True digestibility of the essential amino acids of high-protein sunflower meals by balanced experiments with intact and caecectomized birds from Gallus species

S. Chobanova1, D. Penkov2*

1Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Section Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 12 D. Mendeleev Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 September 2021; accepted for publication 10 November 2021)

Abstract. Using adapted methods for balanced experiments with poultry, the true digestibility coefficients of the essential amino acids of two high protein sunflower meals – 40+® and 47® have been established. The true digestibility coefficients by using two methods – with intact and randomized (caecectomized) birds have been compared. Six birds were tube fed and six – feed deprived for both of the fodders. The amino acids were established with amino analyzer AAA-881 after preliminary HCl hydrolysis. The mean digestibility of sunflower meal 40+® is higher in intact (88.11 versus 85.73 of sunflower meal 47®) compared to randomized birds (87.20 versus 85.46 of sunflower meal 47®). The differences by lots are statistically significant only in intact birds. The authors recommend for practical needs to use the average true digestibility coefficients between both meals, established with randomized birds (ileal digestibility).

Effect of different fattening period duration on meat productivity of domestic quails

H. Lukanov1*, I. Pavlova2, A. Genchev1

1Department of Animal Science – monogastric and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of General livestock breeding, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 11 June 2021; accepted for publication 14 October 2021)

Abstract. The study was conducted with 224 domestic quails from the specialized meat-type WG line. The duration of fattening period and sex on productive traits, slaughter traits and meat quality of quails was evaluated. The study has shown that the longer duration of the fattening period in quails from the meat-type line WG was associated with lower production efficiency, with more reduction after the 35th day of life. The production efficiency in male quails was lower compared to that in females. The dispersion analysis demonstrated that the determination of 72.2% and 69.6% of dressed carcass weight and deboned meat weight, respectively, depended on fattening period duration (p<0.001). When fattening increased from 28 to 42 days, the amount of feed necessary for one bird increased by 73% and 87%, corresponding to increased costs by 64.5% and 77%. For production of 1 kg dressed quail carcasses, the necessary feed increased by 42.3-45.8% on a weight basis and by 35-37.7% on a cost basis. For production of 1 kg deboned quail meat, corresponding increases are by 42.1-49.5% and 34.8-41.2%, respectively. The period between 28 and 35 days of age was the most appropriate for planning slaughter of WG quails. During that period, the economic efficiency, although already declining, was still within acceptable limits and the increase in quantitative traits in both sexes – still relevant, making the produce more attractive for consumers. With age, the changes in colour characteristics of M. pectoralis superficialis result in darkening of meat (p<0.001). Thus, it assumes nuances specific rather for game meat. This effect is desirable, as it improves the commercial presentation of domestic quail meat in line with consumers’ attitudes.

Influence on Mycotox® NG effects on relative weights of some internal organs in Pekin ducks with experimentally reproduced aflatoxicosis В1

I. Valchev*, K. Stojanchev, R. Binev

Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 June 2021; accepted for publication 11 October 2021)

Abstract. Contamination of poultry feeds with mycotoxins is a global problem faced by poultry industry due to increased demands and availability of poor-quality cereals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of a mycotoxin binder (Mycotox NG) on relative weights of internal organs in Pekin ducks with experimental aflatoxicosis. The birds were divided into one control and six experimental groups (n=10) as follows: group І (0 mg/kg AFB1 without Mycotox NG); group ІI (0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG); group ІІI (1.0 g/kg Mycotox NG); group IV (0.2 mg/kg AFB1); group V (0.4 mg/kg AFB1); group VI (0.2 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG) and group VII (0.4 mg/kg AFB1 + 1.0 g/kg Mycotox NG). Trial duration was 42 days. It was established that ducks fed AFB1-contaminated feed had increased relative weights of liver, kidneys, pancreas, heart, gizzard and proventriculus compared to the control group. At the same time, the relative weights of immunocompetent organs (thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius) were reduced. The addition of Mycotox NG to the feed contaminated with AFB1 compensated partly the changes in relative weights of visceral organs. The results from the present study demonstrated that the tested toxin binder could be effective for reduction of toxic effects of aflatoxins in domestic ducks.

Biochemical reference intervals in broiler chickens according to age and strain

N. Arzour-Lakehal*, A. Boudebza

PADESCA laboratory, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, road of Guelma 25100 El Khroub, University of Mentouri Brothers, Constantine 1, Algeria

(Manuscript received 20 April 2021; accepted for publication 8 October 2021)

Abstract. The objective of the research was to study the physiological pattern of biochemical variables and to obtain reference intervals for young (less than 1 month) and adult (more than 1 month) broiler chickens of 2 strains. From the jugular vein, blood for analysis was collected, separated, and then immediately analyzed. The influence of age was significant for the majority of the investigated variables in the 2 groups. In Isa15 strain, a significant age-related decrease in plasma uric acid, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, phosphorus, potassium and iron was established. Also, a significant age-related increase in plasma calcium and ASAT was obtained in the same broiler strain. In Arbor Acres Plus strain, a significant age-related decrease in plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and phosphorus was observed. A significant age-related increase in plasma total protein, calcium and ASAT has also been reported in this broiler strain. A significant difference between the two strains was reported for plasma uric acid, glucose, cholesterol, phosphorus, magnesium and iron (p<0.05). For most estimated parameters in the 2 strains, calculation of separate reference intervals for young and adult animals was appropriate. Except for potassium in young Isa15 strain, and phosphorus in young Arbor Acres Plus strain, all variables did not follow a normal distribution. Reference intervals are presented for both ages using non-parametric or robust method. 90% confidence intervals for both groups were calculated non-parametrically, or by the bootstraping method. The established reference intervals will be a useful guide for interpreting plasma biochemical variables in different strains of broiler chickens raised in Algeria, and reared in a mild Mediterranean climate.

Food consumption and winter mortality in bee colonies wintering in hives made from different materials with lattice and solid bottom

I. Zhelyazkova*, S. Lazarov

Department of Animal husbandry – Non-ruminants and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Student’s campus, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 June 2021; accepted for publication 2 August 2021)

Abstract. The objective of the present study is to examine the changes in some indicators characterizing the winter hardiness of bee colonies settled in hives made of different material (polystyrene, wood, ceramics) and with different type of bottom (lattice or solid). Some parameters which characterize the wintering of bee colonies (amount of dead bees and quantity of food consumption in winter) have been investigated. The bee colonies were housed in 10-frame Dadant Blatt hives with a lattice and solid bottom situated at the Training Apiary of the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria. Two inspections of the bee colonies were carried out (during wintering in November 2020 and at the beginning of the active season in March 2021). Amount of bees in the bee hive (strength) and amount of capped honey in the honeycombs were reported. In bee colonies wintering in hives with a lattice bottom, the consumption of food per 1 kg of bees was 1.639 kg (50%) higher than in hives with a solid bottom. Winter mortality of bees in hives with a lattice bottom was higher compared to this indicator in the hives with a solid bottom, 16.19±10.72% and 12.59±3.57%, respectively, which can be considered excellent wintering below 15% and good wintering in the range of 15.0-19.99%.

Effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extract on productive traits, economic efficiency and blood biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.)

Ts. Stoev, G. Zhelyazkov

Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 June 2021; accepted for publication 10 August 2021)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary black pepper extract supplement on the survival rate, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), economic efficiency (ECR) and blood biochemical parameters of rainbow trout, cultivated in a recirculation system. One hundred and twenty rainbow trout were distributed in two experimental variants, with two replicates of 30 fish per each. The average initial live weight of fish from the control group (C) and experimental group (P.n) were 41.55±7.96 g and 41.23±8.38 g, respectively (p>0.05). Trouts were fed extruded feed with granule size of 2 mm. Through lubrication of feed granules with 5 ml sunflower oil per 100 g feed, rainbow trouts from group P.n were supplemented with 1% powdered black pepper extract, whereas control rainbow trouts (С) received feed lubricated with the same amount of sunflower oil. Fish were fed 3 times/daily with the diet, based on 3% of biomass. The trial period was 60 days. Survival rate in trouts from both experimental groups was 100%. At the end of the trial, average live weight of fish from group P.n was by 5.84% higher compared to that of control fish the average weight of which was 117.25±19.15 g, yet differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The average individual weight gain of control rainbow trouts was 75.70±11.53 g, which was inferior to that of P.n fish by 8.65% (p>0.05). Better FCR was demonstrated in trouts from the group supplemented with 1% black pepper extract – 0.98±0.02, which was by 10.20% less compared to control fish (p<0.01). The addition of 1% black pepper extract to the feed of rainbow trouts tended to result a trend in better growth performance parameters in this species. ECR of group P.n was by 3.98% better than that of the control fish, which showed an ESR value of 1.51. Blood biochemical parameters of fish from both groups were not consistently different.

Application of rosemary essential oil (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus, 1753) for anesthesia and transport of bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Richardson, 1845) fingerlings

V. Krasteva*, M. Yankova, A. Ivanova

Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 17 June 2021; accepted for publication 11 August 2021

Abstract. The aim of the present research is to study the efficacy of rosemary oil as an anesthetic for bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Richardson, 1845) and as an anesthetic used for transport of fingerlings. The fish used in the experiment have an average body weight (BW, g) of 42.13±17.90 and an average total length (TL, cm) of 16.54±2.32. Five treatments are conducted with five experimental concentrations: 0.20 ml.l-1, 0.30 ml.l-1, 0.40 ml.l-1, 0.50 ml.l-1 and 0.60 ml.l-1. For each concentration 10 fish are used or a total of 50 fish. For the transport experiment, 3 concentrations are used: 0.06 ml.l-1, 0.08 ml.l-1 and 0.10 ml.l-1. The applied stocking density is 3 fish/l. A total of 60 fish are used for each concentration or a total of 180 fish. The established results, for the first experiment, show that at concentration of 0.60 ml.l-1 the induction of anesthesia is the fastest (3.46 min). From all tested concentrations the recovery time is the shortest at the lowest concentration – 2.16 min (p≤0.001). The concentration of 0.10 ml.l-1 of rosemary oil can be used for transport of bighead carp fingerlings for a period from 1 to 2 hours. The concentration of 0.08 ml.l-1 can be applied when the duration of the transport is from 1 to 3 hours.

Influence of soybean meal replacement with high-protein sunflower meal on “Clarcs of energy distribution/protein transformation” in broiler chickens

S. Chobanova1, D. Penkov2*

1Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Section Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 12 D. Mendeleev Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 28 May 2021; accepted for publication 30 June 2021)

Abstract. The aim of the study is to compare the net utilization of energy and protein in the eco-technical chain „feed-meat“ when replacing part of the soybean meal with high-protein sunflower meal in broiler fattening. One control and 3 experimental groups, 4-phases fattening with isoenergetic and isoprotein combined fodders. Main protein source in the fodders for the control group is soybean meal. Replacement with sunflower meal: First experimental group: Starter – 5%, Grower – 8%, Finisher 1 – 10% and Finisher 2 – 10%; Second experimental group: 15, 18, 25 and 25%, respectively; Third experimental group: 34.25, 27.27, 27.27 and 26%, respectively. Clarcs of energy distribution/protein transformation (CED/CPT) are the ratio between accumulated gross energy/crude protein in breast and thigh muscles and consumed metabolic energy/crude protein throughout life. The following results were established: CED “fodder – breast+thigh muscles”: Control – 0.2430, first experimental group – 0.2394, second experimental group – 0.2505, third experimental group – 0.2334; CPT – 0.6080, 0.5050, 0.5280 and 0.5490, respectively.

Photosynthetic activity and productivity of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) affected by certain preparations and various terms of sowing

P. Nikolov1*, G. Delchev2

1Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obrazcov Chiflik”, 7007 Ruse, Bulgaria
2Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 31 May 2021; accepted for publication 23 July 2021)

Abstract: In 2019-2020, in the experimental field of the Field Crops Institute, Chirpan a field experiment with durum wheat cultivar Predel (Triticum durum Desf.) was conducted. Three sowing dates were tested: Early sowing (05 – 10 October), Normal sowing (20-25 October – standard) and Late sowing (05-10 November). In early sowing, 2 retardants were studied: Cearon 480 SL – 1 l/ha and Medax top – 1 l/ha and 2 insecticides: Proteus 110 OD – 625 ml/ha and Mageos – 100 g/ha, as well as the mixtures between them. During late sowing, 2 stimulants were studied: Naturamin plus – 1.5 l/ha and Raiza mix – 750 ml/ha and 2 foliar liquid fertilizers: Mix for cereal SC – 1.5 l/ha and Trimax SC – 1.5 l/ha, as well as the mixtures between them. These preparations and fertilizers are applied after stage 3-4 leaves of durum wheat, in the so-called “Closure of crops”. In the case of early sowing variants, this stage occurs in autumn, and in the case of late sowing variants, the stage occurs in spring. In the early sowing of durum wheat, the leaf area, photosynthetic potential, biological and economic yield are the greatest in the combinations of retardants Cearon and Medax top with the insecticides Proteus and Mageos. In the late sowing of durum wheat, the leaf area, photosynthetic potential, biological and economic yield are the highest in the combinations of the stimulants Naturamin plus and Raiza mix with the leaf fertilizers Mix for cereals and Trimax. In these variants, the leaf area dies faster during the milk development stage. The net photosynthesis productivity in the combinations is lower than in the independent use of the respective preparations and fertilizers. The harvest index in the late and normal sowing variants is higher than in the early durum wheat sowing variants.

Evaluation of Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) powders for common carp Cyprinus carpio L. anesthesia

Nasreen Mohi Alddin Abdulrahman1*, Khalidah Salim Al-Niaeem2, Amjed Kadem Resen2

1College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimaniya, Iraq
2College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

(Manuscript received 29 April 2020; accepted for publication 26 May 2021)

Abstract. The anesthetic efficacy of two kinds of natural anesthetic Clove (Eugenia caryophyllatata) and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) powders were evaluated on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for handling and health management experiments. The concentrations of anesthetics were assessed by using two types of clove and tobacco anesthetics; each with three replicates for measuring induction times to anesthesia. Concentrations of 100, 200, 250, and 350 mg/l at the ratio 1:1 of the aqueous extract of both Clove (Eugenia caryophyllatata) and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to evaluate their effect on common carp anesthesia were used. The aqueous extract anesthetized fish partially in the high levels. No significant differences appeared on blood glucose, ALP, ALT and AST among different levels of the anesthesia concentrations used. As the anesthesia concentration increased, the Red blood cell (RBC) count and hemoglobin decreased.