Effect of Gmelina leaf meal diets on productive and physiological parameters of West African dwarf goats

P.C. Jiwuba1*, W.N. Amaduronye2, R.C. Akazue1

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu,
Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
2Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 21 June 2020; accepted for publication 2 October 2020)

Abstract. West African Dwarf (WAD) goat plays an important socio-economic role, hence the effect of 82 days of feeding Gmelina leaf meal (GLM) diets on feed intake, body weight change and blood indices of WAD goats were investigated. A total of 36 WAD goats averaging 9.04 kg in weight were randomly divided into four groups of nine goats each with three goats constituting a replicate. The groups were randomly assigned four experimental diets (T1, T2, T3, and T4, containing GLM at 0%, 12%, 24% and 36%, respectively) in a completely randomized design. Results indicated significant (p<0.05) improvement for body weights and feed conversion ratio for T2, T3, and T4. There was significant difference (p<0.05) for all the haematological parameters except packed cell volume (PCV). White blood cells (WBC) increased in their number (p<0.05) with incremental levels of GLM in the diets. All the serum biochemical indices showed significant (p<0.05) difference with glucose and cholesterol concentration reduced (p<0.05) with incremental levels of GLM. It could be concluded that GLM can be included in the diets of goats up to 36% without deleterious effects on the productive and physiological indices of WAD goats.

Influence of Baikal EM1 preparation on the productive parameters of bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) during spring and autumn feeding

R. Shumkova1*, R. Balkanska2

1Research Center of Stockbreeding and Agriculture – Smolyan, 4700 Smolyan, Bulgaria
2Institute of Animal Science – Kostinbrod, 2232 Kostinbrod, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 23 June 2020; accepted for publication 3 August 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of Baikal EM1 on the productive parameters of the bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) during spring and autumn feeding and the chemical composition of the worker bee bodies. Two groups of bee colonies were formed (1 experimental group and 1 control group). During the spring feeding the experimental group was fed with Baikal ЕМ1 at a dose of 5 ml/0.500 L added in the sugar syrup (sugar:water 1:1) for 4 consecutive days at the start of the experiment. Each bee colony received 5 L sugar syrup. During the autumn feeding the experimental group received Baikal ЕМ1 at a dose of 20 ml/10 L sugar syrup. Each bee colony received 10 L sugar syrup. The control group received only sugar syrup. The spring and autumn feeding of the group fed with Baikal EM1 significantly increases the strength of the bee colonies and the amount of the sealed worker brood compared to the control group. According to the results obtained for the strength of the bee colonies and the bee brood supplementary feeding with Baikal EM1 is very effective in the autumn feeding. For these two parameters there are significant differences between the experimental and control on 29.08. (p<0.01), 10.09. (p<0.05) and 22.09.2018 (p<0.01). Statistically significant differences were reported for the strength of the bee colonies (p<0.01) and the amount of sealed worker brood (p<0.001) in the experimental group receiving Baikal EM1 before wintering compared to the control group. It can be expected to reveal a tendency for better spring development in the next year. Feeding with Baikal EM1 does not affect the chemical composition of worker bee bodies.

Complex toxin binder mycotox® ng influence on the hepatotoxic effect of aflatoxin B1 in experimental treated goslings

I. Valchev*, К. Stojanchev, N. Nicolov, R. Binev

Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 April 2020; accepted for publication 29 June 2020)

Abstarct. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of aflatoxin B1 and Mycotox NG applied either independently or together, on blood total protein, albumin, blood glucose, total bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol, enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ GT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and changes in liver morphology. At the same time, the potential of supplementation of feed with a mycosorbent (Mycotox NG) was evaluated. Experiments were carried out with 40 1-day-old Toulouse geese from mixed sexes divided into one control and three treatment groups (n=10). Groups were as followed: Group I – control (0 mg/kg AFB1 not supplemented with Mycotox NG); Group II (0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG), Group III (0.5 mg/kg AFB1) and Group IV (0.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG). In this study, commercially available geese of Toulouse strain were reared from day one to forty two days in the deep litter system of management and the birds were divided into four groups. Normal feed tested free of aflatoxin (AFB1), was given to the control (Group – 1). 0.5 g/kg Mycotox was supplemented with the feed to Group 2, Aflatoxin (0.5 mg/kg feed) was supplemented with the feed to Group 3 and Mycotox Ng (0.5 g/kg feed) + 0.5 mg/kg feed AFB1 was supplemented with the feed to Group 4. The duration of the experiments was 42 days. The monitored blood chemical parameters were analysed on post treatment days 21 and 42. In birds treated only with AFB1, (group III) increased blood activities of studied enzymes. At the same time, blood total protein, albumin, cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides were reduced as compared to controls. The observed histopathological changes in the liver consisted in various extent of dystrophy (congestion, vacuolar and granular dystrophy, round cell proliferation, necrobiotic changes, hyperplasia of gallbladder epithelium). The addition of mycosorbent (Mycotox NG) to the feed of Groups IV reduced substantially the changes in blood chemistry and the severity and frequency of liver histological lesions. The addition of mycosorbent (Mycotox NG) to the feed of Groups IV reduced substantially the changes in blood chemistry and the severity and frequency of liver histological lesions.

Effect of multienzymes + probiotic supplementation in fermented shea butter cake based diets on the carcass traits and the biochemistry of broiler chickens

P.C. Aguihe1*, A.S. Kehinde2, S.K. Halidu3, A. Sulyman1, J. Chikezie3, D.A. Joshua4, I.I. Ilaboya5,
K.U. Samuel6

1Department of Animal Production and Health Technology, Federal College of Wildlife Management,
Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, New Bussa, Nigeria
2Department of Wildlife, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho-Ibadan, Nigeria
3Department of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Nigeria
4Department of Basic Science, Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Nigeria
5Department of Animal Production Technology, Edo State College of Agriculture, Iguoriakhi, Benin, Nigeria
6Department of Agricultural Science, College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 29 May 2020; accepted for publication 21 July 2020)

Abstract. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of multienzyme+probiotic (MEP) supplementation on carcass characteristics and serum biochemistry of broiler chickens fed fermented shea butter cake meal (FSBCM) based diets. A total of two hundred and sixty (260), 28-day-old broiler chicks were distributed into four treatments, with five replicates of 13 birds each using a completely randomized design and reared on deep litter system from 28 to 56 days of age. The four treatments were: positive control – T1 (corn-soybean based diet); negative control – T2 (20% FSBCM replacement for corn in T1); diet 3 – T3 (T2 diet + 0.05% MEP) and diet 4 – T4 (T2 diet + 0.10% MEP). On day 56, two birds per each pen were selected for carcass and organ evaluation and other two birds per replicate were selected for serum biochemical analysis. The results indicated that addition of MEP to FSBCM diet caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in live weight, dressing percentage and breast meat yield than FSBCM diet without MEP and did not differ from the T1 diet. The abdominal fat in birds fed MEP treated diets were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those groups fed PC and FSBCM diets. Serum glucose was similar (p>0.05) between birds fed PC and MEP treated diets but significantly (p<0.05) higher than those on FSBCM diet, whereas serum cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations reduced significantly (p<0.05) in groups fed MEP supplemented FSBCM diets. All other parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the MEP supplementation. Therefore, MEP supplementation in FSBCM based diet improved live weights and carcass attributes without any detrimental effect on blood composition of the broiler chickens.

Growth regulators – a biological means for stimulating photosynthetic activity, nitrogen fixation and the increase of the biological value of protein in forage peas (Pisum arvense L.)

N. Minev*

Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University – Plovdiv, 12 Mendeleev Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 July 2020; accepted for publication 14 August 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of foliar application of growth regulators on photosynthetic activity, nitrogen fixation and the biological value of protein in two cultivars of winter forage peas – Mir and Vesela. For achieving the aim set, a three-year field trial was carried out in the Training and Experimental Fields of the Agricultural University of Plovdiv, on a plot untreated with commercial fertilizers. The following growth regulators were used: RENI, RENI D, Bormax, Manganese Chelate and Molybdenite, applied at the phenological stage of pea plant budding. The effect of those products on the studied characteristics was compared to the untreated control. The reported three-year results show that foliar applied growth regulators had a positive effect on photosynthetic and nitrogenase activity, as well as on the characteristics of the nitrogen fixation apparatus (total number of nodules, number of active nodules and weight of the nodules) and on the biological value of the obtained protein in both cultivars of winter forage peas.

Changes in the growth and antioxidant enzyme activity of seedlings originating from wheat seeds subjected to accelerated ageing test

R. Chipilski1*, B. Kyosev1, R. Cholakova2
1Department of Breeding-Genetics and Variety Maintenance, Institute of Plant Genetics Resources, Drouzhba Str., 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria
2Department of Plant physiology, Biochemistry and Genetics, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University,
12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 3 June 2020; accepted for publication 10 August 2020)

Abstract. The objective of this study was to investigate the reaction processes of seedlings originating from wheat seeds after they were subjected to accelerated ageing, which imitated low-temperature storage. Germination, vigor, morphological characteristics, relative chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity were measured in seedlings and young plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) after processes of accelerated ageing of the seeds. The ageing procedures of the seeds were done according to the standard conditions (40±0.5°C and 100% air relative humidity) of the International Seed Testing Association for 72 and 120 hours of treatments of the Bulgarian varieties Geya-1 and Sadovo 772. For the control were used seeds, which were not subjected to the accelerated ageing conditions. The coleoptile of 5 days seedlings and second leaf of 10 and 15 days plants in seedling stage, following the seed accelerated ageing procedure, was measured in the laboratory and the greenhouse. The seed germination rate and vigor, fresh and dry weight of growing coleoptiles were inhibited after different periods of ageing exposure and well correlated with increased accumulation of total hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde content, guaiacol peroxidase activity and rate of cells membrane stability index. The negative changes of chlorophyll content index, fresh and dry weight and leaf area of the leaves of young plants descending from aged seeds sowed in pots were found. It was established that the modern variety Geya-1 was more tolerant to the applied ageing condition than the older Sadovo 772. In conclusion, we considered that accelerated ageing could be used as a model for estimation of seed deterioration in wheat after long-term storage.

Histology, serum biochemistry and haematological profiles of Clarias gariepinus fed diets containing Luffa cylindrica seedmeal

W.A. Jimoh1*, M.O. Shittu2, A.A. Ayeloja1, S.A. Abdulsalami3

1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin,

Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Fisheries Technology, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology,

PMB 5029, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

3Fisheries and Aquaculture Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Crescent University, Abeokuta,

Ogun State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 24 December 2019; accepted for publication 26 March 2020)

Abstract. A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of processing time, inclusion level and/or their interactions on serum biochemistry, haematology and histology of the liver and kidney of Clarias gariepinus fed diets containing Luffa cylindrica seedmeal. The five formulated diets were designated as control (CTR) and tested, replaced at 15 and 30% by 5- and 10-min toasted Luffa cylindrica seedmeal (D515T, D530T, D1015T and D1030T). The experimental design followed a 2×2 factorial experiment in a completely randomised design; the processing time of 5- and 10-min toasting and inclusion level of 15 and 30% serves as factors. Triplicate groups of each treatment were made. Blood sampling, harvesting of organs, serum biochemistry, histology and haematological studies followed standard procedures. The results of the study showed that the effect of processing time, inclusion level and their interactions had significant impact (p<0.05) on Clarias gariepinus. A decrease in RBC, PCV and Hb was observed when compared with control for inclusion level, processing time and/or their interaction. Total protein, albumin and globulin of the blood of fish fed diet CTR was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that of the blood of the fish fed D1015T. Mild to moderate vacuolation of the hepatocytes were recorded among the livers of fish fed control and test dietary treatments except those fed D1030T that recorded very severe vacuolation of the hepatocytes. The kidney, being the excretory organ, was also affected. However, normal cell architecture was recorded in fish fed CTR, D530T and D1030T.

Effect of diets with whey powder on growth and development of Saanen Goat kids

Özdemir1, M. Yilmaz1*, A. Çağli1, G.S.E. Aşıcı2, H. Akçay1, K. Çelik3

1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey

3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey

(Manuscript received 11 December 2019; accepted for publication 16 April 2020)

Abstract. In this study, the effect of the diets enriched nutritionally with whey powder (WP) on the growth and development of weaned Saanen Goat kids was investigated. For the purpose, 24 kids born in March 2017 and weaned after 5 months and reared for 8 weeks in Adnan Menderes University Agricultural Faculty Research and Application Farm were used. The kids were divided into three groups according to the content of the ration. The kids whose beginning weights were recorded were distributed homogeneously to each group. These groups were labeled as the control group (CG) and the experimental groups which were formed by adding 5% (5%WP) and 10% whey powder (10%WP) to the ration by removing the same amount of feed. The following parameters of the experimental kids were controlled: live weight, body condition score (BCS), body length, chest girth, the height at the withers, and some blood serum indices (total protein, cholesterol, glucose and urea). The differences between the initial and final values of the growth performance parameters in the groups with the best improvement according to the results obtained from the experiment were found to be 2.57 kg in body weight and 6.25 cm in body length in 10%WP group and the body condition score was 0.26 points, wither height 6.06 cm, and chest girth 6.75 cm in the 5%WP group. When the groups in which the best results are observed in blood parameters are considered; in the 5% WP group, the difference between the initial and final values were found to be 4.19 mg/dL in glucose and 1.22 g/dL in total protein, while urea 41.06 mg/L and cholesterol were determined to be 58.53 mg/dL in the 10%WP group. In the light of the results obtained, it has been determined that the addition of WP in a certain amount to the ration has a positive effect on the growth and development of the kids. As a result of the study, the addition of 5%WP was recommended in the ration to be given during the kid growing period.

Productive performance of broiler birds fed Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit meal containing diets

C.E. Ogbonna1, U.H. Ukpabi2, P.C. Jiwuba1*, E.B. Onwujiariri1 

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B.7008, Ishiagu,

Ebonyi State, Nigeria

2Department of Agriculture, Abia State University, P.M.B. 7010 Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 5 January 2020; accepted for publication 20 March 2020)

Abstract. A forty-two day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of diets containing Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit meal on the productive performance of broilers on feed intake, body weight, carcass and organ characteristics. Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit was processed and incorporated in the diets at 0%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% dietary levels, represented as T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively, for both starter (7-28 days of age) and finisher phase (28-49 days of age). One hundred and twenty unsexed abor acre broiler birds were brooded for seven days and thereafter 30 birds were randomly allotted to four treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD) and each treatment was replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate. The data collected showed significant (p<0.05) differences for feed intake, body weight changes and feed conversion ratio for both starter and finisher broilers. Live weight, dressed weight and dressing percentage were significantly better for T1 across the treatments (p<0.05). Wing, drumstick breast muscle and thigh cuts were significantly improved at the treatment groups (p<0.05). The gizzard, heart, and spleen were significantly (p<0.05) higher at T1. Liver also differed significantly (p<0.05) with T4 having the highest weight over other treatments. It could therefore be concluded that T2 produced the best body weight and should be recommended for enhanced broiler production.

Potential of Gmelina leaf meal diets on the productive and physiological characteristics of growing rabbits

P.C. Jiwuba1*, U.O. Ikpe2, N.L. Azodo1

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Land Resources Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 2 January 2020; accepted for publication 4 March 2020)

Abstract. Rabbit production is highly attracting attention in the world today due to its reputation in supplying one of the safest meat and other useful animal products. Hence, a 49-day study was carried out to determine the feed intake, body weight gain, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters of 80 growing rabbits fed Gmelina arborea leaf meal (GALM) in their diets. Four diets were formulated: T1, T2, T3 and T4 containing GALM at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively. The rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups of twenty animals each, with five rabbits constituting a replicate. Blood samples were drawn from each animal on the last day of the trial and evaluated for serum biochemistry and haematological parameters. Results on proximate composition revealed that the nutrient requirements were met. Feed intake and body weight gain (p<0.05) were improved in T4 in comparison with other groups. Feed conversion ratio was however best for T3 and T4 (p<0.05). The haematological parameters differed significantly (p<0.05) and were improved at 30% GALM inclusion across the groups. Results showed that all the serum biochemical parameters studied except globulin differed significantly (p<0.05) among the treatment groups. Cholesterol was reduced at 30% GALM inclusion (p<0.05). All the blood parameters fell within the physiological range for clinically healthy rabbits; an indication that GALM had a beneficial effect on rabbits. Diet T4 had the best performance data among the treatment diets and is therefore recommended for rabbit enhanced production.