, Syria 2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria

(Manuscript received 13 August 2019; accepted for publication 27 September 2019)

Abstract. The study was conducted for four years (2016 to 2019) in Olive germoplasm collection at Bouka, Latakia, Syria, to evaluate flower characteristics and sexual compatibility of olive cultivar Coratina under Syrian coast conditions. “Coratina” was characterized by low level of pistil abortion, average number of flowers per inflorescence and good pollen germinablity. ISI of “Coratina” showed that this cultivar was highly self- incompatible. A new threshold depends on flowering load and final fruit set were adapted to evaluate pollinizers. The two autochthonous olive cultivars “Khodeiri” and “Dermlali” were good pollinizers for “Coratina” but with some annual differences in pollination efficiency. Reverse pollination results confirmed that “Khoderi” is inter-compatible with „Coratina“ in both directions. It is suggested to plant “Coratina” in mixed orchards with “Khoderi” because they’re inter-compatible, having regular bearing habit and overlapping in flowering period.

Analysis of legislation on the designation of sites and routes on agricultural land

V. Velkovski*

Department of Agricultural Economics, Economic Academy “Dimitar A. Tsenov”, 5250 Svishtov, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 June 2019; accepted for publication 20 September 2019)

Abstract. The article deals with aspects of the Bulgarian agricultural and ecological legislation, which regulate the processes of location of sites and routes on the agricultural lands in carrying out construction and other spatial planning activities. The purpose of the study is to identify some legal imperfections in this area and to justify the need for their correction, reversal or development. To achieve the goal, a methodology based on Bulgarian legal-order tracking of regulations and the analysis of the actions of the subjects implementing them is used. Expected results in this regard are associated with ignoring the negative impact of the imperfections of the legal base on the sustainability of agro-development measures.

Change in use of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes – procedures, aspects, problems

  1. Velkovski


Department of Agricultural Economics, Economic Academy “Dimitar A. Tsenov”, 5250 Svishtov, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 3 June 2019; accepted for publication 15 July 2019)


Abstract. The change of the designation of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes is related to investment intentions for realization of developmental events on the agricultural territories, which are mainly of a constructional nature. In a legal and technological aspect, this process is regulated in Chapter Five of the Agricultural Land Conservation Act (1996) and Chapter Five of the Rules for Implementation of Agricultural Land Conservation Act (1996). Other specific legal details in this respect are subject to regulation in a number of other legal acts: Spatial Development Act (2001), Black Sea Coast Spatial Development Act (2008), Cadastre and Land Register Act (2000), Ordinance No. 7/22.12.2003 on rules and norms for the construction of the different types of territories and development zones, Ordinance No. 8/14.06.2001 on the volume and content of development plans, Ordinance No. 4/21.05.2001 on the scope and content of investment projects, etc. The aim of the study is to justify the necessity to change land use on a reasonable scale as a necessary instrument in the agricultural sector, by monitoring and analyzing the current legal framework and some literary sources. In this connection, the methodology of the legal analysis and the methodology of the SWOT analysis are used. The expected results are oriented towards the formulation of some proposals concerning the improvement of the mechanisms for the change of the purpose of the agricultural land.

Efficiency of cardboard solar heater boxes for disinfestations of stored grains against arthropod pest

  1. Abdullahi1, R. Muhamad2, O. Dzolkhifli2, U.R. Sinniah3


1Department of Crop Protection, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076 Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

2Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

3Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia


(Manuscript received 31 March 2019; accepted for publication 17 June 2019)


Abstract. The solar heater box is a modest technology that enables easy collection and retention of solar radiation as heat at levels lethal to stored product arthropod pest inside the box. This study was designed to construct solar heater boxes of appreciable capacities to hold large quantities of grains, assess their heat-trapping efficiency and the influence of beans quantity and exposure time on same. Solar heater boxes of five different sizes were constructed for this study. Their heat-trapping capacity was evaluated by exposure to the sunlight for 5h. The influence of bean quantity and exposure on heat capture capabilities of the best performing solar heater box was evaluated using five different quantities of cocoa beans (9, 12, 15, 18 and 21kg) for 2h of exposure period. The result for heat trapping capacity shows that the largest solar heater box trapped the highest mean between and within bean temperatures (69.38±4.97 and 69.45±3.97C, respectively) in 5h of exposure time. The result of the experiment on the effect of bean quantity and exposure time on heat-trapping efficiency show the highest temperature was obtained at 120min exposure time using 9kg of cocoa beans for both between and within bean temperature (70.00±0.73 and 71.23±0.85oC, respectively). The implications of these findings in applying this technology for stored product arthropods pest management on durable commodities were discussed.

Energy use pattern and greenhouse gas emission in systems for greenhouse vegetable production

  1. Nourani1, A. Bencheikh2


1Scientific and Technical Research Center on Arid Regions (CRSTRA), University Campus Mohamed Khider, Biskra, Algeria

2Science of Nature and Life Department of SNV, The African University Ahmed Draia, Adrar, Algeria


(Manuscript received 5 June 2019; accepted for publication 25 July 2019)


Abstract. Algeria has experienced a notable agricultural development driven by a prosperity in market gardening in plastic greenhouses due of the favorable climatic conditions and the government’s policy. For that, a survey has been conducted in order to determine the energy use pattern for greenhouse vegetable production, also to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for this system of production in Biskra province, Algeria. The results revealed that the total energy required for vegetable protected production is 119.68 GJ per hectare where the infrastructure was the highest energy consumer followed by the electricity and fertilizers with a share of 22%, 20% and 19%, respectively. The energy use efficiency (energy ratio) was calculated as 0.82, showing the inefficiency use of energy in the protected vegetable production. The inputs of farmyard manure, followed by infrastructure and electricity in greenhouse vegetable production generated the highest proportion of gas emissions with values 35%, 33% and 23%, respectively. According to these results, management of electricity and diesel fuel consumption are possible using solar energy to decrease total GHG  emission in greenhouse vegetable production in Biskra province.

Determination of some heavy metals in vegetable garden soil and waste dumpsite soil in Mubi North, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Z.B. Mshelia


Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, P.M.B. 25 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 April 2019; accepted for publication 25 June 2019)


Abstract. A research conducted on soil samples using different depths were carried out on the determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As) in Wuro-Gude vegetable garden soil and waste dumpsite soil, Mubi Metropolis Adamawa State, Nigeria. The soil samples were collected on different depths and were transported to the department of animal production laboratory for digestion. The mixtures were digested with tri-acid mixture (HNO3: HCO4: H2SO4) and determination of the heavy metals was done using a Buck Scientific 200A Model, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). It was found that the heavy metals concentration in both types of soils at the depth of 5, 15 and 25cm was as follows: a) Vegetable garden soil: Ni – 7.33mg/g, 5.06mg/g and 3.04mg/g; Zn – 16.31mg/g, 13.08mg/g and 8.37mg/g; Cu – 6.94mg/g, 4.77mg/g and 3.28mg/g; Pb – 1.07mg/g, 0.57mg/g and 0.42mg/g and Cd – 0.35mg/g, 0.31mg/g and 0.29mg/g, respectively; As was not detected in all the depths; b) Waste dumpsite soil: Ni – 6.75mg/g, 4.33mg/g and 1.95mg/g; Zn – 14.67mg/g, 12.55mg/g and 9.04mg/g; Cu – 8.34mg/g, 5.72mg/g and 3.82mg/g; Pb – 2.15mg/g, 1.06mg/g and 0.67mg/g and Cd – 0.68mg/g, 0.57mg/g and 0.84mg/g, respectively; As was not detected in all the samples. All measured heavy metals concentrations were within the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization, except Cd which was above the permissible limit in waste dumpsite soil. Therefore, waste dumpsite soil should not be used for farming and effort should be made to educate the public on the health effect of these metals when ingested, to avoid bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain.