Economics analysis of rice marketing in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

J. Zalkuwi*

Department of Agricultural Economics and extension, Faculty of Agricultural sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 25 September 2019; accepted for publication 8 November 2019)

Abstract. The purpose of the study was to make an economic analysis of rice marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Rice marketing system, constraints associated with cost and return of rice marketing and problem of rice marketing were examined. A total of 60 respondents were selected using multi-stage random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was designed in line with the objective of the study and administered by means of interview scheduled in generating the data analyzed. Both descriptive (frequency, tables and percentages) and inferential statistics (profitability analysis, total cost and return) were employed to the analyzed the data. The result of the analysis showed that the major form of processed rice that is marketed in the area is regular milled white rice. The gross margin obtained was N235690.00 (US$656.55) showing that the marketing of rice is profitable. From the study, the profitability ratio shows that it is viable with every N1.00 invested in rice marketing giving a return of N2. The major constraints associated with rice marketing include high cost of transportation and inadequate processing facilities. The study suggests an improvement of the road network system and provision of agricultural credit to enable rice traders expand the volume of their operations. It was also recommended that agricultural training workshop in rice marketing should be used from time to time to educate producers and marketers on storage and distribution processes.

Effect of different storage materials on the seed temperature, seed moisture content and germination of wheat under farmer’s field condition of Kailali district, Nepal

N. Khatri1*, D. Pokhrel1, B.P. Pandey1, K.R. Pant1, M. Bista2

1National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal 2Regional Agriculture Research Station, Lumle, Kaski, Nepal

(Manuscript received 19 July 2019; accepted for publication 30 October 2019)

Abstract. A study was conducted at four Village Development Committees (Masuriya, Udashipur, Basauti and Pahalmanpur) of Kailali dis- trict, Far western Region, Nepal in 2016/17 to find out the effect of different storage materials on the seed moisture content and germination percentage of wheat. Seeds of wheat were packed using five storage materials (metal seed bin, earthen pot, purdue improved crop storage / Pics/ bag, gunny bag and super grain bag). The stored seed samples were drawn at three-month intervals starting from May 2016 to January 2017. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications. The results of analysis of variance revealed that the effect of storage materials was significant (P≤0.05) on seed moisture content and seed germination of wheat. After nine months of storage, the seeds stored in Pics bag recorded the lowest moisture (13.3%) and temperature (26.4°C), and the highest germination percentage (91.75%). The lowest quality performance (high moisture and temperature, low germination) of stored seeds was observed in an earthen pot. From the results obtained, it was concluded that wheat seed could be stored for a long time in Pics bag without deteriorating its quality parameters.


Gender analysis of educational inequality among rural children of school-age in Kwara State, Nigeria

R.O. Babatunde, A.E. Omoniwa, M.N. Ukemenam


Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 3 June 2019; accepted for publication 25 July 2019)


Abstract. Educational inequality has been accepted widely as an indicator of wellbeing. However, in most developing countries, very little attention has been paid to it. This article examined the gender differences in educational inequality among rural children of school-age in Kwara state, Nigeria. Using a three-stage random sampling technique, 200 rural households were sampled for data collection. Analytical tools used are descriptive statistics, the Gini-coefficient and the Ordinary Least Square regression analysis. The result of the analysis showed educational inequality for boys and girls was 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. Educational inequality among children of school-age was significantly determined by the age of household heads, education status of the household heads, marital status, main occupation of the household head, household size, dependency ratio, farm size, cost of schooling, average time spent by children in farm work and asset-base of the households. It was therefore recommended that strategies that will promote mothers’ education be put in place as well as the provision of accessible credit schemes. This can help in the hiring of labour for farm and non-farm businesses thereby increasing production, while providing the household with more funds to enroll their children in schools.

Survival of the fittest: the choice between local and imported rice consumption in Delta central agricultural zone, Delta state, Nigeria

T.M. Gbigbi


Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Delta State University Asaba Campus, PMB 95074, Asaba, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 4 April 2018; accepted for publication 5 June 2019)


Abstract. This study analyzes the determinants of rice consumption preference for local or imported type in Delta State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to identify the socio-economic characteristics of rice consumers, ascertain the forms rice is prepared and consumed by respondents, examine the factors influencing rice consumption preference, and identify reasons for household’s preference for local or imported rice consumption in the study area. Primary data were collected from households using a structured questionnaire. The multistage procedure was used to select 200 respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regressions. The result revealed that 69% of female were more involved in rice consumption preference than their male counterparts. The mean age was 42 years and the respondents can read and write. About 56.4% were married and the average household size was seven persons. The average monthly income of respondents was N 22372.50 (62.84 USD). The results also show that 44% of households preferred their rice being consumed as white rice and stew. The major reasons for the choice in rice type were because of its availability, cleanliness, taste and swelling capacity. The factors that influence rice consumption pattern were gender, age, price per kg of rice, household size, educational level and income level. It is recommended that the farmers should be encouraged to process their grains in a manner that they will be clean.

Food safety knowledge among farming households in Irepodun local government area, Kwara State, Nigeria

A.O. Awoyemi, M.N. Ajiboy, G.B. Adesiji, A.O. Kayode

Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, P.M.B. 1515, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 21 November 2018; accepted for publication 22 April 2019)

Abstract. The study assessed the food safety knowledge and practices among farming households in Irepodun Local Government Area (LGA) of Kwara State, Nigeria. Irepodun LGA was purposively selected due to the large population of farmers in the area. Two-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select one hundred and four (104) respondents from five villages, namely: Elerinjare, Batanyin, Igbo-owu, Omode and Idofian. Primary data were used for the study and the data were collected by means of an interview schedule. Descriptive statistical tools such as precision counts, frequencies and percentages were used in analyzing the data while Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) analysis was used to test the hypothesis. The findings revealed that the mean income was 156375.50 NGN (441.74 USD) per annum, majority of the farming households have low knowledge towards food safety practices. Constraints to food safety practices include: lack of knowledge, inadequate training and awareness and inadequate finance. PPMC analysis showed that income and educational level was significantly related to the food safety practices among farmers across the selected farming households P≤0.05. Based on the findings, training and effective monitoring by relevant stakeholders, adequate provision of modern technology, sensitization and enlightenment campaigns will further boost farming household’s knowledge and attitudinal changes towards food safety and ultimately safe food for the people.

Households’ consumption willingness for locally processed rice in Kogi State, Nigeria

A.O. Ojo, O.M. Animoku, M.A. Ojo

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 1 November 2018; accepted for publication 4 March 2019)

Abstract. Importation of rice in Nigeria discourages local production and hinders the realization of the self-sufficiency goal of the Nigerian Government. With improvement in processing technology and information on its health benefits, consumers of rice are gradually shifting ground for locally produced rice. Hence, this paper explores the priority of local rice in household food expenditure in Kogi State, Nigeria. Simple randomized sampling technique was used to select a sample of 120 respondents. Primary data were sourced from civil servants within the locality. Statistical tools involved descriptive statistics and regression models for the assessment of the households’ attitude, their monthly expenditure, determinants of consumption preference and demand for local rice. The findings revealed that the majority of the households preferred local rice due to the good health benefits and palatability, among others. About 58.3% of the households spent ₦20000 – ₦40000 (1 NGN = 0.0028 USD) on food while 72.2% spent about ₦5000 on local rice monthly. Household income, household size, age, taste, expenditure on food and non-food were the main factors that affected preference for local rice. The study also indicated that local rice in the study area was price elastic and income inelastic. Increased awareness of the nutritional benefits of local rice and its quality improvement has increased the consumers’ preference for local rice in the area.


Boar taint and meat quality characteristics of entire male and castrated male pigs


I.G. Penchev

Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 22 February 2019; accepted for publication 25 April 2019)


Abstract. The aim of the present research was to study the chemical composition, technological traits and intensity of boar taint of meat in entire male (EM) and surgically castrated male (CM) pigs. The study included 46 male pigs, cross F1 (Landrace x Danube White), fattened to average live weight 90 kg. In terms of chemical composition, the higher water and lipid content of the meat of entire male pigs, compared to the meat of surgically castrated male pigs was not statistically significant. A significant difference in the meat’s technological traits – pH values, water-holding capacity, cooking losses and tenderness between the two groups of male animals ware not found. The influence of the factor “castration” was reported in trait marbling of meat (p<0.001). There were statistically significant differences in the values of L*, b* and Hue angle, defining the color characteristics of the meat.

Heavy metals analysis in some freshwater and marine fish species from markets of Lahore, Pakistan

M.A. Hadyait1, A. Ali1, S. Salim1, M. Shahzadi2, E.M. Bhatti1, U. Pasha1

1Fish Quality Control Labs, Fisheries Research and Training Institute, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of Chemistry, Government Postgraduate, Islamia College for Women Cooper Road, Lahore, Pakistan

(Manuscript received 28 November 2018; accepted for publication 19 March 2019)

Abstract. Muscle portion of 72 fish samples of eight selected species, four from marine (Pampus Chinensis, Otolithes ruber, Trachipteridae and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and four from fresh water (Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Rita rita and Walago atu) fishes were collected from three superstores in Lahore, Pakistan. The prepared fish samples were analyzed for determination of Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) concentrations by using the inductively coupled plasma (PerkinElmer, Model: Optima 7000DV ICP-OES). It was found that Cd (0.294±0.001 mg/kg) concentration was the highest in Labeo rohita collected from Metro Superstore while the lowest level (0.023±0.000 mg/kg) was in the Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the same superstore. Species wise concentration of Cd varies significantly. Concentration of Cr (0.172±0.001mg/kg) was the highest in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha collected from Main Fish Market of Lahore while the lowest level (0.002±0.001mg/kg) was in Labeo rohita collected from Hyperstar superstore. Concentration of Pb (0.057±0.000mg/kg) was the highest in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha collected from Metro Superstore while the lowest (0.012±0.001mg/kg) in Otolithes ruber of the same superstore. Species wise concentration of Pb varies non-significantly. Origin wise t-test shows that: a) Cd concentrations vary significantly, while Cr and Pb concentrations vary non-significantly when marine and fresh water species were compared. b) The range of Pb (0.011-0.057 mg/kg) and Cr (0.002-0.172 mg/kg) was within limits and of Cd (0.023-0.297 mg/kg) was higher than the WHO international standards (0.123 mg/kg for Pb, 0.050 mg/kg for Cd and 0.1 mg/kg for Cr) in most of the fish species of main Fish Market Lahore, Hyperstar and Metro store.

Food security status of female-headed households in Mubi North Local Government area, Adamawa State, Nigeria

A.J. Madugu

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 5 June 2018; accepted for publication 22 December 2018)

Abstract. This study investigated the food security status of female-headed households (FHHs) in Mubi north local government area (LGA) of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, the socio economic characteristics and determinants of household food security status of respondents were tested. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 female headed households using simple random sampling technique from five districts of Mubi north LGA. Analytical tools used were the food security index (FSI) and Binary Logit Regression Analysis. The results showed that majority (57.9%) of the respondents were middle aged, having 1-5 persons in their household and cultivating about 1-3 hectares of land. It further showed that most of the respondents (63.8%) were food insecure. The result further showed that age, household size, educational status, and access to input were significant and therefore regarded as the major determinants of food security in the study area. It also showed that extension service was not significant and thus not a determinant of food security among the respondents. The study concluded that female headed households in the study area were food insecure; it was thus recommended that NGOs, CSOs and other actors should focus more on agricultural activities by providing inputs so as to improve food production and household food security index, furthermore, the result showed that extension service did not influence food security status of respondents, thus, private extension service providers should be established to assist the government in the provision of intensive extension contact/services, this can help to improve food production and subsequent food security status of respondents.

Effects of storage duration and bulb sizes on physiological losses of Agrifound light red onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.)

M.S. Abubakar1*, J.N. Maduako2, M. Ahmed3

1Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutse, P.M.B 7156 Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria
2Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
3Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, P.M.B 25 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 9 July 2018; accepted for publication 8 January 2019)

Abstract. The effect of storage duration and bulb sizes on physiological losses of the Agrifound light red onion bulbs stored in an Improved Naturally Ventilated Storage Structure-INVSS (constructed using locally available materials like; sand, cement, wood, corn stalks, wire mesh and grasses) under room condition was studied in 2012. Dry and wet bulb thermometers were installed to measure ambient temperature and relative humidity. Wind velocity was measurement by hand held Anemometer. The onion bulb samples were sorted and graded into three standard size categories (small: <50mm; medium: 50-70mm and jumbo: >70mm in diameter) and kept in the INVSS at the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Research Farm of Modibbo Adama University of Technology (MAUTECH), Yola. The samples were monitored and data taken on a daily basis for a period of twenty (20) weeks. The data were analyzed with ANOVA in CRD and the means were separated using LSD at p<0.05. The results indicated that storage duration had significant effects (p≤0.05) on weight, rot and sprout losses. Jumbo size onion bulbs had the highest Storage Weight Loss (SWL) by a mean of 5.1%, followed by medium and small size onion bulbs with means of 4.8% and 4.2%, respectively. Storage Sprout Losses (SSL) studied in the three of onion bulb sizes showed higher SSL among the small size Agrifound light red variety than the medium size onion bulbs with respective mean values of 5.0% and 3.8%, while the least value of SSL (2.6%) was observed in Jumbo size onion bulbs. Similar comparison was also made in terms of Storage Rot Losses (SRL) and it showed that relatively higher SRL among the Jumbo size onions (3.3%), followed by medium sizes (3.1%) while the least was observed from the small sizes (2.3%). The findings recommend that the INVSS should be used to store Jumbo and small size onion bulbs for at least 5 months to achieve minimum storage losses. Though, it is not cost effective to store medium size onion bulbs in the INVSS for more than 4 months.