Influence of enzymes with different activity on dynamics of buffalo milk coagulation parameters

Y. Karacheviev1⃰, V. Galabov1, Т. Аngelova2, D. Yordanova2, V. Karabashev2

1Department of Automation of Continuous Manufacturing, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
2Agricultural institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 June 2020; accepted for publication 2 September 2020)

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 5 species of chymosin with different concentrations on the dynamics of the traits measured by mechanical lactodynamograph, characterizing the coagulation ability of buffalo milk. The coagulation properties of buffalo milk were evaluated on 420 milk samples taken during morning milking from whole milk. Five enzymes (MAXIREN 600, FROMASE 750, MAHIREN XDS, MAXIREN 180 and MAXIREN PREM P) were tested with 4 concentrations each and one control group with a standard, recommended by the manufacturer of the biosensor – mechanical lactodynamometer chymosin (Polo Trade – Computerized Renneting Meter, Italy). The effect of the concentration of each enzyme was determined by examining 20 milk samples. The use of enzymes at various concentrations resulted in substantial variation in the magnitude and direction of changes. Different chymosins with different concentrations actively affect the curd firmness. The shorter coagulation time will provide sufficient time for the curd firming time and its curd firmness. Over 50% of milk samples coagulate by 6 minutes. The effects of enzymes and their different concentrations on measurement were in different groups, which in our opinion was a good prerequisite for using the obtained data for modelling of the measurement process.

Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of goat milk from animals grown in a mountainous area in Bulgaria

D. Pamukova1, N. Rusenova2, T. Kolev3, S. Chobanova4, N. Naydenova1*

1Department of Animal husbandry – Ruminants and Dairy farming, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6015 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6015 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
3Agricultural Academy, Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
4Department of Morphology, Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6015 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 June 2020; accepted for publication 4 August 2020)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the goat milk quality from animals grown in a mountainous area in Bulgaria based on physicochemical and microbiological parameters. The study was carried out in a farm that breeds local goats and goats of the Bulgarian White Dairy Goat (BWD). Individual milk samples were taken on a monthly basis from morning milking. A total of 100 individual and 10 bulk milk samples were examined for fat, solids non fat, protein and density. A total of 62 samples were collected at a time to determine the microbiological characteristics of milk. For the period May-September 2017, the percentage of fat in the milk of local goats averaged 3.61% and of goats from BWD goat – 3.54%. The solids non fat were 8.27% and 8.19%, total protein – 3.13% and 3.10%, and the dry matter – 11.89% and 11.74%, respectively. For the period May-August 2017 the individual constituents of milk changed to varying degrees with the most variable being milk fat (decrease of 0.97% in local goats’ milk and 1.09% in milk from BWD goat) followed by solids non fat (0.56% and 0.7%, respectively). The slightest change was in protein – 0.21% and 0.26%, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacterial species in the goats’ milk samples.

Study on the biology of groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus Olivier [Coleoptera: Bruchidae] on stored groundnut in Ganye area, Adamawa State, Nigeria

C.S. Oaya*

Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, P.M.B. 25, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 4 May 2020; accepted for publication 27 July 2020)

Abstract. Study on the biology of groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus Olivier was carried out in the Laboratory of the Department of Agricultural Technology, Adamawa State College of Agriculture, Ganye, Adamawa State from June to September, 2015. The sex of the bruchid (male and female) was assigned the sub-treatment while the period of development was the main treatment and was replicated three times. The work considered the pre-oviposition stage, incubation stage, larval stage, pupal stage, adult stage and the total life cycle of the bruchid (male and female). The experiment was carried out under Laboratory conditions at 30-35°C temperature and 70-90% relative humidity. After the experiment was established, weekly counting of the total number of eggs laid was carried out at intervals. The results showed that, the mean developmental stages in both female and male bruchids were: 6.50 and 6.00 days; 17.00 and 18.00 days; 13.50 and 13.50 days; 12.00 and 13.50 days; 48.00 and 50.00 days for incubation stage, larval stage, pupal stage, adult stage and total life cycle of the bruchids, respectively. Moreover, the mean pre-oviposition and oviposition stages in female adult bruchid were 1.50 and 5.50 days, respectively.

Some physical properties of lentil seeds affected by harvest time

S. Gürsoy*

Department of Agricultural Machinery and Technologies Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Dicle University, 21280-Diyarbakır, Turkey

(Manuscript received 29 April 2020; accepted for publication 10 July 2020)

Abstract: The physical properties and the hardness of lentil seeds, which can also be affected by harvest times, are very important variables in the designing and adjustment of machineries used during harvest, handling and other processes. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of different harvest times on some physical and mechanical properties of lentil seeds. A field experiment was conducted at six harvest times including the harvesting at physiological maturity (H1) and 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after physiological maturity (H2, H3, H4, H5 and H6, respectively). The variables determined were moisture content, diameter, thickness, sphericity, seed mass, bulk density, true density, porosity and hardness of lentil seeds. It was found that seed moisture content, seed dimensions, seed mass and bulk density decreased with delayed harvest time. However, sphericity, true density, porosity and hardness of lentil seeds increased with increased harvest time.

Membership in association, gender and adoption of land-enhancing technologies among arable farmers in Ogun state, Nigeria

R. Adeyemo*, A.D. Kehinde

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Ogun State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 31 January 2020; accepted for publication 30 April 2020)

Abstract. This study investigated the effect of membership in farmers’ association on adoption rate of land-enhancing technologies in Ogun State, Nigeria by gender. Specifically, it describes the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers by gender, identifies land-enhancing technologies adopted by farmers in the study area, determines the adoption rates of the technologies by gender, and determines the membership in farmers’ association on the adoption and intensity of use of land-enhancing technologies by gender. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents for the study. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the Cragg’s (double-hurdle) model. The results of the descriptive statistics, which are expressed by gender, reveal that the sampled population were majorly comprised of males (58%), than females (42%). The level of association membership was 54% for females and 35.29% for males, and only 33.82% of the respondents had contact with extension agents. The results also show that 17.65% of males and 10% of females did not adopt any technology. The results from the Cragg’s double hurdle model show that extension contact significantly influenced the adoption of most of the technologies. It had a positive relationship with the adoption of all the technologies across both genders, except for organic manure whose adoption was negatively influenced. It is therefore recommended that relevant governments and stakeholders improve extension services, as well as consider farming associations as means of getting across to female famers in order to improve their adoption levels and productivity.

Dynamics of rice sub-sector in Nepal: Research investment, production, and supply chain

Rajendra Pandit1*, Durga Devkota1, Naba R. Devkota1, Prakash C. Bhattarai2, Hari K. Shrestha3

1Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

2School of Education, Kathmandu University, Hattiban, Lalitpur, Nepal

3Food Research Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Lalitpur, Nepal

(Manuscript received 17 April 2020; accepted for publication 5 June 2020)

Abstract. Rice is a major cereal crop that ensures food security and rural income generation in Nepal. The objectives of this study were to analyse the dynamics of the rice sub-sector from the perspective of production, research investment, and supply chain as expected outcomes are not yet achieved in spite of continuity in priority for research and production investment. Accordingly, this study was done by using secondary data covering 2000 to 2018 combined with a case study. For the case study, Morang, the district with the highest rice production was chosen. A random sample of 144 supply chain actors in which 100 rice producers, 10 collectors, 10 wholesalers, 7 millers, and 17 retailers were chosen from the list of the targeted population in each category. Findings revealed that rice production, productivity, and research investment were increasing at the rate of 1.25, 1.65, and 10.57 percent per annum, respectively. There was a strong positive link between research investment and production. Millers were the main value-adding actor. They have been getting the highest profit margin (31.5%) based on investing more (46.51%) in value-added activities. In contrast, farmers received a relatively low-profit margin (13.9%) with a 1.26 benefit-cost ratio. This was mainly due to the low adoption of improved production technology and weak horizontal coordination of rice producers. The percentage of food surplus households has increased, mainly due to the adoption of rice technologies generated by rice research programs, but this has not well reflected in terms of getting more profit margin by the rice-producing farmers. On the other hand, the research investment in rice was not consistent, and even not adequate for the required technology generation. Therefore, an increased investment could enhance the efficiency of generating technology packages, and implementation of effective extension services targeting the rice-growing farmers through increasing total factor productivity is crucial to increase the profit margin of rice producers. Moreover, with strengthened horizontal coordination among the major actors and with the increased investment in value-added activities in each stage of the supply chain based on consumer demand, increased profit margin for making the rice supply chain sustainable.

Influence of variety endosperm type and seed moisture content on threshability and mechanical damage of sorghum seeds

W.M. Muiru1, P.L. Fabiola1, D. Mbuge2, L. M’Ragwa3, S.L. Kimaru1*

1Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
2Department of Environmental and Biosystems Engineering, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
3Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Kenya

(Manuscript received 13 April 2020; accepted for publication 3 June 2020)

Abstract. Sorghum is an important cereal crop and it is native in African tropical areas. It is a globally cultivated crop and the fifth most important cereal after maize, rice, wheat and barley. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of endosperm type, seed moisture content and threshing methods on percentage threshability and mechanical damage of sorghum seeds. Two varieties of sorghum (Kari-mtama 1 and Seredo) were grown in two diverse locations, Kiboko and Katumani. Variety Kari-mtama1 has hard (vitreous) endosperm while the other variety Seredo has soft (non-vitreous) endosperm. After harvesting, sorghum panicles were dried in the sun and oven. The panicles were threshed separately for each drying method at two moisture levels, namely 18-20% and 13-14%. The three threshing methods used included beating with wooden stick in tied sack, using wooden mortar and pestle as well as using threshing machine. The results showed that the vitreous endosperm variety had significantly high percentage threshability and significantly low mechanical damage than non-vitreous endosperm variety under both drying methods. There was a significant (p≤0.05) increase in threshability and decrease in mechanical damage when the seeds were threshed at 13-14% moisture content compared to 18-20%. For better seed quality, threshing machine is the best method to be used to avoid mechanical damage and seed quality deterioration. Drying methods used to dry seed panicles before threshing had no effects on threshability and mechanical damage. This implies that sorghum panicles can be dried either in the sun or oven without affecting threshability and mechanical damage at the two moisture levels and by using the three threshing methods.

Challenges of smallholder farmers in accessing agricultural information in Southern Ethiopia

G.R. Megerssa1*, B.G. Gemede2, A.W. Jarsa2

1Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Jimma University, Ethiopia 2Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

(Manuscript received 1 September 2019; accepted for publication 27 December 2019)

Abstract: The study was focused on identifying sources of agricultural information and analyzing challenges faced by smallholder farmers in accessing agricultural information in Southern Ethiopia. To achieve the stated objectives the study district was selected purposively from Wolaita zone by selecting five kebeles randomly. At the end, a total of 150 sample households were randomly selected from these five kebeles. To collect the data both primary and secondary sources were used for the purpose of this study. Primary data were collected directly from sample respondents through structured and semi-structured interview schedules, observation and focus group discussions. Secondary data were collected from Woreda agriculture and rural development office report, and other relevant books, journal articles and the Internet. After the relevant data were collected, the descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency, and percentage, and the inferential statistics such as chi-square tests were also used. The findings indicate that female farmers, illiteracy, location of market center, information seeking behavior of farmers, low rate of extension-farmers linkages, inadequate operational skill of aids, language barriers, lack of training, lack of rural electrification, lack of development agents, absence of rural networks, inadequate reading materials, and inappropriate time of broadcasting are the main challenges smallholder farmers were faced with. Therefore, to overcome the challenges strong commitment and reformation should be done in the study area by the concerned stakeholders.

Еffect of insect infestation on the economic value of smoked fish sold in selected markets in Nigeria

A.A. Ayeloja1*, F.O.A. George2, W.A. Jimoh1, G.L. Adebisi3

1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515 Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
2Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB),
PO Box 2240 Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
3Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology Moor Plantation, PMB 5029 Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 11 September 2019; accepted for publication 17 January 2020)

Abstract. In the present study a multistage sampling technique using semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio- economic characteristics of the respondents and on economic loss of smoked fish resulting from insect pest infestation. Smoked fishes were bought from 10 markets in Oyo state, South West of Nigeria and checked in the laboratory for the insect pests. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square. Results indicated that insects at their larvae stage cause more economic loss to smoked fish than adult insects while Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes spp. are the insects found to infest the smoked fishes in this study. The insect infestation of the smoked fish leads to huge economic loss. Of all respondent groups the women dominate smoked fish business.

Interrelationships between some vegetative components and fruit quality of Algerian date palm

A. Rekis1,2,3*, Z. Laiadi3

1Department of Agricultural Sciences, Mohamed Khider University, P.O. Box 145, Biskra-07000, Algeria 2Scientific and Technical Research Center on Arid Regions (CRSTRA), University Campus Mohamed Khider, BP 1682 R.P., Biskra-07000, Algeria
3Laboratory of Genetics, Biotechnology and Valorization of Bio-resources, University Mohamed Khider,
P.O. Box 145, Biskra-07000, Algeria

(Manuscript received 28 November 2019; accepted for publication 16 January 2020)

Abstract. The date palm is a monocotyledon thermophilic desert plant, in Algeria grown more than 18 million trees. To have a better quality of dates for the most answered cultivars in Algeria, we can act with fertilization on the palm and these components of the leaflets and spines that affect dates quality. The three cultivars of date palms (Deglet nour-C1, Ghars-C2 and Mechdegla-C3) have been studied to estimate the relationship between leaflet and spine number and date quality. Five phenotypic traits were exploited and subjected to analysis of the principal components in ascending hierarchical classification. The results revealed that the cultivar Deglet nour scored the highest value for the parameters spine number (25) and weight of the date (8.63g), the cultivar Ghars also recorded the highest value for the parameters: number of leaflets (80) and length (4.35cm) and thickness (2.25cm) of the date. In all studied cultivars positive correlations between the length and width of the leaf – on the one side, and weight of the date – on the other, and between the width of leaf and width of the date were found.