Morphological and morphometric characterization of Bulgarian local chicken breed – Southwest Bulgarian dzinka

H. Lukanov1*, I. Pavlova2

1Department of Animal Husbandry – Мonogastric and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Student’s campus, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of General Livestock Breeding, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, Student’s campus, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 January 2020; accepted for publication 7 June 2021)

Abstract. The poultry genetic resources of the Republic of Bulgaria cover mostly the domestic chicken and domestic pigeon species. A number of introduced breeds of chickens are bred in the country, but also some local primitive and decorative breeds. Southwest Bulgarian dzinka is one of the three bantam chicken breeds that originated in Bulgaria. The aim of the study is to make a complete exterior characteristic of the Southwest Bulgarian dzinka breed. A phenotypic evaluation of a total of 29 roosters and 61 hens was performed. The mean body weight of roosters was 620.7±18.9 g and 492.7±8.42 g of hens. The birds are characterized by the presence of a small rose comb, beard and well feathered legs. The most common color of the plumage is spangled. The legs and beak are light in color, except for the black color of the plumage. The eyes are orange-red. The calculated Index for massiveness, Index of compactness and Index of long-leggedness for roosters were 5.35±0.13, 218.57±4.15 and 46.36±1.83, respectively, and 4.62±0.09, 214.62±3.60, 41.03±1.25 for hens.

Live weight, Body condition score, body dimensions, and phenotypic correlations between them in sheep of Bulgarian dairy synthetic population

P. Slavova*, N. Dimova, M. Mihaylova, S. Slavova, S. Laleva, Y. Popova, D. Miteva

Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 16 January 2021; accepted for publication 26 May 2021)

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to establish live weight, Body condition score (BCS), body dimensions and phenotypic correlations between them in young female breeding animals of Bulgarian dairy synthetic population (BDSP). The object of research were 137 ewe lambs of the flock, bred at the Agricultural Institute in Stara Zagora for a period of 3 years. Live weight of animals and body dimensions were performed at 6, 9 and 18 months of age and Body condition score was assessed. In addition, the phenotypic dependences between indicators were calculated. The data were processed with Statistica software product. Based on the obtained results, it could be summarized that the live weight and bone system of the animals increased more intensively in the period from 6 to 9 months of age, which was accompanied by an increase in BCS. During the next period (after 9 months of age) there was a certain slowdown in the growth rate and a decrease in BCS, but an increase in live weight. The values of the two indicators at the age of 18 months however showed that the physiological condition of the animals was suitable for their inclusion in the breeding process. The highest values of phenotypic correlations were found between live weight, BCS and body dimensions at 6 months of age. At the next two ages (9 and 18 months), these dependencies declined. Live weight, body length, chest depth and croup width maintained a high level of correlation with the body volume. The highest phenotypic correlations between BCS and other indicators were established in animals at 6 months and the lowest ones at 9 months of age

Statistical models based on morphometric traits for live body weight estimation in goats

N.A. Ouchene-Khelifi*, N. Ouchene

Veterinary sciences institute, Saad Dahleb University, Blida 1, road of Soumaa, B.P. 270, Blida 09000, Algeria

(Manuscript received 24 September 2020; accepted for publication 31 March 2021)

Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop statistical models to predict body weight from goat’s body measurements. Data on 1702 goats for circumferences of chest (CG), abdominal circumference (AC) and spiral circumference (SC), height at withers (WH), body length (BL), and body weight (BW) were analysed to study the relationship between linear body measurements and body weight. The present study revealed that in the goats from all breeds studied (Arabia, Makatia, Kabyle, M’zabite, Saanen and Alpine), the weight evolved in the same direction and at the same rate as the linear measurements chosen. The linear measurements were all significantly correlated with animal weight (p<0.001). Results indicated that Arabia goats had the highest WH (71.07 cm) and CG (17.72 cm). The highest measurements were reported in Alpine goats for AC (97.73 cm), BL (78.05 cm), SC (106.29 cm) and BW (41.60 kg). The Kabyle breed were recorded with the lowest values for the WH (64.95 cm), BL (67.58 cm) and BW (29.52 kg). The average live weight was 38.15±10.90 kg with differences according to age, sex and breed (Arabia, Makatia, Kabyle and M’Zabite). Positive and highly significant (p<0.001) correlations were observed between BW and the majority of independent variables. The highest relationship was illustrated between CG with BW (r=0.922). Linear regression analyses were performed to develop the models. The simple regression analysis found all parameters to be significant (p<0.001) (WH, BL, CG, AC and CS) and CG gave more precision on the weight when using a single measurement parameter (R2 varied between 0.950 and 0.967). Therefore, the following formula can be used to estimate the live weight of the animals using only the chest circumference (P=75*CG). The development of these equations would enable producers and researchers to predict the animal body weight and develop strategic plans for the relevant goat herds.

Heritability and correlation coefficient analysis for grain yield and yield-related traits in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

B. Dyulgerova1*, D. Valcheva1, D. Valchev1, M. Babulicova2, M. Havrlentova2

1Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Agricultural Academy, Bulgaria
2National Agricultural and Food Centre, Research Institute of Plant Production, Piešťany, Slovak Republic

(Manuscript received 24 February 2021; accepted for publication 14 June 2021)

Abstract. The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritability of yield and yield-related traits and to compute the correlation of grain yield with yield-related traits among the spring barley genotypes. The experiment was laid out in a complete block design with three replications in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria during two consecutive years 2017 and 2018. Genotypes differed significantly for all the traits studied. Genotypic coefficients of variation were lower than the corresponding phenotypic coefficients in all the traits studied, indicating a considerable influence of the environment on the expression of the traits. Estimates for broad-sense heritability ranged from 0.65% for grain number per spike to 44.20% for 1000-grain weight. Moderate heritability coupled with relatively high genetic advance as a percent of the mean was found for 1000-grain weight suggesting a reliable possibility for improvement through selection. A significant and positive correlation between grain yield and number of spikes per m2 and grain weight per spike was found. Results of path analysis showed that grain weight per spike and number of spikes per m2 exhibited the highest direct effects on grain yield. The number of spikes per m2 was highly associated with grain yield but mostly influenced by environmental effects. The grain weight per spike should be prioritized for selection of superior spring barley genotypes under conditions of Southeast Bulgaria due to its highest direct effect on grain yield combined with higher heritability than that of grain yield. Moreover, it must be considered that the grain weight per spike had relatively low heritability in a broad-sense so the selection should be practised in later generations in replicated trials.

Correlations between quantitative traits of winter common wheat-breeding tool for increasing grain yield

N. Tsenov1*, T. Gubatov1, I. Yanchev2

1Department of Wheat Breeding and Technology, Agronom Breeding Company, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria
2Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 November 2020; accepted for publication 15 April 2021)

Abstract. Information on the relationships between quantitative traits affecting yields is extremely important for winter wheat. For it, the annual genotype*environment interaction is palpable and often masks the influence of individual traits on grain yield. The aim of the study is to determine the traits through the selection of which the grain yield could be significantly increased in the future. The data from three field multifactorial experiments were used (FERT, PGR, ABC), in which a significant influence of various factors (year, point, density, fertilization) on the size and variation of all studied traits was established. In the database thus formed the observed strong variance in the values of the traits is a great prerequisite for the established correlations to be accepted with a high degree of reliability. The mutual influence in the formation of each of the traits is a good basis for their grouping, according to the type of their effect on yield. 1) The characteristics, number of grains per m2 (NGm), grain weight per spike (WGS) and number of productive tillers per m2 (NPT) have a significantly positive effect on grain yield, 2) the weight per 1000 grains (TGW) and number of grains in spike (NGS) are traits that have a direct effect, but it is unstable in manifestation and 3) the traits, as height of stem (HOS), total plant biomass (TBM), and harvest index (HI) do not show a direct effect on grain yields. A significant increase in yield in the breeding of winter wheat can be achieved by increasing the number of grains per unit area (NGm). This is possible while maintaining the achieved level of number of grains in spike (NGS) with a parallel increase of tillering productive ability (NPT). The increase of this trait by selection should be taken into account when reducing the grain size (TGW). This will increase the chance of increasing the number of grains in the spike (NGS), will reduce the weight of the grain per spike (WGS), which in turn will be a prerequisite for optimizing the stability of lodging.

Application of P4 rapid test and exogenous source of progesterone in prevention of early embryonic death in dairy cows

G. Bonev*

1Department of Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 September 2020; accepted for publication 15 February 2021)

Abstract. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the percent of cows with low P4 at Day 7-8 post-AI; 2) to treat the animal with low progesterone for 14 days with a P4-releasing intravaginal device (PRID DELTA); 3) to analyze the influence of P4 exogenous supplementation on pregnancy rate in treated and non-treated cows and 4) to create a protocol using “P4 Rapid” test allowing increased pregnancy rate under farm conditions. For this purpose, the current study has been conducted on 155 repeat breeding Holstein cows (<3 artificially inseminated – AI) with prolonged estrus cycle (<26 days). At day 7 and 8 post-AI, the milk progesterone levels were measured (P4 Rapid test). The cows with low P4 (n=104 or 67%) were divided into two groups each n=52. In Group I the progesterone devices were inserted for two weeks and control Group II without progesterone devices. At days 40 and 50 post artificial insemination (AI) all animals (n=104) were submitted to ultrasound pregnancy detection. Pregnancy was registered in 27 animals (51.9%) for Group 1, and in 16 cows (30.7%) for Group II. P4 Rapid is a quick, easy and practically applicable test to measure milk progesterone levels in dairy farms. The method is highly accurate and detects animals with low or high P4 at Day 7-8 after insemination. It also allows identification of conditions such as ovarian cysts, ovarian hypofunction and distinguishing of cycling and non-cycling cows. The combination of P4 measurement by P4 Rapid test and treatment with exogenous P4 to increase circulating concentrations in the first few days after conception can prevent embryo death and improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle.

Grain quality of mutant lines of six-rowed barley

B. Dyulgerova*, N. Dyulgerov

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 9 December 2020; accepted for publication 26 January 2021)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to assess the variation in grain quality traits among mutant lines of winter feed barley. Nine mutant lines derived from the advanced breeding line Kt3029 and 10 mutant lines derived from variety GA-Luttrell along with their parent forms were evaluated. The study was conducted at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat during the period 2015-2017. Test weight, 1000-grain weight, the content of protein, starch, lysine, fat, ash, and fibre were determined. Significant differences between the mutant lines and the parent forms for the studied traits were observed. Significantly higher protein content compared to parent was found in the grain of mutant lines 22/1-5, 22/2-10 and 22/1-12 from line Kt3029 and 26/1-1, 26/1-3 and 26/2-11 from variety GA-Luttrell. The grain of mutant line 26/2-12 had the best combination of protein and starch. Mutant lines 22/1-11 and 22/1-12 from Kt3029 and 26/1-1, 26/2-1 and 26/2-12 from variety GA-Luttrell showed a good combination between protein content and 1000-grain weight. Those mutant lines can be included in the breeding program for the development of varieties with improved feed quality.

Date of ear emergence: a factor for notable changing the grain yield of modern winter wheat varieties in different environments of Bulgaria

N. Tsenov1*, T. Gubatov1, I. Yanchev2

1 Department of Wheat Breeding and Technology, Agronom Breeding Company, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria
2 Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 November 2020; accepted for publication 15 January 2020)

Abstract. Wheat is a crop with a very long growing season, during which it is subjected to prolonged exposure to many environmental factors. For this reason, the interaction of genotype with conditions is very common for any character of wheat. This study aims to determine whether the grain yield is affected by the change of the ear emergence date (EED) in various environments. In a four-year period, 30 current for national real grain production winter wheat varieties were studied. The EED and grain yield (GY) were studied as quantitative traits within five locations of the country having various soil and climatic conditions. Using several statistical programs, genotype x environment interaction of two traits was analyzed. The emphasis on data analysis was whether changes of traits due to the conditions were related and that the optimization of the ear emergence date could serve as a breeding tool for increasing grain yield. The date of ear emergence and grain yield are traits that are reliably influenced by growing conditions. The change in the date of emergence is mainly of the linear type, while the grain yield shows linear and nonlinear type changes in the same environmental conditions. It was found that the key roles in the change of characteristics are the conditions of the year, with the relatively weakest impact of the genotype on them. There is a positive relationship between the two traits, although their change depends on environmental factors. Although they change to different degrees and in relation to each other, there is a positive correlation between them. The more favorable the environmental conditions, the weaker the relationship between these two traits and vice versa. Under changing climatic conditions, the change in the relationship between the two traits is a signal of the need to create different varieties by date of ear emergence in order to obtain higher yields in the future.

 

Characterization of testicular and epididymal parameters in Algerian Arabia bucks

N.A. Ouchene-Khelifi*, N. Ouchene, A. Dahmani

Institute of veterinary sciences, Saad Dahlab University Blida 1, Road of Soumaa, BP 270, Blida-09000, Algeria

(Manuscript received 20 June 2020; accepted for publication 24 September 2020)

Abstract. In goat production, the reproductive efficiency of bucks must be taken into account. Testicle size is the most appropriate parameter to directly improve the reproductive performance of females. In this study, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and testicular and epididymal parameters of Arabia goats were studied. A total number of 200 bucks wеre randomly selected and classified into three age categories (6-12 months, 13-24 months and >2 years). BW, BCS, mean scrotal circumference, testicular volume, testicular diameter, testicular length, testicular weight, testicular density, epididymal weight, epididymal length, epididymal tail length, caput weight, corpus weight, caudal weight, Gonadosomatic Index, Epididymosomatic index and Epididymal-Testicular weight ratio were measured. A highly significant correlation was found between all parameters (p<0.05). The values of all parameters increased significantly with age, with the exception of the gonadosomatic and epididymosomatic indices, which decreased with age (p<0.05). These results provide data that can be used to anticipate an adequate ante-mortem sperm reserve based on testicular size in the preliminary selection of breeding males from the local sexually mature population.

 

Morphological characterization and genetic analysis in bread wheat germplasm: A combined study of heritability, genetic variance, genetic divergence and association of characters

  1. Gerema1*, D. Lule2, F. Lemessa4, T. Mekonnen3

1Bako Agriculture Research Center, Oromia, Ethiopia

2Oromia Agriculture Research Institute, Finfinne, Ethiopia

3Institute of Biotechnology, Addiss Ababa University, Ethiopia

4Department of Horticulture and plant Science, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

(Manuscript received 20 May 2020; accepted for publication 5 November 2020)

Abstract. The present study was conducted to assess the nature and magnitude of genetic variability and traits association of bread wheat genotypes for yield and related traits. A total of 180 genotypes were evaluated in alpha lattice design with three replications in 2017/18 cropping season. Data for 10 quantitative traits were collected and subjected to analysis of variance. The result from the analysis of variance revealed highly significant variability observed among genotypes for all traits studied. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) is superior over genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for most traits but narrow variations were found between PCV and GCV for most of the traits. Heritability in broad sense and genetic advance as percent of the mean (GA%) were relatively higher for Kernels per spike and grain filling period. Grain yield showed positive and highly significant (p≤0.01) association with number of tillers, kernel per spike and plant height both on genotypic and phenotypic levels.The path coefficient analysis showed that spike length, plant height and kernels per spike had positive direct effect on grain yield on both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Divergence analysis (D2) grouped the total test germplasm into 10 clusters. Among those, clusters IV and IX showed the highest genetic distance and thus the possibility to develop segregating populations upon the crossing of widely related genotypes in those clusters. The results could help researches to utilize the most promising wheat genotypes of this study in future breeding programmes for enhancing desirable traits.