Heavy metals analysis in some freshwater and marine fish species from markets of Lahore, Pakistan

M.A. Hadyait1, A. Ali1, S. Salim1, M. Shahzadi2, E.M. Bhatti1, U. Pasha1

1Fish Quality Control Labs, Fisheries Research and Training Institute, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of Chemistry, Government Postgraduate, Islamia College for Women Cooper Road, Lahore, Pakistan

(Manuscript received 28 November 2018; accepted for publication 19 March 2019)

Abstract. Muscle portion of 72 fish samples of eight selected species, four from marine (Pampus Chinensis, Otolithes ruber, Trachipteridae and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and four from fresh water (Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Rita rita and Walago atu) fishes were collected from three superstores in Lahore, Pakistan. The prepared fish samples were analyzed for determination of Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) concentrations by using the inductively coupled plasma (PerkinElmer, Model: Optima 7000DV ICP-OES). It was found that Cd (0.294±0.001 mg/kg) concentration was the highest in Labeo rohita collected from Metro Superstore while the lowest level (0.023±0.000 mg/kg) was in the Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the same superstore. Species wise concentration of Cd varies significantly. Concentration of Cr (0.172±0.001mg/kg) was the highest in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha collected from Main Fish Market of Lahore while the lowest level (0.002±0.001mg/kg) was in Labeo rohita collected from Hyperstar superstore. Concentration of Pb (0.057±0.000mg/kg) was the highest in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha collected from Metro Superstore while the lowest (0.012±0.001mg/kg) in Otolithes ruber of the same superstore. Species wise concentration of Pb varies non-significantly. Origin wise t-test shows that: a) Cd concentrations vary significantly, while Cr and Pb concentrations vary non-significantly when marine and fresh water species were compared. b) The range of Pb (0.011-0.057 mg/kg) and Cr (0.002-0.172 mg/kg) was within limits and of Cd (0.023-0.297 mg/kg) was higher than the WHO international standards (0.123 mg/kg for Pb, 0.050 mg/kg for Cd and 0.1 mg/kg for Cr) in most of the fish species of main Fish Market Lahore, Hyperstar and Metro store.

Food security status of female-headed households in Mubi North Local Government area, Adamawa State, Nigeria

A.J. Madugu

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 5 June 2018; accepted for publication 22 December 2018)

Abstract. This study investigated the food security status of female-headed households (FHHs) in Mubi north local government area (LGA) of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, the socio economic characteristics and determinants of household food security status of respondents were tested. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 female headed households using simple random sampling technique from five districts of Mubi north LGA. Analytical tools used were the food security index (FSI) and Binary Logit Regression Analysis. The results showed that majority (57.9%) of the respondents were middle aged, having 1-5 persons in their household and cultivating about 1-3 hectares of land. It further showed that most of the respondents (63.8%) were food insecure. The result further showed that age, household size, educational status, and access to input were significant and therefore regarded as the major determinants of food security in the study area. It also showed that extension service was not significant and thus not a determinant of food security among the respondents. The study concluded that female headed households in the study area were food insecure; it was thus recommended that NGOs, CSOs and other actors should focus more on agricultural activities by providing inputs so as to improve food production and household food security index, furthermore, the result showed that extension service did not influence food security status of respondents, thus, private extension service providers should be established to assist the government in the provision of intensive extension contact/services, this can help to improve food production and subsequent food security status of respondents.

Effects of storage duration and bulb sizes on physiological losses of Agrifound light red onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.)

M.S. Abubakar1*, J.N. Maduako2, M. Ahmed3

1Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutse, P.M.B 7156 Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria
2Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
3Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, P.M.B 25 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 9 July 2018; accepted for publication 8 January 2019)

Abstract. The effect of storage duration and bulb sizes on physiological losses of the Agrifound light red onion bulbs stored in an Improved Naturally Ventilated Storage Structure-INVSS (constructed using locally available materials like; sand, cement, wood, corn stalks, wire mesh and grasses) under room condition was studied in 2012. Dry and wet bulb thermometers were installed to measure ambient temperature and relative humidity. Wind velocity was measurement by hand held Anemometer. The onion bulb samples were sorted and graded into three standard size categories (small: <50mm; medium: 50-70mm and jumbo: >70mm in diameter) and kept in the INVSS at the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Research Farm of Modibbo Adama University of Technology (MAUTECH), Yola. The samples were monitored and data taken on a daily basis for a period of twenty (20) weeks. The data were analyzed with ANOVA in CRD and the means were separated using LSD at p<0.05. The results indicated that storage duration had significant effects (p≤0.05) on weight, rot and sprout losses. Jumbo size onion bulbs had the highest Storage Weight Loss (SWL) by a mean of 5.1%, followed by medium and small size onion bulbs with means of 4.8% and 4.2%, respectively. Storage Sprout Losses (SSL) studied in the three of onion bulb sizes showed higher SSL among the small size Agrifound light red variety than the medium size onion bulbs with respective mean values of 5.0% and 3.8%, while the least value of SSL (2.6%) was observed in Jumbo size onion bulbs. Similar comparison was also made in terms of Storage Rot Losses (SRL) and it showed that relatively higher SRL among the Jumbo size onions (3.3%), followed by medium sizes (3.1%) while the least was observed from the small sizes (2.3%). The findings recommend that the INVSS should be used to store Jumbo and small size onion bulbs for at least 5 months to achieve minimum storage losses. Though, it is not cost effective to store medium size onion bulbs in the INVSS for more than 4 months.

Effect of the diet with commercial dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on organoleptic qualities, chemical and biological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

N.M. Abdulrahman1*, I.H. Al-Refaiee2, H. Ali Mutter3

1College of veterinary medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimaniya, Iraq
2Ministry of Agriculture, Al- Anbar province, Iraq
3College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Al- Anbar province, Iraq

(Manuscript received 9 July 2018; accepted for publication 31 January 2019)

Abstract. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the replacement of different levels of animal protein concentrate (APC) with a commercial dry yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in diets on common carp performance. The experiment was conducted in the fish laboratory of the Department of Animal Production, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani in Kurdistan region of Iraq for the period from 25.07.2015 to 15.10.2015. Starting with a period of acclimatization for 21 days, to test the efficiency of using commercial dry yeast S. cerevisiae as alternative protein source to APC used in the manufacturing of diets for common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by using 90 fish at weights ranged 22-42g divided into 15 groups distributed randomly on 15 plastic containers by five treatments with three replicates per each variant. The treatments contain different levels of APC and yeast S. cerevisiae as follows: first treatment (Control T1): 100% APC / 0.00% yeast S. cerevisiae; second treatment (T2): 75% APC / 25% yeast S. cerevisiae; third treatment (T3): 50% APC / 50% yeast S. cerevisiae; fourth treatment (T4): 25% APC / 75% yeast S. cerevisiae and fifth treatment (T5): 0.00% APC / 100% yeast S. cerevisiae. There was no significant difference observed in the value of biological indices for some physiological organs, spleen and Hepatic pancreases and also in the value of the condition factor (CF) between carps from different treatments. The results of the chemical composition of the fish flesh showed significant difference in the moisture of individuals from T4 as compared with these from T2 and T5, T2 was significantly increased in crude protein as compared with other treatments, T5 had significant differences in fat crude as compared with other treatments, T1 and T2 were significantly different in ash as compared with other treatments, T1 was significantly different in carbohydrates as compared with other treatments. The results showed no significant differences observed among experimental treatments in Panel test of tenderness, color, juiciness, flavor and overall acceptance for fish meat.

Colour and rehydration properties of bay leaves dried by convective and microwave methods

A. Polat, N. Izli

Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture Faculty, Bursa Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Nilüfer, Bursa, Turkey

(Manuscript received 26 July 2018; accepted for publication 30 November 2018)

Abstract. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the convective and microwave dying methods on the colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, C,  and ΔE) and rehydration ratio of bay leaves. Drying experiments were conducted using 350 and 460W of microwave powers and air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70C. Different microwave powers show significant effect on colour of dried bay leaves. Increasing microwave power, a* (redness/greenness),  (hue angle) and ΔE (total colour changes) values increased whereas L* (lightness), b* (yellowness/blueness) and C (Chroma) values decreased. For the convective drying, although there are changes in the values of the colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, C and ), there are no significant differences in the values of the total colour changes (ΔE) statistically (P>0.05). The effect of microwave power levels and air temperature on rehydration characteristics was determined. It was found that the rehydration ratio values decreased with an increasing temperature and increasing power levels. The highest rehydration ratio was recorded for the samples dried at 350W and the lowest ratio was seen in a sample dried at 70°C. Microwave drying can be a practical drying process, an alternative to convective drying for drying bay leaves.

Quantity and quality of wool yolk in Caucasian Merino rams

D. Pamukova1*, G. Staykova2, N. Stancheva2

1Department of Animal Husbandry- Ruminant Animals and Dairy Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Agricultural Institute, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 2 September 2018; accepted for publication 5 November 2018)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the quality and quantity of the wool yolk of the rams from Caucasian merino breed in order to improve their technological features. The analyses included seven rams at 2.5 years of age and eleven male lambs at the age of 18 months. Thirty-six individual wool samples from two parts of the body (side and thigh) were studied. The following wool parameters were investigated: percentage of the dirty areas of the wool (on the side and the thigh), fat amount, sweat amount, pH of sweat, laboratory wool yield, and color of greasy wool on the side. Percentage of the dirty areas of the wool by categories and topographic ranges varied from 30.79% to 41.52%, indicating that the wool yolk of Caucasian rams was of sufficient quantity and good quality. The percentage of the fats in wool yolk to the greasy wool was relatively high (23.25% in the male lambs at the age of 18 months and 25% in the rams) and had a negative impact on the wool yield. The ratio of fat/sweat was 1.91:1 in rams at 2.5 years of age and 1.44:1 in male lambs at the age of 18 months). The higher relative part of the fat compared to the sweat was an indicator of good protective properties of the wool yolk. That allowed to protect the technological properties of the wool.

Proximate composition, lipid quality and heavy metals content in the muscle of two carp species

A. Merdzhanova*, V. Panayotova, D.A. Dobreva, K. Peycheva

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, 9000 Varna, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 2 August 2018; accepted for publication 12 October 2018)

Abstract. The aim of the presented study was to characterize the quality of edible tissue of freshwater common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), based on their proximate and lipid composition (lipid classes, fatty acid profile, fat soluble vitamins, carotenoids and cholesterol). Health risk assessment was evaluated based on the analysis of some toxic elements (As, Cd, Ni, Pb and total Hg). Proximate composition (moisture, crude protein and total lipid) was determined using standard procedures. Lipids were subsequently separated into neutral (NL) and polar lipids: Phospho- (PL) and Glycolipids (GL) by means of column and thin-layer chromatography. Lipid classes were derivatized into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) which were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Vitamins A, D3 and E, beta-carotene, astaxanthin and cholesterol were analysed simultaneously using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg and Ni) were determined by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) following a microwave digestion procedure. Protein content was higher in bighead carp (18.5%) and lower for common carp (15.5%), whereas lipid content showed opposite trend. Similarities in lipid classes distribution were observed for both species: NL>GL>PL. Neutral lipids constituted approximately 70% of TL in both species, as FAs profile was dominated by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) prevailed in polar fractions. Omega-3 PUFAs were higher in all lipid classes compared to omega-6 PUFAs. Cholesterol content was low (17-24 mg.100-1g ww). Astaxanthin was detected only in bighead carp, whereas beta-carotene, vitamin D3 and vitamin A showed similar concentrations in both samples. Vitamin E content was higher in bighead carp (10.4 mg.100 g-1 w.w.). Trace elements content was higher in bighead carp showing a maximum value of As (0.312 mg.kg-1 w.w). All determined toxic elements were found below the recommended value in carp muscle. The results of the present study confirmed the high quality and safety of common carp and bighead carp meat. These freshwater species are valuable sources of essential nutrients such as proteins, vitamin D3 and long chain omega-3 PUFAs. Together with the nutrients, the information for low concentrations of toxic elements makes them valuable components of a healthy human diet.

Effect of Аrtemisia annua L. extract on growth performance, biochemical blood parameters and meat quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), cultivated in recirculating system

  1. Koshinski*


Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.051

(Manuscript received 30 June 2018; accepted for publication 20 August 2018)


Abstract. Medicinal herbs can be used as feed additives to improve animal growth performance and to optimize physiological processes. The purpose of this study was to trace growth performance, meat quality and biochemical blood parameters (glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, ASAT, ALAT, Ca, P, Mg, triglycerides, cholesterol) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), fed with additive sweet wormwood (Аrtemisia annua L.) extract. In a recirculation system at the Aquaculture Base of the Faculty of Agriculture at Trakia University, a control group (no added) and an experimental (with added 204 mg.kg-1 of sweet wormwood extract) option were set, each of them with two replicates and mean initial weight of fish 13.32±3.07g and 13.37±2.76g, respectively. Forty specimens of rainbow trouts in good health condition were placed in each tank and cultivated for 60 days. At the end of the experiment average final weight, specific growth rates, feed conversion ratio, meat quality and blood biochemical parameters were calculated. Trouts from the experimental group, fed with supplement had 5.5% higher average final weight compared to this one of individuals from the control (P<0.05). The blood biochemical parameters glucose, ASAT and ALAT in control variant were higher compared to the values of that parameters of the fish from the experimental group (P>0.05). Electrolytes of blood such as phosphorus (P) had higher level in the experimental group (P>0.05) compared to the control group. Better growth performance and blood parameters were measured in trout fed sweet wormwood supplement.

Ontogenetic and diurnal variations of essential oil content of Hypericum montbretii Spach, cultivated in Kazdağı (Edremit/Balıkesir), Turkey

  1. Paşa1, E. Esendal2, T. Kiliç3


1Department of Plant and Animal Production, Altinoluk Vocational School, Balikesir University, Medicinal and Aromatical Plants Programme, Altinoluk, Edremit, Balikesir, Turkey

2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdağ, Turkey

3Faculty of Necatibey Education, Balikesir University, Balikesir, Turkey


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.050

(Manuscript received 16 April 2018; accepted for publication 8 July 2018)


Abstract. This research was carried out to determine the Hypericum montbretii Spach types essential oil content and composition, and its diurnal variations (9.00 am, 12.00 am and 16.00 pm) during the growing season of 2012. The plant was cultivated in the area of Mount Ida (Balikesir-Edremit), Turkey. The oil composition was determined with GC-MS. During the plant developmental stages the highest quantity of essential oil content (0.30-0.39%) was found at the full plant flowering stage and the lowest one at fresh fruiting stage (0.03-0.04%). Diurnal fluctuation in essential oils of whole plant was also observed – higher were the levels at noon (12.00 am) – 0.04-0.39% compared to the morning (9.00 am) and in the afternoon (16.00 pm). The oils consisted mainly of: at the vegetative stage – germacrene-D (6.9-11.7 %), gamma-Gurjunene (6.1-11.6%), 2-methyl octane (3.8-4.9%), δ-cadinol (2.7-4.8%) and phytol (2.9-4.5%); at the flowering stage – α-pinene (26.4-28.0%), undecane (14.1-16.0%), β-pinene (12.8-14.3%), delta-cadinene (6.8-8.0%) and caryophyllene (4.9-6.0%); at the fresh fruiting stage – amorphene (6.8-8.2%), β- caryophyllene (4.1-5.3%), delta-cadinene (5.0-5.5%) and α-cadinene (4.3-6.1%).


Analysis of structure and performance of paddy rice marketing in Adamawa state, Nigeria

Y. Dauna1, D.Y. Giroh1, W.B. Adamu2

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
2Yola Electricity Distribution Company Yerwa Business Unit, Maiduguri, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 20 March 2018; accepted for publication 31 May 2018)

Abstract. Many factors such as inadequate capital, poor infrastructure, poor price information could bring about distortion in the structure and performance of the market process resulting to the reduction in profit margin of marketers and a disincentive to present and prospective marketers of paddy rice. This study was conducted to analyze the structure and performance of paddy rice marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to examine the structure of rice market and to evaluate the performance of the market participants in the study area. Data were collected from 204 rice marketers using multi stage sampling technique. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) was used to determine structure of the market, while Marketing Efficiency measure was applied in analyzing the market performance of the market participants. The HHI pooled results for year 2013, 2014 and 2015 revealed that paddy rice marketing in Adamawa State has a highly competitive market structure (11.38 and 71) with low (42% and 24%) marketing performance for retailers and wholesalers, respectively. To improve the performance of market participants, it is recommended that government should open up and rehabilitate the road network in the hinterlands to facilitate easy evacuation of agricultural inputs and commodities in and out of the market. Financial support and formation of unions would enable the marketers benefit from scale operation and enroll for training on entrepreneurship.