Analysis of cost and return in cowpea production: A case study Mubi south local government area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

T. Joshua, J. Zalkuwi, M.M. Audu

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 27 September 2018; accepted for publication 10 April 2019)

Abstract. This study was designed to analyze the profitability of cowpea production in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa state. The primary data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used for the selection of a study area. Descriptive statistics and inferential techniques were used as analytical tools. The result shows that most of the cowpea producers (64%) were aged between 20-49 years with males dominating the business and the majority of the respondents (57%) were married. Household size was relatively large, 78% had some form of formal education and a greater proportion of the respondents (86%) did not belong to any farmer’s association. Most of the respondents (61%) are full-time farmers, while about 92 % of cowpea farmers had between 6 – >15 years of experience in cowpea production. Most of the farmers (78%) had one form of formal education. The computed gross margin and net farm income were N289128.2/ha (=816.5USD) and N286976.3/ha (=810.4USD), respectively, for cowpea production, which indicated that cowpea production was profitable in the area. It is recommended that, there is need for government support in terms of revitalization and priority finding extension delivery activities and agricultural development programs (ADP) in the study and area, access to subsidized farm input (such as pesticide, fertilizer and herbicide) and making credit facilities accessible and affordable to enable farmers boost their production.

Investment on wheat research and its effect: A case of Nepal

K.P. Timsina1, S. Gairhe2, P. Koirala3, J. Shrestha4

1Socioeconomics and Agricultural Policy Research Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Singhdurbar Plaza, Kathmandu, Nepal
3Institute for Integrated Development Studies, Kathmandu, Nepal
4Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Commercial Agriculture Research Program, Pakhribas, Dhankuta, Nepal

(Manuscript received 5 October 2018; accepted for publication 28 February 2019)

Abstract. Although the agriculture sector markedly contributes to the Nepalese economy, very little is known about the government’s investments in agricultural research activities and how these investments have impacted the sector. In this study, we picked a case of wheat crop as it is the third largest crop of Nepal in terms of total annual production. We took government’s annual wheat research investments of Nepal from Fiscal year 2005 to 2016 to analyze the effects of investment on wheat research based on the availability of data. We used compound growth rate, averages, trend line, and bar diagram to present the data and interpret the results. Results revealed that the share of operational budget was lower than supposed to be allocated for the development of wheat research. The pace of increment of wheat production and productivity were observed due to improved wheat investment and technologies. Result shows the negligible spillover effect from neighboring countries in wheat production. Even though the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) has fulfilled source seed target by producing a surplus, private sectors should involve proactively in coordination with NARC to meet the projected demand of wheat seed in national seed vision. The huge gap was observed between yield potential and average national productivity. To achieve greater impact of wheat research in Nepal, it is necessary to bridge the gap by awareness program, making the availability of improved seed with an improved package of practices.

An automatic irrigation system for water optimization in the Algerian agricultural sector

O. Bouketir

Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Setif 1, 19000, Algeria

(Manuscript received 12 February 2019; accepted for publication 5 April 2019)

Abstract. Algeria is a vast country with three climatic types and different water resources. These resources are limited especially in the climatic zone two where most staple crops (e.g. wheat) are cultivated. To manage these water resources efficiently, traditional irrigation systems should be replaced by those based on advanced technological techniques. This paper introduces an irrigation system prototype constructed at the department of Electrical Engineering, University of Setif in Algeria. This prototype allows the control of the amount of water dispensed to the plant according to its soil moisture. The circuit was built around an Arduino microcontroller. A program was developed and burned into the microcontroller which was able to sense the amount of the moisture in the plant soil through a moisture sensor. According to this moisture quantity, the microcontroller is to take decision to on or off a small pump for an optimum time and flow speed. The pump was driven by a direct current motor which was controlled by a pulse width modulation dc chopper. The system is enhanced by a liquid crystal display to inform the operator about the moisture percentage, status of the pump and its speed.

А grain harvester performance according to unloading time and modes

G. Tihanov

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 November 2018; accepted for publication 18 February 2019)

Abstract. The paper presents an analysis of the two ways of unloading the harvester grain hopper – unloading at standstill and unloading on the move. A passive experiment has been carried out during wheat harvest by measuring the loading time of a full harvester hopper into the transport vehicle. During its time measurement it has been found that for 237.4s the harvester is stopped and does not reap and does not perform actual output. The actual grain harvester output when unloading at standstill has been determined 17.15t/h (25.22 da/h) and the actually possible output if the harvester runs the same performance and unloads on the move it will reach an output of 20.91t/h (30.74 da/h), i.e. its output will increase by 19%. It has been found out that crop harvesting times can be shortened if the method unloading on the move is used, by about one day in harvesting the crop, respectively.

Effect of off-farm work on agricultural productivity: empirical evidence from northern Ghana

B.T. Anang

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana

(Manuscript received 8 November 2018; accepted for publication 4 February 2019)

Abstract. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of income diversification to agrarian households in developing countries. Empirical evidence of the effect of farm household income diversification on agricultural productivity remains scanty and inconclusive. An important policy question concerns the effect that farmer participation in off-farm work has on agricultural productivity. This paper answers that question by examining the factors that explain the decision of farm household heads to work off-farm and how this impacts farm productivity using a sample of 300 rice producing households in northern Ghana. Endogenous switching regression model supported by a treatment effect model was used to empirically assess the effect of off-farm work on agricultural productivity. Results show that engagement in off-farm work has a robust and positive impact on rice productivity. Farmers’ choice to work outside the farm thus contributed significantly to rice productivity of smallholders, confirming the role of income diversification in contributing to agricultural productivity of agrarian households.

Effect of improved seed technology adoption on small-scale sorghum farmers’ productivity in Kebbi State, Nigeria

M.A. Ojo1*, D.B. Saleh2, A.A.A. Coker1, A.O. Ojo1

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65 Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
2Government Science and Technical College, P.M.B. 1013 Zuru, Kebbi State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 27 September 2018; accepted for publication 20 December 2019)

Abstract. The study examined the effect of improved seed technology adoption on small-scale sorghum farmers’ productivity in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed in determining the sample size from the sample frame, 240 respondents were sampled using proportionate sampling technique. Data for the study were collected using structured questionnaire containing open and closed ended questions. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that the sorghum farmers adopted Samsorg-5, Samsorg-14 and Samsorg-17 improved seeds with Samsorg-5 accounting for 64.6% level of adoption, thus ranking first. The multinomial logit regression model showed that the probability of adopting one or two improved sorghum varieties increased with the farmers’ educational level, sex, farm size and labour usage in the study area. The results further revealed that the average cost of Samsorg seeds was negative and statistically significant at one percent probability level across the groups which implies that the probability of adopting any of the improved sorghum varieties reduced with its cost. The results also indicated that Samsorg-5, Samsorg-14 and Samsorg-17 improved seeds positively affected farmer’s production and productivity at 5% levels of probability. This indicated that a percentage increased in the use of these improved seeds led to an increase in the production and productivity of sorghum farmers in the study area. Also, the influence of farm size and fertilizer on output and productivity were positive and statistically significant at 1% levels of probability. The results further revealed that, the topmost constraints faced were inadequate extension services and low level of formal education at 92.1% and 56.7% ranking 1st and 2nd, respectively. Therefore, the study recommended an action-oriented plan to reach the small scale farmers with adequate information on agricultural practices to promote adoption of improved seeds in order to increase their level of productivity. Agricultural policies should be directed at making inputs available at subsidized rate, on time and at the required level. Credit facilities should be made accessible at single digit interest rate to enable them efficiently utilize inputs in order to increase their productivity level.

Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides.

Gr. Delchev*, S. Angelova

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 July 2018; accepted for publication 1 February 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate the productivity and yield stability at durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) treated with antibroadleaved herbicides during 3-rd stem node stage. The experiment was conducted during 2012-2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Victoria (Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were tested: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat. It was found that during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat the antibroadleaved herbicides Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra and Starane can be used. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable yield is obtained after the treatment with herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 3-rd stem node stage technologically the most valuable are herbicides Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. After the treatment with them high grain yield with high stability with relation to different years is obtained. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Weedmaster, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex, Sanafen, Dicotex and Herby cannot be used during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat.

Effectiveness of Oxalis bee and Ecostop for prophylaxis and control of varroosis in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

I. Zhelyazkova*, S. Lazarov
Department of Animal husbandry – Non-ruminants and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 August 2018; accepted for publication 26 October 2018)

Abstract. The objective of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of Ecostop (plates) and Oxalis Bee – plant-based products for the prevention and control of varroosis in bees (Apis mellifera L.).The study was conducted at the end of the 2017 Beekeeping Season of the Beekeeping Experimental Training Center at the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora. Two products were used: Ecostop containing peppermint oil (2 ml/plate) and timol (5 g/plate), and Oxalis Bee – zootechnical feed additive for bees, including plant extracts, organic acids and invert solution from bio-sugar. The dosing of the products is in accordance with the instructions of the producers Primavet-Sofia Ltd., Bulgaria and the company Vechni pcheli Ltd., Bulgaria. The development and extensinvasion of bee colonies at the beginning and the end of the study and the effectiveness of the applied products were determined. It has been established that the development of bee colonies is normal for the end of the beekeeping season. The comparative analysis of the acaricidal effect of the test products against Varroa destructor shows 98.55±0.30% for Ecostop and 78.15±8.76% for Oxalis Bee. The reported difference in efficacy of both preparations is reliable at p≤0.05.

Effects of nitrogen doses on growth and some nutrient element uptake of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) hybrids

G. Ören1*, H. Çelik2

1Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Institute of Natural Sciences, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey 2Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey

(Manuscript received 14 August 2018; accepted for publication 10 October 2018)

Abstract. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is known as one of the most important and preferred vegetable oil producing plants. In recent years, new cultivars with high oleic acid contents have been developed because of their health effects, extended frying and shelf life. On the other hand, nutrition of the plants is important for healthy growth, high yield, and oil quality and their nutrient needs may differ between the plant species and varieties. We aimed to determine the effects of increasing application doses of nitrogen (N) (0, 16, 32, 48, and 64 N) on growth and on some nutrient element uptake of four sunflower hybrids and compare the nutritional differences of linoleic (ESNovamis CL, and LG 5542 CL) and high-oleic (Oliva CL and ESGrafic CL) type sunflower hybrids in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in randomized factorial design with three replicates. Increasing doses of N effected the dry matter and nutrient uptake of sunflower hybrids significantly (p<0.01). Increasing doses of N elevated the dry weight, N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and boron (B) uptake of all tested sunflower hybrids. The increases were found maximum at 32 N dose. Significant differences were also established between the hybrids. Among the tested hybrids, ESGrafic CL a high oleic type sunflower has higher nutrient uptake capacity so much more nutrients might be supplied to this new generation sunflower hybrids according to the soil and plant analysis results.

Influence of foliar feeding of common wheat varieties on the nutritional value of the grain

A. Stoyanova1*, G. Ganchev2, V. Kuneva3

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Morphology, Physiology and Animal nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 3Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 29 June 2018; accepted for publication 3 September 2018)

Abstract. . Two years of polls from the field trials of the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria were used for the purpose of the survey. In the period 2015-2016, two varieties of common wheat (Apolon and Bolonga), treated by leaf liquid fertilizers, imported alone and in combinations were tested under field conditions. Main fertilization with ammonium nitrate was done. The variants of the experiments were as follows: 1) Without fertilization (Control); 2) Ammonium nitrate (N140); 3) Lactifrost – l0.0 L/ha; 4) Lactifros + Lactofol base – 10.0 L/ha + 5.0 L/ha; 5) Lactofol base – 5.0 L/ha; 6) Wuxal Grano – 4.0 L/ha; 7) Wuxal Grano – 4.0 L/ha + 2.0 L/ha. It was found that crude protein content ranged from 136.90 to 144.63g/kg DM in the Apolon variety and from 129.98 to 145.12 g/kg DM in the Bologna variety. An increase in CP content was seen as a result of feeding with Lactifrost and Lactofol base, respectively, by 5.6% and 11.7% relative to the control. Treatment of common wheat with liquid leaf fertilizers, however, does not lead to improvements in energy (metabolizable energy, digestible energy, feed unit for milk, feed unit for growth) and protein digestible in (small) intestine nutrition. In both varieties there were many positive and negative correlations between the investigated parameters: CP, CFAT, CF, DEE, FUM, FUG, PDI, Dep, MEp, DEpg and MEpg; in ruminants the same positive correlations for both varieties are between CP and PDI (p<0.01) and negative – between CP and FUM (p<0.05), and between CFAT and PDI (p<0.05); in nonruminants negative correlations exist between CF and the energy values (DEp, MEp, DEpg and MEpg) only in Apolon variety.