Changes in the growth and antioxidant enzyme activity of seedlings originating from wheat seeds subjected to accelerated ageing test

R. Chipilski1*, B. Kyosev1, R. Cholakova2
1Department of Breeding-Genetics and Variety Maintenance, Institute of Plant Genetics Resources, Drouzhba Str., 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria
2Department of Plant physiology, Biochemistry and Genetics, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University,
12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 3 June 2020; accepted for publication 10 August 2020)

Abstract. The objective of this study was to investigate the reaction processes of seedlings originating from wheat seeds after they were subjected to accelerated ageing, which imitated low-temperature storage. Germination, vigor, morphological characteristics, relative chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity were measured in seedlings and young plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) after processes of accelerated ageing of the seeds. The ageing procedures of the seeds were done according to the standard conditions (40±0.5°C and 100% air relative humidity) of the International Seed Testing Association for 72 and 120 hours of treatments of the Bulgarian varieties Geya-1 and Sadovo 772. For the control were used seeds, which were not subjected to the accelerated ageing conditions. The coleoptile of 5 days seedlings and second leaf of 10 and 15 days plants in seedling stage, following the seed accelerated ageing procedure, was measured in the laboratory and the greenhouse. The seed germination rate and vigor, fresh and dry weight of growing coleoptiles were inhibited after different periods of ageing exposure and well correlated with increased accumulation of total hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde content, guaiacol peroxidase activity and rate of cells membrane stability index. The negative changes of chlorophyll content index, fresh and dry weight and leaf area of the leaves of young plants descending from aged seeds sowed in pots were found. It was established that the modern variety Geya-1 was more tolerant to the applied ageing condition than the older Sadovo 772. In conclusion, we considered that accelerated ageing could be used as a model for estimation of seed deterioration in wheat after long-term storage.

Histology, serum biochemistry and haematological profiles of Clarias gariepinus fed diets containing Luffa cylindrica seedmeal

W.A. Jimoh1*, M.O. Shittu2, A.A. Ayeloja1, S.A. Abdulsalami3

1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin,

Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Fisheries Technology, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology,

PMB 5029, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

3Fisheries and Aquaculture Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Crescent University, Abeokuta,

Ogun State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 24 December 2019; accepted for publication 26 March 2020)

Abstract. A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of processing time, inclusion level and/or their interactions on serum biochemistry, haematology and histology of the liver and kidney of Clarias gariepinus fed diets containing Luffa cylindrica seedmeal. The five formulated diets were designated as control (CTR) and tested, replaced at 15 and 30% by 5- and 10-min toasted Luffa cylindrica seedmeal (D515T, D530T, D1015T and D1030T). The experimental design followed a 2×2 factorial experiment in a completely randomised design; the processing time of 5- and 10-min toasting and inclusion level of 15 and 30% serves as factors. Triplicate groups of each treatment were made. Blood sampling, harvesting of organs, serum biochemistry, histology and haematological studies followed standard procedures. The results of the study showed that the effect of processing time, inclusion level and their interactions had significant impact (p<0.05) on Clarias gariepinus. A decrease in RBC, PCV and Hb was observed when compared with control for inclusion level, processing time and/or their interaction. Total protein, albumin and globulin of the blood of fish fed diet CTR was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that of the blood of the fish fed D1015T. Mild to moderate vacuolation of the hepatocytes were recorded among the livers of fish fed control and test dietary treatments except those fed D1030T that recorded very severe vacuolation of the hepatocytes. The kidney, being the excretory organ, was also affected. However, normal cell architecture was recorded in fish fed CTR, D530T and D1030T.

Effect of diets with whey powder on growth and development of Saanen Goat kids

Özdemir1, M. Yilmaz1*, A. Çağli1, G.S.E. Aşıcı2, H. Akçay1, K. Çelik3

1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey

3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey

(Manuscript received 11 December 2019; accepted for publication 16 April 2020)

Abstract. In this study, the effect of the diets enriched nutritionally with whey powder (WP) on the growth and development of weaned Saanen Goat kids was investigated. For the purpose, 24 kids born in March 2017 and weaned after 5 months and reared for 8 weeks in Adnan Menderes University Agricultural Faculty Research and Application Farm were used. The kids were divided into three groups according to the content of the ration. The kids whose beginning weights were recorded were distributed homogeneously to each group. These groups were labeled as the control group (CG) and the experimental groups which were formed by adding 5% (5%WP) and 10% whey powder (10%WP) to the ration by removing the same amount of feed. The following parameters of the experimental kids were controlled: live weight, body condition score (BCS), body length, chest girth, the height at the withers, and some blood serum indices (total protein, cholesterol, glucose and urea). The differences between the initial and final values of the growth performance parameters in the groups with the best improvement according to the results obtained from the experiment were found to be 2.57 kg in body weight and 6.25 cm in body length in 10%WP group and the body condition score was 0.26 points, wither height 6.06 cm, and chest girth 6.75 cm in the 5%WP group. When the groups in which the best results are observed in blood parameters are considered; in the 5% WP group, the difference between the initial and final values were found to be 4.19 mg/dL in glucose and 1.22 g/dL in total protein, while urea 41.06 mg/L and cholesterol were determined to be 58.53 mg/dL in the 10%WP group. In the light of the results obtained, it has been determined that the addition of WP in a certain amount to the ration has a positive effect on the growth and development of the kids. As a result of the study, the addition of 5%WP was recommended in the ration to be given during the kid growing period.

Productive performance of broiler birds fed Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit meal containing diets

C.E. Ogbonna1, U.H. Ukpabi2, P.C. Jiwuba1*, E.B. Onwujiariri1 

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B.7008, Ishiagu,

Ebonyi State, Nigeria

2Department of Agriculture, Abia State University, P.M.B. 7010 Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 5 January 2020; accepted for publication 20 March 2020)

Abstract. A forty-two day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of diets containing Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit meal on the productive performance of broilers on feed intake, body weight, carcass and organ characteristics. Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit was processed and incorporated in the diets at 0%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% dietary levels, represented as T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively, for both starter (7-28 days of age) and finisher phase (28-49 days of age). One hundred and twenty unsexed abor acre broiler birds were brooded for seven days and thereafter 30 birds were randomly allotted to four treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD) and each treatment was replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate. The data collected showed significant (p<0.05) differences for feed intake, body weight changes and feed conversion ratio for both starter and finisher broilers. Live weight, dressed weight and dressing percentage were significantly better for T1 across the treatments (p<0.05). Wing, drumstick breast muscle and thigh cuts were significantly improved at the treatment groups (p<0.05). The gizzard, heart, and spleen were significantly (p<0.05) higher at T1. Liver also differed significantly (p<0.05) with T4 having the highest weight over other treatments. It could therefore be concluded that T2 produced the best body weight and should be recommended for enhanced broiler production.

Potential of Gmelina leaf meal diets on the productive and physiological characteristics of growing rabbits

P.C. Jiwuba1*, U.O. Ikpe2, N.L. Azodo1

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Land Resources Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 2 January 2020; accepted for publication 4 March 2020)

Abstract. Rabbit production is highly attracting attention in the world today due to its reputation in supplying one of the safest meat and other useful animal products. Hence, a 49-day study was carried out to determine the feed intake, body weight gain, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters of 80 growing rabbits fed Gmelina arborea leaf meal (GALM) in their diets. Four diets were formulated: T1, T2, T3 and T4 containing GALM at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively. The rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups of twenty animals each, with five rabbits constituting a replicate. Blood samples were drawn from each animal on the last day of the trial and evaluated for serum biochemistry and haematological parameters. Results on proximate composition revealed that the nutrient requirements were met. Feed intake and body weight gain (p<0.05) were improved in T4 in comparison with other groups. Feed conversion ratio was however best for T3 and T4 (p<0.05). The haematological parameters differed significantly (p<0.05) and were improved at 30% GALM inclusion across the groups. Results showed that all the serum biochemical parameters studied except globulin differed significantly (p<0.05) among the treatment groups. Cholesterol was reduced at 30% GALM inclusion (p<0.05). All the blood parameters fell within the physiological range for clinically healthy rabbits; an indication that GALM had a beneficial effect on rabbits. Diet T4 had the best performance data among the treatment diets and is therefore recommended for rabbit enhanced production.

Effect of rations with fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea on growth performance and organ weights of rabbit bucks

O. Pius*, T. Ahemen, P.A. Addass

Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, College of Animal Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 22 June 2019; accepted for publication 18 September 2019)

Abstract. Thirty rabbit bucks of mixed breeds (New Zealand white x Chinchilla) with average live weight of 852g, aged between 12 and 14 weeks were subjected to a feeding trial for 14 weeks, to determine the effects of diets with different ratio concentrate to fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea (FLGA) on growth performance, relative carcass weight and relative organ weights of rabbit bucks. The rabbits were randomly allo- cated into five treatments: Treatment 1-T1 (100g concentrate /C/: 0g FLGA), Treatment 2-T2 (75g C: 25g FLGA), Treatment 3-T3 (50g C: 50g FLGA), Treatment 4-T4 (25g C: 75g FLGA) and Treatment 5-T5 (00g C: 100g FLGA). The results obtained in this study showed that all the growth performance parameters and relative carcass weights differed significantly (P<0.05) across treatments. Apart from relative liver and lungs weights, which differed significantly (P<0.05) across treatments, other viscera organs were not affected by the dietary treatments. The results revealed that rabbit bucks in T2 and T3 performed better, rabbits in T4 performed the least, while rabbit bucks in T5 could not survive beyond two weeks. Concentrate to FLGA at the ratios of 75g C: 25 FLGA (T2) and 50g C: 50g FLGA (T3) are therefore, recommended as the best combinations for rabbit breeding bucks.

Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in maize dry biomass under the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization

L. Nenova*, M. Benkova, Ts. Simeonova, I. Atanassova

Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection “N. Pouskarov”, 7 Shosse Bankya str., 1331 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 August 2019; accepted for publication 8 November 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different fertilizer doses on the content of macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in dry biomass and grain of maize during the 2016 – 2018 period. A field experiment with fertilization of maize was carried out on Alluvial-meadow soil (Fluvisol) in the region of Tsalapitsa village, near Plovdiv. Three variants of mineral fertilization were studied V2 (N15P10K0), V3 (N20P15K0) and V4 (N25P20K0), and a control variant V1 (N0P0K0) – without fertilization. It was established that N% content in maize dry biomass was affected significantly by the variants of fertilization (18% of the variance). Significant differences (P≤0.05) between the control variant and all the variants of fertilization were established. Increasing the fertilizer dose, nitrogen content in dry biomass increased, too. The highest was the average content of nitrogen in maize leaves (0.94%), followed by the cobs (0.71%) and the lowest was the content in the stems (0.58%). Phosphorus and potassium content of dry biomass were affected significantly by the year of the study (10% and 9% of the variance, respectively). At the 7-8th leaf growth stage of maize, the highest nutrients content (N, P, K) in dry biomass were reported. With aging of plants the nutrient content in their biomass decreased. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in maize grain was significantly affected by the year of the experiment. Mineral fertilization had impact mostly on the nitrogen content of the grain, which was the highest in V3 variant, accepted as optimal – 0.66% on average.

Digestibility and energy content of Paulownia (Paulownia elongata S.Y.Hu) leaves

G. Ganchev1*, А. Ilchev1, А. Koleva2

1Department of Morphology, Physiology and Animal nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Technology of cereals, fodder, bread and confectionary products, Technological Faculty, University of Food Technology, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 July 2019; accepted for publication 3 September 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the digestibility and energy content of Paulownia elongata S.Y.Hu leaves after leaf fall. Leaves together with petioles were dried at room temperature and milled with a roughage mill before feeding to animals. A classical digestion trial was performed, with three rams weighing 55.4kg on average, by determining the chemical composition of consumed feed, feed leftovers and excreted faeces. Digestibility was evaluated as difference in the amount of ingested nutrients and nutrients excreted with faeces and it was determined to be 50.72, 52.08, 31.63, 54.09, 55.15 and 56.06% for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE). The energy value for ruminants calculated on the basis of chemical composition and established digestibility was 8.29 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg DM, 6.55 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/ kg DM, 0.59 feed units for milk (FUM)/kg DM and 0.52 feed units for growth (FUG)/kg DM.

Generative development of carrots (Daucus carota L.) during seed production depending on the fertilization

Al. Trayanov


Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Viticulture and Horticulture, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, 12 “Mendeleev” Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 15 June 2019; accepted for publication 31 July 2019)


Abstract. The main aim of the present study was to establish the changes in the generative development of carrots seed stalk during seed production depending on the frequency and level of fertilization. Two times of fertilization were tested: once – phosphorus and potassium were applied in autumn and nitrogen in transplanting time, and twice – half of phosphorus and potassium in the autumn, while the other half and nitrogen in soil in spring and half nitrogen in flowering.  The number of umbels in the branches of I, II and III orders was determined. The average number of constituent units of one umbel from the central umbel and from umbels of different orders, as well as the average number of flowers in one umbel were established. Differences between variants were identified. Fertilization has a significant impact on the number of umbels and flowers. The number of flowers in the central umbel and those of the other umbels was the highest in one-time fertilization with N90P90K200/ha, while in two-times – with N50P190K200/ha.


Phytochemical, pharmacological and tissue culture applications of Wedelia spp. – A review

B.A. Ahmed1, S.N. Idris1, R.M., Taha1, M.M. Mustafa2, F. MMT Marikar3

1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2South Eastern University of Sri Lanka, Oluvil, Sri Lanka
3General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Kandawala Estate, Ratmalana, 10350 Sri Lanka

(Manuscript received 22 December 2018; accepted for publication 1 April 2019)

Abstract. Wedelia spp. belonging to the family asteraceae whereby most of the species such as W. chinensis (Osbeck) Merr., W. paludosa (Blume), W. trilobata (L.) Hitchc, W. calendulacea (L.) Less., W. prostrata Dalzell & A. Gibson etc. had been traditionally used by the ancient people for medicinal purposes. Due to that, extensive studies regarding the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of this genus have been carried out for six decades. Most of the studies indicated that the plants from this genus have potential as medicinal herbs to treat diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart and liver failure, etc. In this paper the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of some plants of Wedelia genus are reviewed. Tissue culture applications of this genus are not extensively studied, thus in the present review some in vitro results from these investigations are also presented.