Effect of different tank colours on some productive parameters of European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) fingerlings

V. Krasteva*, A. Zaikov, M. Yankova
Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 20 June 2019; accepted for publication 1 December 2019)

Abstract. The present study investigated the growth performance, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, growth and survival rate of European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) fingerlings reared for one month in tanks with different colours. Four colours were used: light blue, white, green and black. The experimental unit was a flow-through system (0.8 L.min-1) consisting of eight tanks with water volume of 30L, continuous air supply and water heaters. Two hundred fish with an average weight of 1.85±0.62g were stocked in each tank. Results from the study demonstrated that the weight gain and the feed conversion ratio were poorly affected by the tested tank colours. Weight gain is slightly higher in groups A (blue) and B (white) than in groups C (green) and D (black). However, no significant difference was found in terms of weight gain among the experimental groups (p>0.05). Survival rate was the highest in group C (91%) followed by group D (88.5%). Thus, for rearing of European catfish fingerlings it is preferable to use dark coloured tanks, which resemble the natural habitat of the fish.

Evaluation of technological traits of Bulgarian and imported merino wool batches

D. Pamukova*

Department of Animal Science – Ruminants and Dairy Farming, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 August 2019; accepted for publication 22 November 2019)

Аbstract. The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative evaluation of technological traits of industrial batches of Bulgarian and imported semifine wool. The study was carried out in an industrial setting in cooperation with Kolhida Ltd, Sliven. A total of 18 batches originating from Bulgaria (n=10), Serbia (n=6) and the Netherlands (n=2) among which 4 batches of greasy wool, 7 batches of clean wool and 7 batches of wool sliver were studied. The primary processing of wool batches comprising classification, washing and carding was performed by textile enterprise’s standard technology. After the classification, the relative shares of wool types from the total amount of greasy wool in a batch were determined. The washing yield of classified greasy medium wool was calculated. The following laboratory analyses of clean wool were carried out: fibre diameter (μm), mean weighted length (mm), short fibre percentage (%), fatness (%), mineral matter content (dustiness %), vegetable matter content (%) and moisture (%). For slivers, sliver yield (%), fibre diameter (measured with OFDI), mean weighted length (mm), length В (mm), short fibre percentage (%) and moisture (%) were determined. In Bulgarian and Serbian batches, high-grade wool types predominated with highest share of the merino worsted wool (70.54% and 63.70%; 60.66% and 46.64%, respectively). The highest industrial washing yield was that of Dutch wool – 63.89%. Yields of Serbian and Bulgarian batches were similar (53.73%-56.39% and 53.20%-55.89%, respectively). The highest mean weighted length of fibres was determined for Dutch wool – 74.87 mm. Serbian and Bulgarian batches were comparable with respect to this trait: 63.95-65.71 mm and 62.92-65.88 mm respectively. The vegetable matter in studied wool batches was higher than requirements of the standard – from 1.29% tо 2.24% vs the reference of 1.2%. The highest vegetable matter content was found in the wool from two Bulgarian batches (1.65% and 2.24%), one Serbian (1.82%), and the Dutch batch (1.92%). Sliver yield varied from 81.31% tо 86.91% in studied wool slivers. The highest values of this trait were found out in 3 Bulgarian wool slivers (86.91%; 85.79% and 84.48%) and the Dutch sliver (84.13%).

Technology adoption in maize farming: a comparative analysis between improved seed users and local seed users of Argakachi district of Nepal

S. Adhikari, B.R. Dahal*, V. Bist
Agriculture and Forestry University Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
(Manuscript received 10 July 2019; accepted for publication 24 September 2019)

Abstract. Maize is one of the top agricultural commodities that has great share in the Agricultural Government Development Plan of Nepal. Despite being a major crop, productivity of maize is quite lower than global average. In this context, a study was undertaken to determine the extent of technology adoption between improved and local seed users of Arghakhanchi district of Nepal. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered among 120 randomly selected farmers during the month of January 2018. The extent of technology adoption was measured on sowing time, seed replacement, variety change, seed rate, application of fertilizer, weeding and plant protection. The empirical evidence suggested that, extent of technology adoption and benefit cost ratio were magnificently higher for improved seed users than local seed users. So, there is still a gigantic scope to improve maize productivity in the area by adoption of recommended technology of maize farming. The probability of adoption of recommended technology (improved seed) for maize farming was found to be higher for those with access to extensive service. Overall, our study pointed out that extension facility is a key strategy to make famers aware of the new technologies and a crucial factor to increase the chance of adoption.

Effect of harvest time of paddy on milled rice yield and broken kernels

V. Ilieva1, N. Markova Ruzdik1*, D. Vulcheva2, Lj. Mihajlov1, M. Ilievski1

1Department for Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, “Goce Delchev” University, “Krste Misirkov” bb, 2000 Stip, Republic of North Macedonia
2Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 15 August 2019; accepted for publication 28 October 2019)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal harvest time to achieve maximum milled rice yield and quality of white rice in some newly introduced Italian rice varieties grown under agro-ecological conditions in the region of Kocani town, Republic of North Macedonia. During the 2014 and 2015, fourteen rice varieties were cultivated to estimate the milled rice yield and broken kernels from three different harvest times. From each rice variety, samples with moisture content between 20-22% (I variant), 18-20% (II variant) and 16-18% (III variant) were taken. From the third harvest variant the highest percentage of milled rice yield (65.23%) was obtained but also the highest rate of broken kernels (12.79%). From the remaining two harvests, almost identical milled rice yields were received (64.19% from the first variant and 64.33% from the second variant), but in terms of broken kernels, there were significant differences. The optimum moisture content during the harvest in order to obtain maximum yield and quality of milled rice ranged from 18% to 20%. The varieties Arsenal, Sprint and Mirko had the most favorable values for milled rice yield and broken kernels.

Induction and recovery from anaesthesia in fry of European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) exposed to clove oil

V. Krasteva*, A. Zaikov
Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 20 June 2019; accepted for publication 11 August 2019)

Abstract. The purpose of the study is to establish the efficacy of different concentrations of clove oil and the time needed for induction and recovery from anesthesia of European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) fry. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions with 50 specimens with body weight 1.11±0.25g and body length 5.45±0.60cm. For the aim of this paper the following five concentrations of clove oil are used: 0.01 ml.l-1, 0.02 ml.l-1, 0.03 ml.l-1, 0.04 ml.l-1 and 0.05 ml.l-1. At the lowest concentration (0.01ml.l-1) the effect is sedative and the fry do not reach the phase of complete immobilization. The application of 0.02 ml.l-1 concentration of clove oil is not beneficial for practical usage, with only 30% of the fish reaching phase 4 of anesthesia. At the highest concentrations (0.04 ml.l-1 and 0.05 ml.l-1) all of the fry were anesthetized for a short time, but the process of recovery was not successful for all of the fry. All of the fry reach phase of anesthesia and recovery without loses at 0.03 ml.l-1. This concentration is advisable for anesthesia of European catfish fry during different manipulations.

Analysis of cowpea price forecasting in Adamawa state, Nigeria

  1. Joshua, J. Zalkuwi


Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 March 2019; accepted for publication 5 June 2019)


Abstract. The study was conducted to analyze cowpea price forecasting in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The sources of data for the study were secondary data which were collected from State Planning Commission of Adamawa State for a period of 5 years (2013-2017). Purposive sampling techniques were used for selection of the study area. Dicky Fuller Test and Simple Exponential Smoothing Model were used as analytical tools. The unit root test analysis revealed almost all the markets price series were non-stationary at level except Jambutu market (AD5) at 5% significant level but became stationary after first difference. The result of Exponential Smoothing Model showed that there will be upward trend of cowpea prices in Adamawa State in February and October – November in the year 2018 and therefore, it is recommended that provision of better infrastructural facilities such as construction of accessible and motorable roads, and communication network by government and NGOs. This would reduce transfer cost which usually gets translated to the prices of the cowpeas, especially across markets in critical distance.

After-effect of foliar-applied herbicides for broad-leaved weeds on the primary germ weight of cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

  1. Barakova, St. Georgiev


Field Crops Institute, 6200, Chirpan, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 25 June 2019; accepted for publication 15 August 2019)


Abstract. The trial was carried out during 2013-2015, with twelve cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Influence of herbicides Bazagran 480 SL (bentazone)- 1.5 L/ha, Pulsar 40 (imazamox) – 1.2 L/ha and Express 50 VG (tribenuron-methyl) – 50 g/ha was studied. These herbicides were used during the budding stage of cotton. From the viewpoint of cotton growing technology, technologically the most valuable are cultivars Helius, Trakia, Viki, Filipopolis, Boyana, Avangard, Natalia, Darmi, Dorina and Nelina, in foliar treatment with herbicide Bazagran 480 SL. Technologically the most valuable are cultivars Chirpan-539, Helius, Viki, Boyana and Natalia in foliar treatment with herbicide Pulsar 40. Technologically the most valuable are cultivars Helius, Trakia, Viki and Nelina in foliar treatment with herbicide Express 50 VG. These variants combine high primary germ weight and high stability of this index during the different years.

Fertilizer monitoring using micromachined cantilever

Venkatesh K.P. Rao


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, 333031-Rajasthan, India


(Manuscript received 16 June 2019; accepted for publication 1 August 2019)


Abstract. In this study, we will create a grid of micro electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, which will measure the contents of soil, especially urea. This will inform the farmers about the condition of soil in real time, and thus allowing them to know how much fertilizer they need to add. MEMS sensor is placed in the soil to measure the soil content by chemical reaction with the fertilizers; its accuracy can be improved if these sensors are placed on multiple points, i.e., they are placed in a grid. In the present study, we designed micro-cantilever based gas detectors, to detect ammonia present in the fertilizers. Several designs were proposed to find the best fit for this purpose. Numerical studies have been carried out on the proposed designs, to evaluate the displacement sensitivity and the voltage developed in the piezoelectric layer, and the triangular cantilever was found to be the most sensitive cantilever for that purpose.

Analysis of cost and return in cowpea production: A case study Mubi south local government area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

T. Joshua, J. Zalkuwi, M.M. Audu

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 27 September 2018; accepted for publication 10 April 2019)

Abstract. This study was designed to analyze the profitability of cowpea production in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa state. The primary data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used for the selection of a study area. Descriptive statistics and inferential techniques were used as analytical tools. The result shows that most of the cowpea producers (64%) were aged between 20-49 years with males dominating the business and the majority of the respondents (57%) were married. Household size was relatively large, 78% had some form of formal education and a greater proportion of the respondents (86%) did not belong to any farmer’s association. Most of the respondents (61%) are full-time farmers, while about 92 % of cowpea farmers had between 6 – >15 years of experience in cowpea production. Most of the farmers (78%) had one form of formal education. The computed gross margin and net farm income were N289128.2/ha (=816.5USD) and N286976.3/ha (=810.4USD), respectively, for cowpea production, which indicated that cowpea production was profitable in the area. It is recommended that, there is need for government support in terms of revitalization and priority finding extension delivery activities and agricultural development programs (ADP) in the study and area, access to subsidized farm input (such as pesticide, fertilizer and herbicide) and making credit facilities accessible and affordable to enable farmers boost their production.

Investment on wheat research and its effect: A case of Nepal

K.P. Timsina1, S. Gairhe2, P. Koirala3, J. Shrestha4

1Socioeconomics and Agricultural Policy Research Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Singhdurbar Plaza, Kathmandu, Nepal
3Institute for Integrated Development Studies, Kathmandu, Nepal
4Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Commercial Agriculture Research Program, Pakhribas, Dhankuta, Nepal

(Manuscript received 5 October 2018; accepted for publication 28 February 2019)

Abstract. Although the agriculture sector markedly contributes to the Nepalese economy, very little is known about the government’s investments in agricultural research activities and how these investments have impacted the sector. In this study, we picked a case of wheat crop as it is the third largest crop of Nepal in terms of total annual production. We took government’s annual wheat research investments of Nepal from Fiscal year 2005 to 2016 to analyze the effects of investment on wheat research based on the availability of data. We used compound growth rate, averages, trend line, and bar diagram to present the data and interpret the results. Results revealed that the share of operational budget was lower than supposed to be allocated for the development of wheat research. The pace of increment of wheat production and productivity were observed due to improved wheat investment and technologies. Result shows the negligible spillover effect from neighboring countries in wheat production. Even though the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) has fulfilled source seed target by producing a surplus, private sectors should involve proactively in coordination with NARC to meet the projected demand of wheat seed in national seed vision. The huge gap was observed between yield potential and average national productivity. To achieve greater impact of wheat research in Nepal, it is necessary to bridge the gap by awareness program, making the availability of improved seed with an improved package of practices.