Potential of Gmelina leaf meal diets on the productive and physiological characteristics of growing rabbits

P.C. Jiwuba1*, U.O. Ikpe2, N.L. Azodo1

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Land Resources Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 2 January 2020; accepted for publication 4 March 2020)

Abstract. Rabbit production is highly attracting attention in the world today due to its reputation in supplying one of the safest meat and other useful animal products. Hence, a 49-day study was carried out to determine the feed intake, body weight gain, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters of 80 growing rabbits fed Gmelina arborea leaf meal (GALM) in their diets. Four diets were formulated: T1, T2, T3 and T4 containing GALM at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively. The rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups of twenty animals each, with five rabbits constituting a replicate. Blood samples were drawn from each animal on the last day of the trial and evaluated for serum biochemistry and haematological parameters. Results on proximate composition revealed that the nutrient requirements were met. Feed intake and body weight gain (p<0.05) were improved in T4 in comparison with other groups. Feed conversion ratio was however best for T3 and T4 (p<0.05). The haematological parameters differed significantly (p<0.05) and were improved at 30% GALM inclusion across the groups. Results showed that all the serum biochemical parameters studied except globulin differed significantly (p<0.05) among the treatment groups. Cholesterol was reduced at 30% GALM inclusion (p<0.05). All the blood parameters fell within the physiological range for clinically healthy rabbits; an indication that GALM had a beneficial effect on rabbits. Diet T4 had the best performance data among the treatment diets and is therefore recommended for rabbit enhanced production.

Effect of rations with fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea on growth performance and organ weights of rabbit bucks

O. Pius*, T. Ahemen, P.A. Addass

Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, College of Animal Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 22 June 2019; accepted for publication 18 September 2019)

Abstract. Thirty rabbit bucks of mixed breeds (New Zealand white x Chinchilla) with average live weight of 852g, aged between 12 and 14 weeks were subjected to a feeding trial for 14 weeks, to determine the effects of diets with different ratio concentrate to fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea (FLGA) on growth performance, relative carcass weight and relative organ weights of rabbit bucks. The rabbits were randomly allo- cated into five treatments: Treatment 1-T1 (100g concentrate /C/: 0g FLGA), Treatment 2-T2 (75g C: 25g FLGA), Treatment 3-T3 (50g C: 50g FLGA), Treatment 4-T4 (25g C: 75g FLGA) and Treatment 5-T5 (00g C: 100g FLGA). The results obtained in this study showed that all the growth performance parameters and relative carcass weights differed significantly (P<0.05) across treatments. Apart from relative liver and lungs weights, which differed significantly (P<0.05) across treatments, other viscera organs were not affected by the dietary treatments. The results revealed that rabbit bucks in T2 and T3 performed better, rabbits in T4 performed the least, while rabbit bucks in T5 could not survive beyond two weeks. Concentrate to FLGA at the ratios of 75g C: 25 FLGA (T2) and 50g C: 50g FLGA (T3) are therefore, recommended as the best combinations for rabbit breeding bucks.

Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in maize dry biomass under the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization

L. Nenova*, M. Benkova, Ts. Simeonova, I. Atanassova

Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection “N. Pouskarov”, 7 Shosse Bankya str., 1331 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 August 2019; accepted for publication 8 November 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different fertilizer doses on the content of macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in dry biomass and grain of maize during the 2016 – 2018 period. A field experiment with fertilization of maize was carried out on Alluvial-meadow soil (Fluvisol) in the region of Tsalapitsa village, near Plovdiv. Three variants of mineral fertilization were studied V2 (N15P10K0), V3 (N20P15K0) and V4 (N25P20K0), and a control variant V1 (N0P0K0) – without fertilization. It was established that N% content in maize dry biomass was affected significantly by the variants of fertilization (18% of the variance). Significant differences (P≤0.05) between the control variant and all the variants of fertilization were established. Increasing the fertilizer dose, nitrogen content in dry biomass increased, too. The highest was the average content of nitrogen in maize leaves (0.94%), followed by the cobs (0.71%) and the lowest was the content in the stems (0.58%). Phosphorus and potassium content of dry biomass were affected significantly by the year of the study (10% and 9% of the variance, respectively). At the 7-8th leaf growth stage of maize, the highest nutrients content (N, P, K) in dry biomass were reported. With aging of plants the nutrient content in their biomass decreased. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in maize grain was significantly affected by the year of the experiment. Mineral fertilization had impact mostly on the nitrogen content of the grain, which was the highest in V3 variant, accepted as optimal – 0.66% on average.

Digestibility and energy content of Paulownia (Paulownia elongata S.Y.Hu) leaves

G. Ganchev1*, А. Ilchev1, А. Koleva2

1Department of Morphology, Physiology and Animal nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Technology of cereals, fodder, bread and confectionary products, Technological Faculty, University of Food Technology, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 July 2019; accepted for publication 3 September 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the digestibility and energy content of Paulownia elongata S.Y.Hu leaves after leaf fall. Leaves together with petioles were dried at room temperature and milled with a roughage mill before feeding to animals. A classical digestion trial was performed, with three rams weighing 55.4kg on average, by determining the chemical composition of consumed feed, feed leftovers and excreted faeces. Digestibility was evaluated as difference in the amount of ingested nutrients and nutrients excreted with faeces and it was determined to be 50.72, 52.08, 31.63, 54.09, 55.15 and 56.06% for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE). The energy value for ruminants calculated on the basis of chemical composition and established digestibility was 8.29 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg DM, 6.55 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/ kg DM, 0.59 feed units for milk (FUM)/kg DM and 0.52 feed units for growth (FUG)/kg DM.

Generative development of carrots (Daucus carota L.) during seed production depending on the fertilization

Al. Trayanov

 

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Viticulture and Horticulture, Agricultural University-Plovdiv, 12 “Mendeleev” Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

 

(Manuscript received 15 June 2019; accepted for publication 31 July 2019)

 

Abstract. The main aim of the present study was to establish the changes in the generative development of carrots seed stalk during seed production depending on the frequency and level of fertilization. Two times of fertilization were tested: once – phosphorus and potassium were applied in autumn and nitrogen in transplanting time, and twice – half of phosphorus and potassium in the autumn, while the other half and nitrogen in soil in spring and half nitrogen in flowering.  The number of umbels in the branches of I, II and III orders was determined. The average number of constituent units of one umbel from the central umbel and from umbels of different orders, as well as the average number of flowers in one umbel were established. Differences between variants were identified. Fertilization has a significant impact on the number of umbels and flowers. The number of flowers in the central umbel and those of the other umbels was the highest in one-time fertilization with N90P90K200/ha, while in two-times – with N50P190K200/ha.

 

Phytochemical, pharmacological and tissue culture applications of Wedelia spp. – A review

B.A. Ahmed1, S.N. Idris1, R.M., Taha1, M.M. Mustafa2, F. MMT Marikar3

1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2South Eastern University of Sri Lanka, Oluvil, Sri Lanka
3General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Kandawala Estate, Ratmalana, 10350 Sri Lanka

(Manuscript received 22 December 2018; accepted for publication 1 April 2019)

Abstract. Wedelia spp. belonging to the family asteraceae whereby most of the species such as W. chinensis (Osbeck) Merr., W. paludosa (Blume), W. trilobata (L.) Hitchc, W. calendulacea (L.) Less., W. prostrata Dalzell & A. Gibson etc. had been traditionally used by the ancient people for medicinal purposes. Due to that, extensive studies regarding the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of this genus have been carried out for six decades. Most of the studies indicated that the plants from this genus have potential as medicinal herbs to treat diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart and liver failure, etc. In this paper the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of some plants of Wedelia genus are reviewed. Tissue culture applications of this genus are not extensively studied, thus in the present review some in vitro results from these investigations are also presented.

Effect of rations with fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea on some reproductive parameters of rabbit bucks

O. Pius1*, T. Ahemen1, A.H. Abu2

1Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, College of Animal Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
2Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 27 August 2018; accepted for publication 14 January 2019)

Abstract. Thirty (30) rabbit bucks of mixed breeds (New Zealand white x Chinchilla) with average live weight of 852g, aged between 12 and 14 weeks were subjected to a feeding trial for 14 weeks, to determine the effects of diets with different ratio concentrate to fresh leaves of Gmelina arborea (FLGA) on semen characteristics, testicular and epididymal morphometry of rabbit bucks. The rabbits were randomly allocated into five treatments: Treatment 1-T1 (100g concentrate /C/: 0g FLGA), Treatment 2-T2 (75g C: 25g FLGA), Treatment-T3 3 (50g C: 50g FLGA), Treatment 4-T4 (25g C: 75g FLGA), Treatment 5-T5 (00g C: 100g FLGA). The results obtained showed that sperm motility, concentration and percentage of live sperm cells showed significant effects (P<0.05), while semen volume and percentage of normal sperm cells were not significantly affected by the test diets. Rabbits on T4 did not ejaculate within the experimental period. Mean testis density was not significantly affected, while paired testes weight, mean testis length, paired testes volume, paired epididymal weight and mean epididymal length were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. The results revealed that rabbit bucks on T2 and T3 performed better, rabbits on T4 performed least, while rabbit bucks in T5 could not survive beyond two weeks. Concentrate to FLGA at the ratios of 75g C: 25g FLGA (T2) and 50g C: 50g FLGA (T3) are therefore recommended as the best combinations for rabbit breeding bucks.

Effects of aflatoxin B1 on histopathological structure of immunocompetent organs in mulard ducks

N. Groseva1, I. Valchev2*, Ts. Hristov2, L. Lazarov2, D. Kanakov2, R. Binev2

1Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 21 August 2018; accepted for publication 28 January 2019)

Abstact. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin В1 (AFB1) on immunocompetent organs (thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius) morphology. Also, the possibility for prevention of toxic effects of AFB1 by feed supplementation of a mycosorbent (Mycotox NB) was studied. The experiments were conducted with 4 groups of 20 10-day-old mulard ducks: group I – control, fed a standard compound feed according to the species and the age; group II – experimental, whose feed was supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg. AFB1, group III – experimental, supplemented with 0.8 mg/kg AFB1 and group IV – experimental, supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 2 g/kg Mycotox NG. The duration of the experiments was 42 days. Atrophy and degenerative changes were observed in immunocompetent organs of birds from groups ІІ and III. The supplementation of the feed with 2 g/kg Mycotox NG resulted in partial neutralisation of deleterious effects of AFB1 on severity of histological lesions (considerably slighter lymphoid follicle rarefaction).

Effect of diets with raw garlic flour on growth performance and blood parameters in rabbits

M.U. Onyekwere1, P.C. Jiwuba1*, U.N. Egu2

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2Department of Agriculture, Abia State University, P.M.B. 7010 Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 6 August 2018; accepted for publication 16 October 2018)

Abstract. Ninety-six growing New Zealand rabbit bucks (male) and does (female) were randomly assigned to four treatment diets for a period of ninety (90) days. The treatments which contained 0% (T1) control, 5% (T2), 10% (T3) and 15% (T4) raw garlic flour meal were fed to the rabbits in a completely randomized design (CRD) to determine the growth performance, haematology and serum chemistry of the rabbits. The results on growth performance in both sexes showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the treatment groups except for final body weights. T4 recorded the best values in weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for both sexes. Results of hematological parameters (haemoglobin – Hb, Packed Cell Volume – PCV, Red Blood Cell – RBC, White Blood Cell –WBC, Mean Cell Volume – MCV, Mean Cell Haemoglobin – MCH and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration – MCHC) showed significant (p<0.05) difference for all the parameters evaluated except for red blood cells in both sexes. Haemoglobin values for both sexes were higher and better for the treatment groups in comparison with the control. For the serum chemistry (Total serum protein, Albumin, Globulin, Urea, Creatinine and Cholesterol) all the parameters showed significant (p<0.05) difference among the parameters examined except albumin for both sexes. However, globulin was also similar (p>0.05) for the male rabbits. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood cholesterol was recorded in rabbits fed the treatment diets. The study indicated that raw garlic floor could effectively be added to rabbit ration to improve the quality of the feed and the physiological condition of the animals.

Laying performance and cost-benefits of feeding brown laying hens with raw or processed tropical sickle pod (Senna obtusifolia) seed meal based-diets

C. Augustine1*, I.D. Kwari2, J.U. Igwebuikwe2, S.B. Adamu2, C.I. Medugu2, D.I. Mojaba1

1Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 22 December 2017; accepted for publication 15 August 2018)

Abstract. . A feeding trial was conducted for 16 weeks to evaluate the effects and cost-benefits of feeding raw or processed Senna obtusifolia (S. obtusifolia) seed meal based-diets on the laying performance of ISA brown laying hens. Six experimental diets were compounded to contain 0% S. obtusifolia seed meal (T1) and 20% each of the raw, boiled, soaked, sprouted and fermented S. obtusifolia seed meals designated as T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively. One hundred and eighty (180) ISA brown laying hens aged 36 weeks were housed in battery cages (5 birds/0.95m2) and assigned to the six (6) dietary treatments in groups of thirty (30) birds in a completely randomized design. Each replicate cage contains 10 laying hens. Data were collected on feed intake, hen-day egg production (HDEP), hen-house egg production (HHEP), egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed cost per kilogram, feed cost per egg mass and mortality. The results indicated that the group of laying hens fed raw S. obtusifolia seed meal based diet recorded the lowest HDEP (52.42%), egg weight (53.08g) and egg mass (2782.45g). Among the hens fed the processed S. obtusifolia seed meal based diets, the laying hens fed the fermented S. obtusifolia seed meal based diet indicated significantly (p<0.05) better HDEP (64.05%), egg weight (58.45g) and egg mass (3743.72g). On economic grounds, the use of raw S. obtusifolia is not cost effective because feed cost per kilogram egg was relatively high (N317.47 or $0.82) in the group of laying hens fed raw S. obtusifolia seed meal based diet. However, the processed S. obtusifolia seed meal based diets showed some economic advantage. In conclusion, 20% of fermented S. obtusifolia seed meal can be incorporated in the diets of laying hens with little or no depreciation in laying performance and economic-benefits.