Effects of liquid organic mineral complex (MultiMix®) on milk yield, composition and cheesemaking capacity of milk in dairy cows

T. Angelova1*, K. Nedelkov2, D. Yordanova1, V. Karabashev1, J. Krastanov1

1Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Nutrition, dietetics and veterinary expertise of feed, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 26 October 2020; accepted for publication 22 April 2021)

Abstract. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of liquid organic mineral complex (MultiMix®) on the milk yield, composition and cheesemaking capacity of milk in dairy cows. Thirty Holstein cows (8 primiparous and 22 multiparous) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with 15 cows per treatment. Feeding was ad libitum targeting 5% refusals. Milk yield data and samples for fat, true protein, solids not fat (SNF), lactose content and parameters characterizing the milk’s coagulation properties were collected throughout the experiment. Data suggested that MultiMix® administered through the cows’ drinking water had a positive effect on the milk productivity with a high degree of significance (p<0.001). A positive effect on the indicators characterizing the quality composition of milk has also been observed (p<0.001). Additionally, the cheesemaking capacity of milk was enhanced by supplementing animal water with MultiMix® (p<0.001). Overall, the new liquid organic mineral complex used in the present experiment showed promising results for improvement of milk production and composition in dairy cows but further studies are needed to unveil the physiologic mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects.

Utilization of Corchorus olitorius leaf as binder in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

I.O. Oke*, E.O. Adeparusi, A.A. Dada

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria

(Manuscript received 16 October 2020; accepted for publication 22 February 2021)

Abstract. This study was carried out to evaluate the physical properties and dietary value of feeds made using Corchorus olitorius as binders in fish feeds. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared using maize wheat or maize and wheat as energy source. The diets were designated as MAI, WHC, MAW, MAC, WHC and MWC. With the first three being bounded with corn starch and the last three being bounded with C. olitorius leaves soaked for 24 hours and pelleted. Physical properties evaluated are sinking rate, water absorption index, water stability, bulk density, thickness strength, friability and hardness. There was significant differences (p<0.05) in the water stability, water absorption index and thickness swelling of the diet. The highest water stability value was recorded in diet MAW. For growth parameters and nutrient utilization by fish fed experimental diets, diet MWC had a significantly higher mean final weight (9.42±0.41g), mean weight gain (5.43±0.41g), feed efficiency ratio (0.93±0.13) and specific growth rate (1.22±0.06%d-1). There was no significant difference in the feed conversion ratio, mean feed intake, and survival rate. The result shows that diet bounded with C. olitorius leaf had better utilization compared to corn starch bounded feed.

Seasonal variations in hematological profile of Holstein dairy cows as an indicator for physiological status assessment

M. Mekroud1, N. Arzour-Lakehal1, N.A. Ouchene-Khelifi1,2, N. Ouchene1,2*, A. Titi1, A. Mekroud1

1PADESCA laboratory, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, Road of Guelma 25100 El Khroub, University of Mentouri Brothers, Constantine 1, Algeria
2 Institute of Veterinary Sciences, University of Saad Dahlab Blida 1, Road of Soumaa, BP 270, 09000, Blida, Algeria

(Manuscript received 1 July 2020; accepted for publication 25 January 2021)

Abstract. This study aims to investigate, for the first time in Algeria, the effect of seasonal climatic changes on the hematological profile of Holstein dairy cows as an indicator for their physiological status assessment. The study was conducted between November 2018 and October 2019 and was performed on a lot of 14 dairy cows. Blood samples were collected quarterly during this study period. The data regarding seasonal changes in hematological parameters were not significant concerning red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). However, variations were significant for hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and blood platelets (PLT). The percentage of HCT was higher in autumn (27.99%) and spring (28.58%) compared to winter (26.52%) and summer (26.75%), (p<0.05). MCH, MCHC and PLT levels were higher in summer compared to the other seasons (p<0.05), (p<0.01) and (p<0.001), respectively. The highest number of WBC was generally observed in summer and autumn and the lowest in winter and spring (p<0.01). The ratio neutrophils/lymphocytes (N:L) was equal to 1.01, 0.79, 0.98 and 0.89 in autumn, winter, spring and summer, respectively of which this difference was not significant. This study might be helpful for providing base line information on the hematological profile of dairy cattle for the evaluation of physiological status.

Productive traits, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) fed with supplement of nutmeg extract (Myristica fragrans)

Ts. Stoev, G. Zhelyazkov*

Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Students campus, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 September 2020; accepted for publication 16 November 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary nutmeg extract (Myristica fragrans) supplement on the survival rate, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), economic efficiency (ECR), blood biochemical parameters, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), cultivated in a recirculation system. One hundred and sixty rainbow trouts were distributed in two experimental variants, each with two replications with 80 fish in one group. The average initial live weight of trouts from control (C) and experimental (E) groups was 13.43±0.33 g and 13.46±0.29 g, respectively. Fish were reared in concrete tanks with effective volume of 0.8 m3, part of a recirculation system. Trouts were fed „Aqua garant UNI“ extruded feed produced by Garant-Tiernahrung Gesellschaft m.b.H. – Austria, with pellet size of 2 mm. The feed of fish from the experimental group was supplemented with 1% powdered nutmeg extract (P.I.C.Co LTD), by lubricating the pellets with 5 ml sunflower oil/100 g feed. Control rainbow trouts received feed lubricated with the same amount of sunflower oil. Fish from both groups were fed 3 times daily and their ration was 3% of body weight. The experimental period lasted 60 days. The dietary supplementation of rainbow trouts with nutmeg extract had a negative impact on growth performance and economic efficiency of farming of the species. Final live weight and average individual weight gain were lower, and FCR and ECR values were inferior vs controls. The nutmeg extract had also an adverse effect on water content and dry matter of meat from supplemented fish. A positive effect was demonstrated only on meat fat content, which was substantially lower compared to that of control fish. Despite the higher SFA as well as lower UFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acid content of trout meat that received nutmeg extract with feed, the PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios remained within the favourable range for human nutrition, e.g. >0.4 and <5, respectively.

Effect of Gmelina leaf meal diets on productive and physiological parameters of West African dwarf goats

P.C. Jiwuba1*, W.N. Amaduronye2, R.C. Akazue1

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu,
Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
2Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 21 June 2020; accepted for publication 2 October 2020)

Abstract. West African Dwarf (WAD) goat plays an important socio-economic role, hence the effect of 82 days of feeding Gmelina leaf meal (GLM) diets on feed intake, body weight change and blood indices of WAD goats were investigated. A total of 36 WAD goats averaging 9.04 kg in weight were randomly divided into four groups of nine goats each with three goats constituting a replicate. The groups were randomly assigned four experimental diets (T1, T2, T3, and T4, containing GLM at 0%, 12%, 24% and 36%, respectively) in a completely randomized design. Results indicated significant (p<0.05) improvement for body weights and feed conversion ratio for T2, T3, and T4. There was significant difference (p<0.05) for all the haematological parameters except packed cell volume (PCV). White blood cells (WBC) increased in their number (p<0.05) with incremental levels of GLM in the diets. All the serum biochemical indices showed significant (p<0.05) difference with glucose and cholesterol concentration reduced (p<0.05) with incremental levels of GLM. It could be concluded that GLM can be included in the diets of goats up to 36% without deleterious effects on the productive and physiological indices of WAD goats.

Influence of Baikal EM1 preparation on the productive parameters of bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) during spring and autumn feeding

R. Shumkova1*, R. Balkanska2

1Research Center of Stockbreeding and Agriculture – Smolyan, 4700 Smolyan, Bulgaria
2Institute of Animal Science – Kostinbrod, 2232 Kostinbrod, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 23 June 2020; accepted for publication 3 August 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of Baikal EM1 on the productive parameters of the bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) during spring and autumn feeding and the chemical composition of the worker bee bodies. Two groups of bee colonies were formed (1 experimental group and 1 control group). During the spring feeding the experimental group was fed with Baikal ЕМ1 at a dose of 5 ml/0.500 L added in the sugar syrup (sugar:water 1:1) for 4 consecutive days at the start of the experiment. Each bee colony received 5 L sugar syrup. During the autumn feeding the experimental group received Baikal ЕМ1 at a dose of 20 ml/10 L sugar syrup. Each bee colony received 10 L sugar syrup. The control group received only sugar syrup. The spring and autumn feeding of the group fed with Baikal EM1 significantly increases the strength of the bee colonies and the amount of the sealed worker brood compared to the control group. According to the results obtained for the strength of the bee colonies and the bee brood supplementary feeding with Baikal EM1 is very effective in the autumn feeding. For these two parameters there are significant differences between the experimental and control on 29.08. (p<0.01), 10.09. (p<0.05) and 22.09.2018 (p<0.01). Statistically significant differences were reported for the strength of the bee colonies (p<0.01) and the amount of sealed worker brood (p<0.001) in the experimental group receiving Baikal EM1 before wintering compared to the control group. It can be expected to reveal a tendency for better spring development in the next year. Feeding with Baikal EM1 does not affect the chemical composition of worker bee bodies.

Complex toxin binder mycotox® ng influence on the hepatotoxic effect of aflatoxin B1 in experimental treated goslings

I. Valchev*, К. Stojanchev, N. Nicolov, R. Binev

Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 April 2020; accepted for publication 29 June 2020)

Abstarct. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of aflatoxin B1 and Mycotox NG applied either independently or together, on blood total protein, albumin, blood glucose, total bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol, enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ GT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and changes in liver morphology. At the same time, the potential of supplementation of feed with a mycosorbent (Mycotox NG) was evaluated. Experiments were carried out with 40 1-day-old Toulouse geese from mixed sexes divided into one control and three treatment groups (n=10). Groups were as followed: Group I – control (0 mg/kg AFB1 not supplemented with Mycotox NG); Group II (0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG), Group III (0.5 mg/kg AFB1) and Group IV (0.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG). In this study, commercially available geese of Toulouse strain were reared from day one to forty two days in the deep litter system of management and the birds were divided into four groups. Normal feed tested free of aflatoxin (AFB1), was given to the control (Group – 1). 0.5 g/kg Mycotox was supplemented with the feed to Group 2, Aflatoxin (0.5 mg/kg feed) was supplemented with the feed to Group 3 and Mycotox Ng (0.5 g/kg feed) + 0.5 mg/kg feed AFB1 was supplemented with the feed to Group 4. The duration of the experiments was 42 days. The monitored blood chemical parameters were analysed on post treatment days 21 and 42. In birds treated only with AFB1, (group III) increased blood activities of studied enzymes. At the same time, blood total protein, albumin, cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides were reduced as compared to controls. The observed histopathological changes in the liver consisted in various extent of dystrophy (congestion, vacuolar and granular dystrophy, round cell proliferation, necrobiotic changes, hyperplasia of gallbladder epithelium). The addition of mycosorbent (Mycotox NG) to the feed of Groups IV reduced substantially the changes in blood chemistry and the severity and frequency of liver histological lesions. The addition of mycosorbent (Mycotox NG) to the feed of Groups IV reduced substantially the changes in blood chemistry and the severity and frequency of liver histological lesions.

Effect of multienzymes + probiotic supplementation in fermented shea butter cake based diets on the carcass traits and the biochemistry of broiler chickens

P.C. Aguihe1*, A.S. Kehinde2, S.K. Halidu3, A. Sulyman1, J. Chikezie3, D.A. Joshua4, I.I. Ilaboya5,
K.U. Samuel6

1Department of Animal Production and Health Technology, Federal College of Wildlife Management,
Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, New Bussa, Nigeria
2Department of Wildlife, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho-Ibadan, Nigeria
3Department of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Nigeria
4Department of Basic Science, Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Nigeria
5Department of Animal Production Technology, Edo State College of Agriculture, Iguoriakhi, Benin, Nigeria
6Department of Agricultural Science, College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 29 May 2020; accepted for publication 21 July 2020)

Abstract. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of multienzyme+probiotic (MEP) supplementation on carcass characteristics and serum biochemistry of broiler chickens fed fermented shea butter cake meal (FSBCM) based diets. A total of two hundred and sixty (260), 28-day-old broiler chicks were distributed into four treatments, with five replicates of 13 birds each using a completely randomized design and reared on deep litter system from 28 to 56 days of age. The four treatments were: positive control – T1 (corn-soybean based diet); negative control – T2 (20% FSBCM replacement for corn in T1); diet 3 – T3 (T2 diet + 0.05% MEP) and diet 4 – T4 (T2 diet + 0.10% MEP). On day 56, two birds per each pen were selected for carcass and organ evaluation and other two birds per replicate were selected for serum biochemical analysis. The results indicated that addition of MEP to FSBCM diet caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in live weight, dressing percentage and breast meat yield than FSBCM diet without MEP and did not differ from the T1 diet. The abdominal fat in birds fed MEP treated diets were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those groups fed PC and FSBCM diets. Serum glucose was similar (p>0.05) between birds fed PC and MEP treated diets but significantly (p<0.05) higher than those on FSBCM diet, whereas serum cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations reduced significantly (p<0.05) in groups fed MEP supplemented FSBCM diets. All other parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the MEP supplementation. Therefore, MEP supplementation in FSBCM based diet improved live weights and carcass attributes without any detrimental effect on blood composition of the broiler chickens.

Growth regulators – a biological means for stimulating photosynthetic activity, nitrogen fixation and the increase of the biological value of protein in forage peas (Pisum arvense L.)

N. Minev*

Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University – Plovdiv, 12 Mendeleev Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 July 2020; accepted for publication 14 August 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of foliar application of growth regulators on photosynthetic activity, nitrogen fixation and the biological value of protein in two cultivars of winter forage peas – Mir and Vesela. For achieving the aim set, a three-year field trial was carried out in the Training and Experimental Fields of the Agricultural University of Plovdiv, on a plot untreated with commercial fertilizers. The following growth regulators were used: RENI, RENI D, Bormax, Manganese Chelate and Molybdenite, applied at the phenological stage of pea plant budding. The effect of those products on the studied characteristics was compared to the untreated control. The reported three-year results show that foliar applied growth regulators had a positive effect on photosynthetic and nitrogenase activity, as well as on the characteristics of the nitrogen fixation apparatus (total number of nodules, number of active nodules and weight of the nodules) and on the biological value of the obtained protein in both cultivars of winter forage peas.

Changes in the growth and antioxidant enzyme activity of seedlings originating from wheat seeds subjected to accelerated ageing test

R. Chipilski1*, B. Kyosev1, R. Cholakova2
1Department of Breeding-Genetics and Variety Maintenance, Institute of Plant Genetics Resources, Drouzhba Str., 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria
2Department of Plant physiology, Biochemistry and Genetics, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University,
12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 3 June 2020; accepted for publication 10 August 2020)

Abstract. The objective of this study was to investigate the reaction processes of seedlings originating from wheat seeds after they were subjected to accelerated ageing, which imitated low-temperature storage. Germination, vigor, morphological characteristics, relative chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity were measured in seedlings and young plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) after processes of accelerated ageing of the seeds. The ageing procedures of the seeds were done according to the standard conditions (40±0.5°C and 100% air relative humidity) of the International Seed Testing Association for 72 and 120 hours of treatments of the Bulgarian varieties Geya-1 and Sadovo 772. For the control were used seeds, which were not subjected to the accelerated ageing conditions. The coleoptile of 5 days seedlings and second leaf of 10 and 15 days plants in seedling stage, following the seed accelerated ageing procedure, was measured in the laboratory and the greenhouse. The seed germination rate and vigor, fresh and dry weight of growing coleoptiles were inhibited after different periods of ageing exposure and well correlated with increased accumulation of total hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde content, guaiacol peroxidase activity and rate of cells membrane stability index. The negative changes of chlorophyll content index, fresh and dry weight and leaf area of the leaves of young plants descending from aged seeds sowed in pots were found. It was established that the modern variety Geya-1 was more tolerant to the applied ageing condition than the older Sadovo 772. In conclusion, we considered that accelerated ageing could be used as a model for estimation of seed deterioration in wheat after long-term storage.