Influence of variety endosperm type and seed moisture content on threshability and mechanical damage of sorghum seeds

W.M. Muiru1, P.L. Fabiola1, D. Mbuge2, L. M’Ragwa3, S.L. Kimaru1*

1Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
2Department of Environmental and Biosystems Engineering, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
3Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Kenya

(Manuscript received 13 April 2020; accepted for publication 3 June 2020)

Abstract. Sorghum is an important cereal crop and it is native in African tropical areas. It is a globally cultivated crop and the fifth most important cereal after maize, rice, wheat and barley. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of endosperm type, seed moisture content and threshing methods on percentage threshability and mechanical damage of sorghum seeds. Two varieties of sorghum (Kari-mtama 1 and Seredo) were grown in two diverse locations, Kiboko and Katumani. Variety Kari-mtama1 has hard (vitreous) endosperm while the other variety Seredo has soft (non-vitreous) endosperm. After harvesting, sorghum panicles were dried in the sun and oven. The panicles were threshed separately for each drying method at two moisture levels, namely 18-20% and 13-14%. The three threshing methods used included beating with wooden stick in tied sack, using wooden mortar and pestle as well as using threshing machine. The results showed that the vitreous endosperm variety had significantly high percentage threshability and significantly low mechanical damage than non-vitreous endosperm variety under both drying methods. There was a significant (p≤0.05) increase in threshability and decrease in mechanical damage when the seeds were threshed at 13-14% moisture content compared to 18-20%. For better seed quality, threshing machine is the best method to be used to avoid mechanical damage and seed quality deterioration. Drying methods used to dry seed panicles before threshing had no effects on threshability and mechanical damage. This implies that sorghum panicles can be dried either in the sun or oven without affecting threshability and mechanical damage at the two moisture levels and by using the three threshing methods.

Challenges of smallholder farmers in accessing agricultural information in Southern Ethiopia

G.R. Megerssa1*, B.G. Gemede2, A.W. Jarsa2

1Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Jimma University, Ethiopia 2Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

(Manuscript received 1 September 2019; accepted for publication 27 December 2019)

Abstract: The study was focused on identifying sources of agricultural information and analyzing challenges faced by smallholder farmers in accessing agricultural information in Southern Ethiopia. To achieve the stated objectives the study district was selected purposively from Wolaita zone by selecting five kebeles randomly. At the end, a total of 150 sample households were randomly selected from these five kebeles. To collect the data both primary and secondary sources were used for the purpose of this study. Primary data were collected directly from sample respondents through structured and semi-structured interview schedules, observation and focus group discussions. Secondary data were collected from Woreda agriculture and rural development office report, and other relevant books, journal articles and the Internet. After the relevant data were collected, the descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency, and percentage, and the inferential statistics such as chi-square tests were also used. The findings indicate that female farmers, illiteracy, location of market center, information seeking behavior of farmers, low rate of extension-farmers linkages, inadequate operational skill of aids, language barriers, lack of training, lack of rural electrification, lack of development agents, absence of rural networks, inadequate reading materials, and inappropriate time of broadcasting are the main challenges smallholder farmers were faced with. Therefore, to overcome the challenges strong commitment and reformation should be done in the study area by the concerned stakeholders.

Еffect of insect infestation on the economic value of smoked fish sold in selected markets in Nigeria

A.A. Ayeloja1*, F.O.A. George2, W.A. Jimoh1, G.L. Adebisi3

1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515 Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
2Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB),
PO Box 2240 Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
3Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology Moor Plantation, PMB 5029 Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 11 September 2019; accepted for publication 17 January 2020)

Abstract. In the present study a multistage sampling technique using semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio- economic characteristics of the respondents and on economic loss of smoked fish resulting from insect pest infestation. Smoked fishes were bought from 10 markets in Oyo state, South West of Nigeria and checked in the laboratory for the insect pests. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square. Results indicated that insects at their larvae stage cause more economic loss to smoked fish than adult insects while Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes spp. are the insects found to infest the smoked fishes in this study. The insect infestation of the smoked fish leads to huge economic loss. Of all respondent groups the women dominate smoked fish business.

Interrelationships between some vegetative components and fruit quality of Algerian date palm

A. Rekis1,2,3*, Z. Laiadi3

1Department of Agricultural Sciences, Mohamed Khider University, P.O. Box 145, Biskra-07000, Algeria 2Scientific and Technical Research Center on Arid Regions (CRSTRA), University Campus Mohamed Khider, BP 1682 R.P., Biskra-07000, Algeria
3Laboratory of Genetics, Biotechnology and Valorization of Bio-resources, University Mohamed Khider,
P.O. Box 145, Biskra-07000, Algeria

(Manuscript received 28 November 2019; accepted for publication 16 January 2020)

Abstract. The date palm is a monocotyledon thermophilic desert plant, in Algeria grown more than 18 million trees. To have a better quality of dates for the most answered cultivars in Algeria, we can act with fertilization on the palm and these components of the leaflets and spines that affect dates quality. The three cultivars of date palms (Deglet nour-C1, Ghars-C2 and Mechdegla-C3) have been studied to estimate the relationship between leaflet and spine number and date quality. Five phenotypic traits were exploited and subjected to analysis of the principal components in ascending hierarchical classification. The results revealed that the cultivar Deglet nour scored the highest value for the parameters spine number (25) and weight of the date (8.63g), the cultivar Ghars also recorded the highest value for the parameters: number of leaflets (80) and length (4.35cm) and thickness (2.25cm) of the date. In all studied cultivars positive correlations between the length and width of the leaf – on the one side, and weight of the date – on the other, and between the width of leaf and width of the date were found.

Economics analysis of rice marketing in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

J. Zalkuwi*

Department of Agricultural Economics and extension, Faculty of Agricultural sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 25 September 2019; accepted for publication 8 November 2019)

Abstract. The purpose of the study was to make an economic analysis of rice marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Rice marketing system, constraints associated with cost and return of rice marketing and problem of rice marketing were examined. A total of 60 respondents were selected using multi-stage random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was designed in line with the objective of the study and administered by means of interview scheduled in generating the data analyzed. Both descriptive (frequency, tables and percentages) and inferential statistics (profitability analysis, total cost and return) were employed to the analyzed the data. The result of the analysis showed that the major form of processed rice that is marketed in the area is regular milled white rice. The gross margin obtained was N235690.00 (US$656.55) showing that the marketing of rice is profitable. From the study, the profitability ratio shows that it is viable with every N1.00 invested in rice marketing giving a return of N2. The major constraints associated with rice marketing include high cost of transportation and inadequate processing facilities. The study suggests an improvement of the road network system and provision of agricultural credit to enable rice traders expand the volume of their operations. It was also recommended that agricultural training workshop in rice marketing should be used from time to time to educate producers and marketers on storage and distribution processes.

Effect of different storage materials on the seed temperature, seed moisture content and germination of wheat under farmer’s field condition of Kailali district, Nepal

N. Khatri1*, D. Pokhrel1, B.P. Pandey1, K.R. Pant1, M. Bista2

1National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal 2Regional Agriculture Research Station, Lumle, Kaski, Nepal

(Manuscript received 19 July 2019; accepted for publication 30 October 2019)

Abstract. A study was conducted at four Village Development Committees (Masuriya, Udashipur, Basauti and Pahalmanpur) of Kailali dis- trict, Far western Region, Nepal in 2016/17 to find out the effect of different storage materials on the seed moisture content and germination percentage of wheat. Seeds of wheat were packed using five storage materials (metal seed bin, earthen pot, purdue improved crop storage / Pics/ bag, gunny bag and super grain bag). The stored seed samples were drawn at three-month intervals starting from May 2016 to January 2017. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications. The results of analysis of variance revealed that the effect of storage materials was significant (P≤0.05) on seed moisture content and seed germination of wheat. After nine months of storage, the seeds stored in Pics bag recorded the lowest moisture (13.3%) and temperature (26.4°C), and the highest germination percentage (91.75%). The lowest quality performance (high moisture and temperature, low germination) of stored seeds was observed in an earthen pot. From the results obtained, it was concluded that wheat seed could be stored for a long time in Pics bag without deteriorating its quality parameters.


Gender analysis of educational inequality among rural children of school-age in Kwara State, Nigeria

R.O. Babatunde, A.E. Omoniwa, M.N. Ukemenam


Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 3 June 2019; accepted for publication 25 July 2019)


Abstract. Educational inequality has been accepted widely as an indicator of wellbeing. However, in most developing countries, very little attention has been paid to it. This article examined the gender differences in educational inequality among rural children of school-age in Kwara state, Nigeria. Using a three-stage random sampling technique, 200 rural households were sampled for data collection. Analytical tools used are descriptive statistics, the Gini-coefficient and the Ordinary Least Square regression analysis. The result of the analysis showed educational inequality for boys and girls was 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. Educational inequality among children of school-age was significantly determined by the age of household heads, education status of the household heads, marital status, main occupation of the household head, household size, dependency ratio, farm size, cost of schooling, average time spent by children in farm work and asset-base of the households. It was therefore recommended that strategies that will promote mothers’ education be put in place as well as the provision of accessible credit schemes. This can help in the hiring of labour for farm and non-farm businesses thereby increasing production, while providing the household with more funds to enroll their children in schools.

Survival of the fittest: the choice between local and imported rice consumption in Delta central agricultural zone, Delta state, Nigeria

T.M. Gbigbi


Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Delta State University Asaba Campus, PMB 95074, Asaba, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 4 April 2018; accepted for publication 5 June 2019)


Abstract. This study analyzes the determinants of rice consumption preference for local or imported type in Delta State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to identify the socio-economic characteristics of rice consumers, ascertain the forms rice is prepared and consumed by respondents, examine the factors influencing rice consumption preference, and identify reasons for household’s preference for local or imported rice consumption in the study area. Primary data were collected from households using a structured questionnaire. The multistage procedure was used to select 200 respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regressions. The result revealed that 69% of female were more involved in rice consumption preference than their male counterparts. The mean age was 42 years and the respondents can read and write. About 56.4% were married and the average household size was seven persons. The average monthly income of respondents was N 22372.50 (62.84 USD). The results also show that 44% of households preferred their rice being consumed as white rice and stew. The major reasons for the choice in rice type were because of its availability, cleanliness, taste and swelling capacity. The factors that influence rice consumption pattern were gender, age, price per kg of rice, household size, educational level and income level. It is recommended that the farmers should be encouraged to process their grains in a manner that they will be clean.

Food safety knowledge among farming households in Irepodun local government area, Kwara State, Nigeria

A.O. Awoyemi, M.N. Ajiboy, G.B. Adesiji, A.O. Kayode

Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, P.M.B. 1515, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 21 November 2018; accepted for publication 22 April 2019)

Abstract. The study assessed the food safety knowledge and practices among farming households in Irepodun Local Government Area (LGA) of Kwara State, Nigeria. Irepodun LGA was purposively selected due to the large population of farmers in the area. Two-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select one hundred and four (104) respondents from five villages, namely: Elerinjare, Batanyin, Igbo-owu, Omode and Idofian. Primary data were used for the study and the data were collected by means of an interview schedule. Descriptive statistical tools such as precision counts, frequencies and percentages were used in analyzing the data while Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) analysis was used to test the hypothesis. The findings revealed that the mean income was 156375.50 NGN (441.74 USD) per annum, majority of the farming households have low knowledge towards food safety practices. Constraints to food safety practices include: lack of knowledge, inadequate training and awareness and inadequate finance. PPMC analysis showed that income and educational level was significantly related to the food safety practices among farmers across the selected farming households P≤0.05. Based on the findings, training and effective monitoring by relevant stakeholders, adequate provision of modern technology, sensitization and enlightenment campaigns will further boost farming household’s knowledge and attitudinal changes towards food safety and ultimately safe food for the people.

Households’ consumption willingness for locally processed rice in Kogi State, Nigeria

A.O. Ojo, O.M. Animoku, M.A. Ojo

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 1 November 2018; accepted for publication 4 March 2019)

Abstract. Importation of rice in Nigeria discourages local production and hinders the realization of the self-sufficiency goal of the Nigerian Government. With improvement in processing technology and information on its health benefits, consumers of rice are gradually shifting ground for locally produced rice. Hence, this paper explores the priority of local rice in household food expenditure in Kogi State, Nigeria. Simple randomized sampling technique was used to select a sample of 120 respondents. Primary data were sourced from civil servants within the locality. Statistical tools involved descriptive statistics and regression models for the assessment of the households’ attitude, their monthly expenditure, determinants of consumption preference and demand for local rice. The findings revealed that the majority of the households preferred local rice due to the good health benefits and palatability, among others. About 58.3% of the households spent ₦20000 – ₦40000 (1 NGN = 0.0028 USD) on food while 72.2% spent about ₦5000 on local rice monthly. Household income, household size, age, taste, expenditure on food and non-food were the main factors that affected preference for local rice. The study also indicated that local rice in the study area was price elastic and income inelastic. Increased awareness of the nutritional benefits of local rice and its quality improvement has increased the consumers’ preference for local rice in the area.