Some physical properties of lentil seeds affected by harvest time

S. Gürsoy*

Department of Agricultural Machinery and Technologies Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Dicle University, 21280-Diyarbakır, Turkey

(Manuscript received 29 April 2020; accepted for publication 10 July 2020)

Abstract: The physical properties and the hardness of lentil seeds, which can also be affected by harvest times, are very important variables in the designing and adjustment of machineries used during harvest, handling and other processes. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of different harvest times on some physical and mechanical properties of lentil seeds. A field experiment was conducted at six harvest times including the harvesting at physiological maturity (H1) and 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after physiological maturity (H2, H3, H4, H5 and H6, respectively). The variables determined were moisture content, diameter, thickness, sphericity, seed mass, bulk density, true density, porosity and hardness of lentil seeds. It was found that seed moisture content, seed dimensions, seed mass and bulk density decreased with delayed harvest time. However, sphericity, true density, porosity and hardness of lentil seeds increased with increased harvest time.

Membership in association, gender and adoption of land-enhancing technologies among arable farmers in Ogun state, Nigeria

R. Adeyemo*, A.D. Kehinde

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Ogun State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 31 January 2020; accepted for publication 30 April 2020)

Abstract. This study investigated the effect of membership in farmers’ association on adoption rate of land-enhancing technologies in Ogun State, Nigeria by gender. Specifically, it describes the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers by gender, identifies land-enhancing technologies adopted by farmers in the study area, determines the adoption rates of the technologies by gender, and determines the membership in farmers’ association on the adoption and intensity of use of land-enhancing technologies by gender. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents for the study. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the Cragg’s (double-hurdle) model. The results of the descriptive statistics, which are expressed by gender, reveal that the sampled population were majorly comprised of males (58%), than females (42%). The level of association membership was 54% for females and 35.29% for males, and only 33.82% of the respondents had contact with extension agents. The results also show that 17.65% of males and 10% of females did not adopt any technology. The results from the Cragg’s double hurdle model show that extension contact significantly influenced the adoption of most of the technologies. It had a positive relationship with the adoption of all the technologies across both genders, except for organic manure whose adoption was negatively influenced. It is therefore recommended that relevant governments and stakeholders improve extension services, as well as consider farming associations as means of getting across to female famers in order to improve their adoption levels and productivity.

Dynamics of rice sub-sector in Nepal: Research investment, production, and supply chain

Rajendra Pandit1*, Durga Devkota1, Naba R. Devkota1, Prakash C. Bhattarai2, Hari K. Shrestha3

1Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

2School of Education, Kathmandu University, Hattiban, Lalitpur, Nepal

3Food Research Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Lalitpur, Nepal

(Manuscript received 17 April 2020; accepted for publication 5 June 2020)

Abstract. Rice is a major cereal crop that ensures food security and rural income generation in Nepal. The objectives of this study were to analyse the dynamics of the rice sub-sector from the perspective of production, research investment, and supply chain as expected outcomes are not yet achieved in spite of continuity in priority for research and production investment. Accordingly, this study was done by using secondary data covering 2000 to 2018 combined with a case study. For the case study, Morang, the district with the highest rice production was chosen. A random sample of 144 supply chain actors in which 100 rice producers, 10 collectors, 10 wholesalers, 7 millers, and 17 retailers were chosen from the list of the targeted population in each category. Findings revealed that rice production, productivity, and research investment were increasing at the rate of 1.25, 1.65, and 10.57 percent per annum, respectively. There was a strong positive link between research investment and production. Millers were the main value-adding actor. They have been getting the highest profit margin (31.5%) based on investing more (46.51%) in value-added activities. In contrast, farmers received a relatively low-profit margin (13.9%) with a 1.26 benefit-cost ratio. This was mainly due to the low adoption of improved production technology and weak horizontal coordination of rice producers. The percentage of food surplus households has increased, mainly due to the adoption of rice technologies generated by rice research programs, but this has not well reflected in terms of getting more profit margin by the rice-producing farmers. On the other hand, the research investment in rice was not consistent, and even not adequate for the required technology generation. Therefore, an increased investment could enhance the efficiency of generating technology packages, and implementation of effective extension services targeting the rice-growing farmers through increasing total factor productivity is crucial to increase the profit margin of rice producers. Moreover, with strengthened horizontal coordination among the major actors and with the increased investment in value-added activities in each stage of the supply chain based on consumer demand, increased profit margin for making the rice supply chain sustainable.

Influence of variety endosperm type and seed moisture content on threshability and mechanical damage of sorghum seeds

W.M. Muiru1, P.L. Fabiola1, D. Mbuge2, L. M’Ragwa3, S.L. Kimaru1*

1Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
2Department of Environmental and Biosystems Engineering, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
3Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Kenya

(Manuscript received 13 April 2020; accepted for publication 3 June 2020)

Abstract. Sorghum is an important cereal crop and it is native in African tropical areas. It is a globally cultivated crop and the fifth most important cereal after maize, rice, wheat and barley. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of endosperm type, seed moisture content and threshing methods on percentage threshability and mechanical damage of sorghum seeds. Two varieties of sorghum (Kari-mtama 1 and Seredo) were grown in two diverse locations, Kiboko and Katumani. Variety Kari-mtama1 has hard (vitreous) endosperm while the other variety Seredo has soft (non-vitreous) endosperm. After harvesting, sorghum panicles were dried in the sun and oven. The panicles were threshed separately for each drying method at two moisture levels, namely 18-20% and 13-14%. The three threshing methods used included beating with wooden stick in tied sack, using wooden mortar and pestle as well as using threshing machine. The results showed that the vitreous endosperm variety had significantly high percentage threshability and significantly low mechanical damage than non-vitreous endosperm variety under both drying methods. There was a significant (p≤0.05) increase in threshability and decrease in mechanical damage when the seeds were threshed at 13-14% moisture content compared to 18-20%. For better seed quality, threshing machine is the best method to be used to avoid mechanical damage and seed quality deterioration. Drying methods used to dry seed panicles before threshing had no effects on threshability and mechanical damage. This implies that sorghum panicles can be dried either in the sun or oven without affecting threshability and mechanical damage at the two moisture levels and by using the three threshing methods.

Challenges of smallholder farmers in accessing agricultural information in Southern Ethiopia

G.R. Megerssa1*, B.G. Gemede2, A.W. Jarsa2

1Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Jimma University, Ethiopia 2Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

(Manuscript received 1 September 2019; accepted for publication 27 December 2019)

Abstract: The study was focused on identifying sources of agricultural information and analyzing challenges faced by smallholder farmers in accessing agricultural information in Southern Ethiopia. To achieve the stated objectives the study district was selected purposively from Wolaita zone by selecting five kebeles randomly. At the end, a total of 150 sample households were randomly selected from these five kebeles. To collect the data both primary and secondary sources were used for the purpose of this study. Primary data were collected directly from sample respondents through structured and semi-structured interview schedules, observation and focus group discussions. Secondary data were collected from Woreda agriculture and rural development office report, and other relevant books, journal articles and the Internet. After the relevant data were collected, the descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency, and percentage, and the inferential statistics such as chi-square tests were also used. The findings indicate that female farmers, illiteracy, location of market center, information seeking behavior of farmers, low rate of extension-farmers linkages, inadequate operational skill of aids, language barriers, lack of training, lack of rural electrification, lack of development agents, absence of rural networks, inadequate reading materials, and inappropriate time of broadcasting are the main challenges smallholder farmers were faced with. Therefore, to overcome the challenges strong commitment and reformation should be done in the study area by the concerned stakeholders.

Еffect of insect infestation on the economic value of smoked fish sold in selected markets in Nigeria

A.A. Ayeloja1*, F.O.A. George2, W.A. Jimoh1, G.L. Adebisi3

1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515 Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
2Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB),
PO Box 2240 Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
3Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology Moor Plantation, PMB 5029 Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 11 September 2019; accepted for publication 17 January 2020)

Abstract. In the present study a multistage sampling technique using semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio- economic characteristics of the respondents and on economic loss of smoked fish resulting from insect pest infestation. Smoked fishes were bought from 10 markets in Oyo state, South West of Nigeria and checked in the laboratory for the insect pests. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square. Results indicated that insects at their larvae stage cause more economic loss to smoked fish than adult insects while Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes spp. are the insects found to infest the smoked fishes in this study. The insect infestation of the smoked fish leads to huge economic loss. Of all respondent groups the women dominate smoked fish business.

Interrelationships between some vegetative components and fruit quality of Algerian date palm

A. Rekis1,2,3*, Z. Laiadi3

1Department of Agricultural Sciences, Mohamed Khider University, P.O. Box 145, Biskra-07000, Algeria 2Scientific and Technical Research Center on Arid Regions (CRSTRA), University Campus Mohamed Khider, BP 1682 R.P., Biskra-07000, Algeria
3Laboratory of Genetics, Biotechnology and Valorization of Bio-resources, University Mohamed Khider,
P.O. Box 145, Biskra-07000, Algeria

(Manuscript received 28 November 2019; accepted for publication 16 January 2020)

Abstract. The date palm is a monocotyledon thermophilic desert plant, in Algeria grown more than 18 million trees. To have a better quality of dates for the most answered cultivars in Algeria, we can act with fertilization on the palm and these components of the leaflets and spines that affect dates quality. The three cultivars of date palms (Deglet nour-C1, Ghars-C2 and Mechdegla-C3) have been studied to estimate the relationship between leaflet and spine number and date quality. Five phenotypic traits were exploited and subjected to analysis of the principal components in ascending hierarchical classification. The results revealed that the cultivar Deglet nour scored the highest value for the parameters spine number (25) and weight of the date (8.63g), the cultivar Ghars also recorded the highest value for the parameters: number of leaflets (80) and length (4.35cm) and thickness (2.25cm) of the date. In all studied cultivars positive correlations between the length and width of the leaf – on the one side, and weight of the date – on the other, and between the width of leaf and width of the date were found.

Economics analysis of rice marketing in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

J. Zalkuwi*

Department of Agricultural Economics and extension, Faculty of Agricultural sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 25 September 2019; accepted for publication 8 November 2019)

Abstract. The purpose of the study was to make an economic analysis of rice marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Rice marketing system, constraints associated with cost and return of rice marketing and problem of rice marketing were examined. A total of 60 respondents were selected using multi-stage random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was designed in line with the objective of the study and administered by means of interview scheduled in generating the data analyzed. Both descriptive (frequency, tables and percentages) and inferential statistics (profitability analysis, total cost and return) were employed to the analyzed the data. The result of the analysis showed that the major form of processed rice that is marketed in the area is regular milled white rice. The gross margin obtained was N235690.00 (US$656.55) showing that the marketing of rice is profitable. From the study, the profitability ratio shows that it is viable with every N1.00 invested in rice marketing giving a return of N2. The major constraints associated with rice marketing include high cost of transportation and inadequate processing facilities. The study suggests an improvement of the road network system and provision of agricultural credit to enable rice traders expand the volume of their operations. It was also recommended that agricultural training workshop in rice marketing should be used from time to time to educate producers and marketers on storage and distribution processes.

Effect of different storage materials on the seed temperature, seed moisture content and germination of wheat under farmer’s field condition of Kailali district, Nepal

N. Khatri1*, D. Pokhrel1, B.P. Pandey1, K.R. Pant1, M. Bista2

1National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal 2Regional Agriculture Research Station, Lumle, Kaski, Nepal

(Manuscript received 19 July 2019; accepted for publication 30 October 2019)

Abstract. A study was conducted at four Village Development Committees (Masuriya, Udashipur, Basauti and Pahalmanpur) of Kailali dis- trict, Far western Region, Nepal in 2016/17 to find out the effect of different storage materials on the seed moisture content and germination percentage of wheat. Seeds of wheat were packed using five storage materials (metal seed bin, earthen pot, purdue improved crop storage / Pics/ bag, gunny bag and super grain bag). The stored seed samples were drawn at three-month intervals starting from May 2016 to January 2017. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications. The results of analysis of variance revealed that the effect of storage materials was significant (P≤0.05) on seed moisture content and seed germination of wheat. After nine months of storage, the seeds stored in Pics bag recorded the lowest moisture (13.3%) and temperature (26.4°C), and the highest germination percentage (91.75%). The lowest quality performance (high moisture and temperature, low germination) of stored seeds was observed in an earthen pot. From the results obtained, it was concluded that wheat seed could be stored for a long time in Pics bag without deteriorating its quality parameters.


Gender analysis of educational inequality among rural children of school-age in Kwara State, Nigeria

R.O. Babatunde, A.E. Omoniwa, M.N. Ukemenam


Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 3 June 2019; accepted for publication 25 July 2019)


Abstract. Educational inequality has been accepted widely as an indicator of wellbeing. However, in most developing countries, very little attention has been paid to it. This article examined the gender differences in educational inequality among rural children of school-age in Kwara state, Nigeria. Using a three-stage random sampling technique, 200 rural households were sampled for data collection. Analytical tools used are descriptive statistics, the Gini-coefficient and the Ordinary Least Square regression analysis. The result of the analysis showed educational inequality for boys and girls was 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. Educational inequality among children of school-age was significantly determined by the age of household heads, education status of the household heads, marital status, main occupation of the household head, household size, dependency ratio, farm size, cost of schooling, average time spent by children in farm work and asset-base of the households. It was therefore recommended that strategies that will promote mothers’ education be put in place as well as the provision of accessible credit schemes. This can help in the hiring of labour for farm and non-farm businesses thereby increasing production, while providing the household with more funds to enroll their children in schools.