Symbiotic effect on some microbiological species and physicochemical properties in milk in subclinical mastitis of dairy cows

I. Abdennebi1, C.R. Messai2, N. Ouchene3,5*, N.A. Ouchene-khelifi3,5, L. Ghallache4, K. Ait-Oudhia5,6,
T.M. Hamdi1, D. Khelef2

1Laboratory of Food Hygiene and Quality Insurance System, High National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
2Animal Health and Production Laboratory, High National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
3Institute of Veterinary Science, University Blida1, Street Soumaa BP270, 09000 Blida, Algeria
4Environment, Health and Animal Production Laboratory, Institute of Veterinary and Agronomic Sciences,
Batna, Algeria
5Laboratory of Biotechnologies related to animal reproduction, University Blida1, Street Soumaa BP270,
09000 Blida, Algeria
6High National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria

(Manuscript received 10 September 2020; accepted for publication 3 November 2020)

Abstract. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is the most common form of mastitis and the greatest cause for concern in dairy cows. The overuse of antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis leads to the development of resistance, resulting in the use of symbiotics. The study was carried out between February and May 2017 at a pilot dairy cattle farm in the Tipaza region (north-central Algeria) aiming to investigate the effect of a symbiotic on SCM. California Mastitis test (CMT) was used to diagnose SCM in a total of 240 dairy cows. A number of 58/240 (24.16%) cows were found to have SCM. These mastitis cows were then divided into two lots; an experimental lot of 37 cows and a control lot of 21 cows. A symbiotic was administered to the experimental lot once a month for three months. Cell count, microbiological analysis and analysis of certain physicochemical parameters of the milk were applied before and after each administration of the symbiotic. The results revealed that the average somatic cells count (SCC) in cows from the control lot was higher than that of cows from the experimental lot throughout the study period (p<0.0001). Staphylococci were isolated from 51/58 (87.93%) of the mastitis cows, of which 21 (36.20%) were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and 30 (51.72%) with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 36/58 (62.07%) of the mastitis cows, of which 21 (36.20%) were due to Escherichia coli strain and 15 (25.86%) to other strains of Enterobacteriaceae. After administration of the symbiotic, the prevalence of S. aureus and E. coli decreased significantly in the experimental lot compared to the control lot (p<0.001). The physicochemical characteristics of the milk were not altered by the administration of the symbiotic. All these results show that the symbiotic constitutes an adequate solution to replace antibiotics in the treatment of SCM.

Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from garri on Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical and environmental samples

H.I. Atta1*, A. Gimba1, T. Bamgbose1,2

1Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2Indian Council of Medical Research – National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR-NIMR), Sector 8,
Dwarka, New Delhi, India

(Manuscript received 15 May 2020; accepted for publication 9 October 2020)

Abstract. The production of bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria affords them the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria; they are particularly important in the biocontrol of human and plant pathogens. Lactic acid bacteria have been frequently isolated from fermented foods due to the high acidity these foods contain. In this study, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from garri, a popular Nigerian staple food, which is fermented from cassava, and their antagonistic activity against clinical and environmental isolates of Escherichia coli was determined. The species of Lactobacillus isolated include: Lactobacillus plantarum (50%), Lactobacillus fermentum (20%), Lactobacillus acidophilus (20%), and Lactobacillus salivarius (10%). Growth inhibition of the strains of E.coli was observed in Lactobacillus plantarum that inhibited the growth of both. The clinical and environmental isolates of E. coli were inhibited by Lactobacillus plantarum, while Lactobacillus acidophilus showed activity against only the clinical isolate. The greatest zone of inhibition against the strains of E. coli was recorded by Lactobacillus acidophilus (22.7±1.53 mm). The bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus species have a good potential in the biocontrol of pathogens, and should be the focus of further studies on antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Influence of Panamin Animal and Panamin Detox on milk coagulation properties of dairy cows

D. Yordanova*, T. Angelova, J. Krastanov, D. Miteva, V. Karabashev, G. Kalaydzhiev

Agricultural institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 July 2020; accepted for publication 16 September 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in milk coagulation properties in three groups of dairy cows receiving the dietary supplements Panamin Animal and Panamin Detox. The present group production experiment was conducted in the experimental cattle farm of the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora with three groups (two experimental and one control) each comprising 11 lactating dairy cows between November 2016 and March 2017. The cows are kept freely, the milking is in a hall “Fish bone”, and the groups were fed balanced rations compliant with milk yield and live body weight of cows, supplemented with 0.50 g/day of two natural dietary additives – Panamin Animal and Panamin Detox in line with recommendations of the manufacturer. The following parameters were monitored: rennet coagulation time (min) – RCT and curd firmness (mm) – a30. The analysis of individual milk coagulation properties was done on 436 milk samples from cows. Individual milk samples were obtained during the morning milking without adding preservative. The analysis of milk coagulation ability was evaluated at the laboratory of the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora by means of Computerized Renneting Metter – Polo Trade, Italy. The obtained phenotypes were corrected for main factors influencing test-day milk yield. The used model considered each test day milk yield as independent observation and unbiased estimates of traits were obtained by a linear mixed-effects model. The supplementation of cows’ ration with dietary supplements Panamin Detox and Panamin Animal had a statistically significant beneficial effect on milk coagulation properties of milk (p<0.001). The statistical analysis of group differences in RCT and curd firmness showed highly significant differences between Panamin Animal and control groups for both traits (p<0.001). There was also a highly relevant difference in curd firmness of milk from cows given Panamin Detox supplement and control cows (p<0.001). Data were processed with statistical software products Systat 13 and Pest (Groeneveld), and graphs were generated in MS Excel.

Influence of enzymes with different activity on dynamics of buffalo milk coagulation parameters

Y. Karacheviev1⃰, V. Galabov1, Т. Аngelova2, D. Yordanova2, V. Karabashev2

1Department of Automation of Continuous Manufacturing, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
2Agricultural institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 June 2020; accepted for publication 2 September 2020)

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 5 species of chymosin with different concentrations on the dynamics of the traits measured by mechanical lactodynamograph, characterizing the coagulation ability of buffalo milk. The coagulation properties of buffalo milk were evaluated on 420 milk samples taken during morning milking from whole milk. Five enzymes (MAXIREN 600, FROMASE 750, MAHIREN XDS, MAXIREN 180 and MAXIREN PREM P) were tested with 4 concentrations each and one control group with a standard, recommended by the manufacturer of the biosensor – mechanical lactodynamometer chymosin (Polo Trade – Computerized Renneting Meter, Italy). The effect of the concentration of each enzyme was determined by examining 20 milk samples. The use of enzymes at various concentrations resulted in substantial variation in the magnitude and direction of changes. Different chymosins with different concentrations actively affect the curd firmness. The shorter coagulation time will provide sufficient time for the curd firming time and its curd firmness. Over 50% of milk samples coagulate by 6 minutes. The effects of enzymes and their different concentrations on measurement were in different groups, which in our opinion was a good prerequisite for using the obtained data for modelling of the measurement process.

Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of goat milk from animals grown in a mountainous area in Bulgaria

D. Pamukova1, N. Rusenova2, T. Kolev3, S. Chobanova4, N. Naydenova1*

1Department of Animal husbandry – Ruminants and Dairy farming, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6015 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6015 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
3Agricultural Academy, Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
4Department of Morphology, Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6015 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 June 2020; accepted for publication 4 August 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the goat milk quality from animals grown in a mountainous area in Bulgaria based on physicochemical and microbiological parameters. The study was carried out in a farm that breeds local goats and goats of the Bulgarian White Dairy Goat (BWD). Individual milk samples were taken on a monthly basis from morning milking. A total of 100 individual and 10 bulk milk samples were examined for fat, solids non fat, protein and density. A total of 62 samples were collected at a time to determine the microbiological characteristics of milk. For the period May-September 2017, the percentage of fat in the milk of local goats averaged 3.61% and of goats from BWD goat – 3.54%. The solids non fat were 8.27% and 8.19%, total protein – 3.13% and 3.10%, and the dry matter – 11.89% and 11.74%, respectively. For the period May-August 2017 the individual constituents of milk changed to varying degrees with the most variable being milk fat (decrease of 0.97% in local goats’ milk and 1.09% in milk from BWD goat) followed by solids non fat (0.56% and 0.7%, respectively). The slightest change was in protein – 0.21% and 0.26%, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacterial species in the goats’ milk samples.

Study on the biology of groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus Olivier [Coleoptera: Bruchidae] on stored groundnut in Ganye area, Adamawa State, Nigeria

C.S. Oaya*

Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, P.M.B. 25, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 4 May 2020; accepted for publication 27 July 2020)

Abstract. Study on the biology of groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus Olivier was carried out in the Laboratory of the Department of Agricultural Technology, Adamawa State College of Agriculture, Ganye, Adamawa State from June to September, 2015. The sex of the bruchid (male and female) was assigned the sub-treatment while the period of development was the main treatment and was replicated three times. The work considered the pre-oviposition stage, incubation stage, larval stage, pupal stage, adult stage and the total life cycle of the bruchid (male and female). The experiment was carried out under Laboratory conditions at 30-35°C temperature and 70-90% relative humidity. After the experiment was established, weekly counting of the total number of eggs laid was carried out at intervals. The results showed that, the mean developmental stages in both female and male bruchids were: 6.50 and 6.00 days; 17.00 and 18.00 days; 13.50 and 13.50 days; 12.00 and 13.50 days; 48.00 and 50.00 days for incubation stage, larval stage, pupal stage, adult stage and total life cycle of the bruchids, respectively. Moreover, the mean pre-oviposition and oviposition stages in female adult bruchid were 1.50 and 5.50 days, respectively.

Some physical properties of lentil seeds affected by harvest time

S. Gürsoy*

Department of Agricultural Machinery and Technologies Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Dicle University, 21280-Diyarbakır, Turkey

(Manuscript received 29 April 2020; accepted for publication 10 July 2020)

Abstract: The physical properties and the hardness of lentil seeds, which can also be affected by harvest times, are very important variables in the designing and adjustment of machineries used during harvest, handling and other processes. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of different harvest times on some physical and mechanical properties of lentil seeds. A field experiment was conducted at six harvest times including the harvesting at physiological maturity (H1) and 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after physiological maturity (H2, H3, H4, H5 and H6, respectively). The variables determined were moisture content, diameter, thickness, sphericity, seed mass, bulk density, true density, porosity and hardness of lentil seeds. It was found that seed moisture content, seed dimensions, seed mass and bulk density decreased with delayed harvest time. However, sphericity, true density, porosity and hardness of lentil seeds increased with increased harvest time.

Membership in association, gender and adoption of land-enhancing technologies among arable farmers in Ogun state, Nigeria

R. Adeyemo*, A.D. Kehinde

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Ogun State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 31 January 2020; accepted for publication 30 April 2020)

Abstract. This study investigated the effect of membership in farmers’ association on adoption rate of land-enhancing technologies in Ogun State, Nigeria by gender. Specifically, it describes the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers by gender, identifies land-enhancing technologies adopted by farmers in the study area, determines the adoption rates of the technologies by gender, and determines the membership in farmers’ association on the adoption and intensity of use of land-enhancing technologies by gender. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents for the study. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the Cragg’s (double-hurdle) model. The results of the descriptive statistics, which are expressed by gender, reveal that the sampled population were majorly comprised of males (58%), than females (42%). The level of association membership was 54% for females and 35.29% for males, and only 33.82% of the respondents had contact with extension agents. The results also show that 17.65% of males and 10% of females did not adopt any technology. The results from the Cragg’s double hurdle model show that extension contact significantly influenced the adoption of most of the technologies. It had a positive relationship with the adoption of all the technologies across both genders, except for organic manure whose adoption was negatively influenced. It is therefore recommended that relevant governments and stakeholders improve extension services, as well as consider farming associations as means of getting across to female famers in order to improve their adoption levels and productivity.

Dynamics of rice sub-sector in Nepal: Research investment, production, and supply chain

Rajendra Pandit1*, Durga Devkota1, Naba R. Devkota1, Prakash C. Bhattarai2, Hari K. Shrestha3

1Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

2School of Education, Kathmandu University, Hattiban, Lalitpur, Nepal

3Food Research Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Lalitpur, Nepal

(Manuscript received 17 April 2020; accepted for publication 5 June 2020)

Abstract. Rice is a major cereal crop that ensures food security and rural income generation in Nepal. The objectives of this study were to analyse the dynamics of the rice sub-sector from the perspective of production, research investment, and supply chain as expected outcomes are not yet achieved in spite of continuity in priority for research and production investment. Accordingly, this study was done by using secondary data covering 2000 to 2018 combined with a case study. For the case study, Morang, the district with the highest rice production was chosen. A random sample of 144 supply chain actors in which 100 rice producers, 10 collectors, 10 wholesalers, 7 millers, and 17 retailers were chosen from the list of the targeted population in each category. Findings revealed that rice production, productivity, and research investment were increasing at the rate of 1.25, 1.65, and 10.57 percent per annum, respectively. There was a strong positive link between research investment and production. Millers were the main value-adding actor. They have been getting the highest profit margin (31.5%) based on investing more (46.51%) in value-added activities. In contrast, farmers received a relatively low-profit margin (13.9%) with a 1.26 benefit-cost ratio. This was mainly due to the low adoption of improved production technology and weak horizontal coordination of rice producers. The percentage of food surplus households has increased, mainly due to the adoption of rice technologies generated by rice research programs, but this has not well reflected in terms of getting more profit margin by the rice-producing farmers. On the other hand, the research investment in rice was not consistent, and even not adequate for the required technology generation. Therefore, an increased investment could enhance the efficiency of generating technology packages, and implementation of effective extension services targeting the rice-growing farmers through increasing total factor productivity is crucial to increase the profit margin of rice producers. Moreover, with strengthened horizontal coordination among the major actors and with the increased investment in value-added activities in each stage of the supply chain based on consumer demand, increased profit margin for making the rice supply chain sustainable.

Influence of variety endosperm type and seed moisture content on threshability and mechanical damage of sorghum seeds

W.M. Muiru1, P.L. Fabiola1, D. Mbuge2, L. M’Ragwa3, S.L. Kimaru1*

1Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
2Department of Environmental and Biosystems Engineering, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
3Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Kenya

(Manuscript received 13 April 2020; accepted for publication 3 June 2020)

Abstract. Sorghum is an important cereal crop and it is native in African tropical areas. It is a globally cultivated crop and the fifth most important cereal after maize, rice, wheat and barley. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of endosperm type, seed moisture content and threshing methods on percentage threshability and mechanical damage of sorghum seeds. Two varieties of sorghum (Kari-mtama 1 and Seredo) were grown in two diverse locations, Kiboko and Katumani. Variety Kari-mtama1 has hard (vitreous) endosperm while the other variety Seredo has soft (non-vitreous) endosperm. After harvesting, sorghum panicles were dried in the sun and oven. The panicles were threshed separately for each drying method at two moisture levels, namely 18-20% and 13-14%. The three threshing methods used included beating with wooden stick in tied sack, using wooden mortar and pestle as well as using threshing machine. The results showed that the vitreous endosperm variety had significantly high percentage threshability and significantly low mechanical damage than non-vitreous endosperm variety under both drying methods. There was a significant (p≤0.05) increase in threshability and decrease in mechanical damage when the seeds were threshed at 13-14% moisture content compared to 18-20%. For better seed quality, threshing machine is the best method to be used to avoid mechanical damage and seed quality deterioration. Drying methods used to dry seed panicles before threshing had no effects on threshability and mechanical damage. This implies that sorghum panicles can be dried either in the sun or oven without affecting threshability and mechanical damage at the two moisture levels and by using the three threshing methods.