Preservation and study of old local forms of the so called “vineyard peach” (Prunus persica L.) in the Shumen region, Bulgaria

  1. Vasilev1, S. Malchev2, A. Zhivondov2


1“Konstantin Preslavsky” University of Shumen, 115 Universitetska Str., 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

2Fruit Growing Institute, 12 Ostromila Str., 4004 Plovdiv, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 20 June 2019; accepted for publication 15 August 2019)


Abstract. During the period 2015-2017, scientific expeditions were conducted in the region of the town Shumen, located in the north-eastern part of Bulgaria, mainly around the village Madara where the concentration of natural forms derived from seedlings is the greatest. The purpose is to discover and research old local forms of the so called “vineyard peach” and to preserve them for possible future inclusion in breeding programmes to create new cultivars using more extended genepool. As a result, three forms of “vineyard peach” were selected from the local populations. The fruits of the three local forms are small and with primitive taste qualities but fit for human consumption. Two of the forms have white fruit flesh and one is with green. Two of the peach forms have vigorous growth, but one of the forms with white fruit flesh is of weak vigour. The three forms are spontaneous natural products obtained through long-term seed propagation. The trees are old but vital and without visual damage by diseases and pests, regularly bear fruits and have good annual growth despite competition from weeds, bushes and trees.

Relationships between milk yield, quality and coagulation properties with kappa-casein (к-CN) genotypes of Bulgarian Rhodope cattle breed

  1. Mehandzhiyski1, Т. Angelova2, D. Yordanova2, J. Krastanov2


1Research Centre of Livestock Breeding and Agriculture, 4700 Smolyan, Bulgaria

2Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 12 June 2019; accepted for publication 10 August 2019)


Abstract. The aim of the present study was to establish the association between different к-CN genotypes with milk yield, quality and coagulation properties in dairy cows of Bulgarian Rhodope breed. For determination of milk proteins polymorphism and its relationship with individual coagulation properties of milk and its quality, 136 milk samples from Bulgarian Rhodope dairy cows reared in 4 farms were collected. The visit to the farms and the taking of the milk samples took place between May and June 2009. Animal milk is based on daily milking on the relevant control day of the current lactation. During the morning milking, 50mL samples were collected without preservative, stored in cooling bags and analyzed in the specialized lab at the Agricultural Institute, Stara Zagora by Computerized Renneting Metter. The evaluated parameters of milk coagulation properties were: rennet coagulation time (RCT, min); curd firming time (K20, min) and curd firmness (A30, mm). Milk proteins polymorphism was identified by tissue samples collection from 136 cows. To this end, specialized pliers and marks with a vial containing desiccant were used. With this technique, the tissue sample is obtained and sealed at the time of identification of the animal. After collection, tissue samples were shipped to the University in Padova, Italy for PCR-RFLP analysis. DNA was purified using a Maxwell®16 Tissue DNA purification kit (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis (SYSTAT 13). The results obtained give reason to the following conclusions: The highest milk yield was established in cows from the AH genotype – 16kg, whereas the lowest value was detected in cows from the BH genotype – 12.83kg. Homozygous cows from the BB genotype produced milk with the highest fat content – 5.11%, whereas heterozygous from the BH genotype: milk with the lowest protein content – 3.16%. The cows from the AH genotypes were outlined with the lowest milk fat and protein content. The longest rennet coagulation time (RCT) was observed in АА and АН genotypes, the longest curd firming time (К20) – in genotype AH, the highest curd firmness (А30) – in the milk of cows from the AB and BB genotypes.

Population status, breeding policy and perspectives for the development of the Danubian horse breed

  1. Vlaeva1, N. Lukanova 2, M. Popova3

1Sub-department “Horse breeding”, Department of Animal husbandry – Non-ruminants and other animals,

Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

2Institute of Animal Science, 2232 Kostinbrod, Bulgaria

3 Department of Animal Sciences, Agricultural University, 12 Mendeleev Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 June 2019; accepted for publication 22 July 2019)


Abstract. The population status and breeding policy of the Danubian horse breed were studied for a relatively long period, from 1953-2017. The study traced the change in population number of the breed in decades and by different categories of animals. The analyses show a strong reduction in the number of Danubian horses in all categories. The small number of newborn foals is associated with the lowering number of breeding mares especially after the 1980s. In the last decade, according to an officially published bulletin by the breeding organization on the other hand, there was an increase in the number of mares and stallions and inconsistent with that number of breeding horses, newly born foals. In a historical aspect, the breeding policy of the Danubian horse showed some interesting and unpublished so far facts. Those facts are related, on the one hand, with the origin of the mares that became founders of families and, on the other hand, with the use of stallions of different breeds for input of purebred animals.

Monitoring of genealogical structure development of East Bulgarian breed horses originating from stallions of other sporting breeds

  1. Sabeva1, M. Popova2

1Department of Animal Sciences, Agricultural Institute, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

2Department of Animal Sciences, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 6 June 2019; accepted for publication 26 July 2019)


Abstract. The origin of horses from the East Bulgarian breed, which descent from the other sport breeds stallions used for grading has been investigated. Genealogical structure development was traced by pedigree analyses of 1123 horses, born during the period from 2000 to 2018. The East Bulgarian Horse Association set of statistical data, concerning stallions’ breeding activity and productive life of their progeny were used. Two new lines with founders Hanoverians Da Kapo (GER) and Eistanzer (GER) were set up during the last four generations. Nowadays the line of stallion Da Kapo (GER) has developed in second and third generation after the founder and the line of stallion Eistanzer (GER) – in fourth generation after the founder. A small bulk of genealogical groups with origin traced to stallions Ladykiller, Cottage Son, Cor de la Bryere and Alme Z have developed.

Emergence rate of seedlings from hard okra seed coats and seedling growth of some genotypes of West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei)

P P.M. Jonah1, G.K. Farauta3, Y. M. Kwaga1, H.E. Shehu1, N.M. Fakuta4, B.P. Mshelmbula2

1Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria
2Department of Botany, Federal University, Lafia, Nassarawa State, Nigeria
3Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Education, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria
4Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Gum Arabic Sub-station, Gashua, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 12 March 2019; accepted for publication 30 April 2019)

Abstract. In 2017 and 2018 cropping season, field experiment was conducted at the Food and Agricultural Organization and Tree Crop Plantation, Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi using fifteen genotypes of West African okra. The study was undertaken to study the emergence rate of seedlings from hard okra seed coats, seedling growth and their development. The seeds of the genotypes were soaked in NaCl solution for 24 hours to accelerate the breaking of seed dormancy and to ease seed germination. Tough seed coat usually impairs seed germination by establishing a permeability barrier which can interrupt water uptake required for imbibition, radicle and seedling emergence. The combined analysis results revealed a highly significant (P≤0.01) difference among these genotypes with respect to days to first and 50% flowering including days to first harvest. Furthermore, accession 3 (NG/SA/DEC/07/0448) and accession 11 (Yar kwadon) flowered earlier, had shortest days to first harvest, recorded the highest number of seedlings and emergence percentage than the other genotypes studied.


Races of bacterial spot pathogen infecting genus Capsicum in Bulgaria

K. Vasileva1, N. Bogatzevska2

1Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko Shosse Str., 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection “N. Pushkarov”, 7 Shosse Bankya Str., 1331 Sofia, Bulgaria.

(Manuscript received 27 February 2018; accepted for publication 21 April 2019)

Abstract. The causative agents of bacterial spot disease infecting pepper are the species X. euvesicatoria and X. vesicatoria common in the typical pepper growing areas (Northern: Black Sea Costal and Central; Southwest; Southern – Upper Thracian valley) in Bulgaria. The pathogens refer to pepper P pathotype (22 strains) and pepper-tomato РТ pathotype (52 strains). The natural population of X. еuvesicatoria is heterogeneous of pathotype and physiological races. Widespread is race P6 in the P of the pathogen, followed by race P1. Single strains are assigned to P3, P9 and P10. In PT, races P0, P1, P4, P5 are differentiated, the dominant race in PT is the P4 race in combination with the tomato race T2. For the first time in Bulgaria in the natural population of X. vesicatoria, are detected strains which infect only pepper, differentiated are races Р0, Р2 and Р3. The population of X. vesicatoria PT prevails in private gardens and vegetable areas near tomatoes. Differentiated races are P1, P3 and P4 in combination with tomato races T1, T2 and T3. Race P3 occurs in P and PT pathotype.

Variation and stability of the advanced bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under various environment conditions in Trakia region

İ. Öztürk1*, T. Kahraman1, R. Avcı1, A. Şen2, T.H. Kılıç1

1Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey

(Manuscript received 10 October 2018; accepted for publication 24 January 2019)

Abstract. Various environmental conditions can cause some biotic and abiotic stress factors and reduce yield and quality of wheat. This research was carried out to determine the effect of the environmental conditions on yield, some agronomic, and leaf rust disease of the bread wheat genotypes in four different locations in Trakia region, Turkey. The experiment was established with 25 genotypes in randomised complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications in 2008-2009 cycles. Grain yield, days to heading and maturity, plant height, lodging resistance, leaf rust and relationship among characters were investigated. The temperature and rainfall were scored at GS24-33, GS34-43, GS45-75 and GS77-89 growth stages and compared with the investigated traits. According to the results, significant differences among locations and some investigated parameters were found based on rainfall and temperature with yield and other investigated traits. The mean yield of the genotypes was 5851 kg ha-1, and CMSW97WM518S-12 had the highest yield with 6601 kg ha-1. Tekirdağ was the highest yielding location with 7022 kg ha-1, followed by Edirne (5808 kg ha-1) and Kırklareli (5754 kg ha-1). Due to various environment conditions infection of the leaf rust varied and there were differences among locations. Cultivar Aldane and three lines were resistant to leaf rust. Positive relation between yield with plant height and lodging resistance was found and this means that genotypes which have tall plant had higher yield potential. Rainfall at GS24-33 (r= 0.855) and GS34-43 (r= 0.911*) had a significant and positive effect on grain yield. Increase of temperature during the shooting, heading and grain filling period decreased grain yield, so negative association between grain yield and temperature at GS34-43 (r= -0.761), GS45-75 (r= -0.635) and GS77-89 (r= -0.815) was found. The overall evaluation suggested that increase of temperature from shooting up to grain filling decreased the grain yield duration of the maturating stage. Rainfall during the vegetative growth phase increased grain yield and biomass of plant of genotypes.

Correlations between some economic larval traits of silkworm

  1. Gündüz, Ü. Şahan

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa, Turkey

(Manuscript received 25 August 2018; accepted for publication 18 December 2018)

Abstract. Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. is an economic insect that has great importance on cocoon and silk production. The development of sericultural industry depends on quality and yield in terms of qualitative and quantitative silkworm characters. Mature larval weight and silk gland mass are important factors in silkworm breeding. Silk gland mass has significant impact on the synthesis of silk protein in fifth larval stage. The investigation was conducted to evaluate the correlations between silk gland mass and mature larva weight of M and ZF (China), and N and ZB (Japan) lines and their hybrids MxN, ZFxZB. In this research, silkworm lines and hybrids were reared at the laboratory with 600 silkworm larvae for each four lines and their hybrids to determine these silkworm traits. Analysis of variance indicated that the mean values in Chinese lines and hybrids were found to be significant (P<0.01) for mature larva weight. On the other hand, mean value of silk gland mass was determined as important for Chinese, Japanese lines and hybrids (P<0.01). Both mature larva weight and silk gland mass have positive correlation in Chinese lines (r=0.659) and hybrids (r=0.643) (P<0.01). Otherwise, the correlation between these characters were not found to be significant for Japanese lines. As a result, it is necessary to search the correlation between different characters and to protect the genetic diversity in silkworm lines.


Genetic interrelationship among quantitative traits and path analysis of some West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei) genotypes

P.M. Jonah, Y.M. Kwaga

Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 5 July 2018; accepted for publication 30 November 2018)

Abstract. Thirty-six entries of a half diallel cross were evaluated at the Teaching and Research Farm, Adamawa State University, Mubi in 2012 and 2013 under rain fed conditions. The investigation was conducted to study inter-character correlations and path coefficient analyses of yield related traits in West African okra. Fresh pod yield exhibited highly significant (P≤0.01) positive correlation with pods/plant, pod length, branches/plant, pod diameter and leaves/plant. Pod length recorded a highly significant positive correlation with plant height, pod diameter, number of leaves/plant, branches/plant and pods/plant. Similarly, pod diameter had a highly significant positive correlation with plant height, number of leaves, branches and pods/plant. Furthermore, number of pods/plant and branches/plant recorded highly significant positive correlation among yield related traits except plant height. The path coefficient analysis of fresh pod yield and yield related traits showed that number of pods/plant gave the highest direct contribution and percentage yield contribution of 47.83%, followed by pod diameter which contributed 4.58%. Also the highest combined contribution of 14.43% came from pods/plant and pod diameter. Residual percentage contribution was 30.64% revealing that pod yield attributes in this study explained 69.36%. This investigation suggests that pods/plant and pod diameter can be considered as selection criteria for the improvement of West African okra genotypes.

Genetic diversity at four Nigerian sheep breeds assessed by variation of albumin and carbonic anhydrase in cellulose acetate electrophoretic systems

O.H. Osaiyuwu1*, M.O. Akinyemi1, A.E. Salako1, O.K. Awobajo2

1Animal Breeding and Genetics unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Agricultural Science Education, Tai Solarin University of Education, P.M.B. 2118, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 8 May 2018; accepted for publication 3 September 2018)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of variations in blood protein markers in sheep breeds in Nigeria and to evaluate the relationships that exist among them. A total of 100 sheep comprising of twenty-five each of Balami, Uda, Yankassa and West African Dwarf (WAD) breeds were sampled for biochemical studies. Blood was collected to determine variations at the Albumin and Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) structural protein loci using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. All tested loci were polymorphic yielding four allelic variants (CAF, CAS, AlbA, and AlbB) at the two protein loci. Genetic variability in the studied population was accessed using heterozygosity (observed – Ho and expected – He), effective number of alleles (Ne), fixation index (F) and gene flow (Nm). Genotypic frequencies ranged from 0.01 to 0.62 for CA and 0.25 to 0.49 for Alb loci. Estimated heterozygosity values ranged from 0.32±0.28 at Balami sheep to 0.70±0.22 in WAD with a global average estimated at 0.43±0.09 for all the breeds studied. The gene flow values for each of the loci studied were 0.82 and 1.24 for Alb and CA, respectively, with an average value of 1.03. The results showed that Yankassa and Balami sheep populations are more genetically (Nei’s genetic identify value – 0.99) alike compared to Yankassa and WAD (0.73). Based on the values of heterozygosity (mean He =0.70 and Ho =0.45) assessed by variation of albumin and carbonic anhydrase the most genetic diverse is WAD sheep breed among the studied populations.