Profitability analysis of small-scale fish farming in Mubi metropolis of Adamawa State, Nigeria: Alternative to poverty alleviation

J.D. Daniel1, Z.H. Yerima2, A.B. Shelleng1

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria
2Adamawa State Post Primary Schools Management Board, Yola, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 18 March 2018; accepted for publication 28 May 2018)

Abstract. The study examined the profit potentials of fish farming in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from 70 respondents through snow-ball sampling technique between April and May 2015. The results revealed 81.43% of the respondents were youth within the age range of 20-40 years, with majority (74.29%) of them being males. About 74.3% had household members, which range from 1-5, more so, 54.3% had one form of formal education or the other. Most of the respondents also (54.30) were civil servants. Analysis of cost and returns from the fish farms unveiled a net farm profit of $407.37 (₦150 879.22) per cycle, with a benefit cost ratio of 2.03, which implies that a dollar is gained as a profit for every one dollar invested in the farming business in the study area. High cost of fingerlings (25.35%) and inadequate information on fish farming practices (15.02%) were among the major problems militating against fish farming in the area. The study recommended the supply of credit facilities to the respondents as well as extension services delivery through government and non-government organisations to improve on the farmers’ output.

Determination of Stone marten (Martes foina) and Pine marten (Martes martes) in natural habitats using camera traps

Department of Animal Production – Non-ruminants and Other Animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora 6000, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 15 May 2018; accepted for publication 4 June 2018)

Abstract. In the nature, difficulties with distinguishing of closely related species like Stone marten (Martes foina) and Pine marten (Martes martes) appear. Based on 280 photos a non-invasive method for determining the Stone marten and the Pine marten by camera trapping was performed. Sloping trees (similar to Leaning-Pole or Running-Pole) were used as a route for animals to pass with a purpose to be photographed. Honey and distal parts of bird wings were used as a lure. The camera was set to capture the climbing animal from the side. The coat coloration and scent marking patterns – proper species indicators – were clearly visible on daily photos. The night photos showed the differences in body proportion but not these in throat patch coloration. Profile photographing also allowed an individual determination based on throat patch shape and area.

Wastewater characteristics by physico-chemical parameters from different type treatment plants

D. Dermendzhieva

Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 21 January 2018; accepted for publication 2 April 2018)

Abstract. The purpose of the present study was to make wastewater characterization by physico-chemical parameters from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) – Municipal WWTP (MWWTP) and Poultry meat processing enterprise WWTP (PMPEWWTP). The investigation was carried out during 2016 and 11 wastewater parameters (ToC, pH, EC, SS, COD, BOD and total forms of N, P, K, Na and chlorides content) were controlled in 4 monitoring points (MPs) at both WWTPs: MP-1 – inlet of WWTP, MP-2 – after section of biological treatment, MP-3 – outlet of vertical precipitators and MP-4 – outlet of WWTP. Wastewater samples were collected every two months from each MP and were analyzed by validated Bulgarian State and ISO standards. The following were recorded: a) the value limit variation at the surveyed parameters and their characteristics by monitoring points in both treatment plants; b) that both TPs demonstrated high removal efficiency (81.6-98.6%) in regard to SS, COD, BOD5, Total N and Total P, and very low removal efficiency in regard to Total K (2.2-12.5%); c) that the final effluents from both TPs meet the ecological requirements for discharge in the receiving water bodies (Bedecka River and Azmaka River, respectively) for the parameters SS, COD, BOD5 and TN and deviate from them by phosphorus content that exceeds the permitted limit; d) that in MWWTP there are 25 correlations (15 positive and 10 negative) between monitored WW parameters and in PMPEWWTP – 28 correlations (19 positive and 9 negative), respectively; e) that there are different trends in the changes of the controlled physicochemical parameters by monitoring points and by months in both WWTPs determined on the basis of a regression model – a polynomial of degree II; f) that Na, Cl, COD and BOD5 WW content correlates very well with some other parameters, which allowed the development of linear regression models to determine their concentrations.

Effect of bioorganic fertilizers and growth regulators on productivity and immune response of field tomatoes

O. Georgieva¹, N. Valchev²

¹Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
²Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 16 February 2018; accepted for publication 21 May 2018)

Abstract. In conditions of growing tomatoes in the open field the effect of bioorganic fertilizers and growth regulators have been studied based on humic acids Nagro and Stimix on the main growth indicators, yield and immune response of plant in tomatoes for medium early production of the variety Milyana. It has been found that seed treatment and seedlings with the bioorganic products Nagro and Stimix improve the biometric indicators of seedlings and plants during vegetation and accelerate the process of flowering of tomato phenophases. Fertilization with those bioorganic fertilizers at phase flowering increases the earliest and total yield. The application of the technological complex of activities including fertilization with mineral fertilizers Nı6P20K22, treatment of seeds with organic fertilizers Nagro and Stimix, and spraying of plants with conventional plant protection products leads to reduction of attack from Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani in tomatoes.

Assessment of the yields of essential oil crops in Bulgaria through mathematical approaches

  1. Keranova

Department of Mathematics, Informatics and Physics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 9 April 2018; accepted for publication 23 May 2018)


Аbstract. The present study examines the yields of the following essential-oil crops: oil-yielding rose (Rosa Damascena), peppermint (Mentha piperita), lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) in Bulgaria from 2003 to 2013 based on mathematical approaches. Correlation and regression analyses have been applied using the capabilities of the IBM Statistics SPSS 24 and the MS Excel 2010 software. The study proves the existence of positive correlations between ‘year’ and ‘yield’ of the lemon balm (r=0.609*), between oil-yielding rose and lavender (r=0.620*) and between lavender and coriander (r=0.766**) and negative association between ‘year’ and the peppermint yield (r=-0.700*). Between yields of other crops – oil-yielding rose, coriander and lavender, and between year and the yields from these crops there are no statistically proven relations. Linear regression equations are presented, showing the relation between the year and the quantity of lemon balm and peppermint production.

An assessment of farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills in Ekiti State, Nigeria

S.E. Komolafe, G.B. Adesiji


Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 29 January 2018; accepted for publication 24 April 2018)


Abstract. This study assessed the farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Two-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 580 respondents. Questionnaire was used to collect data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data collected. Findings show that the majority of the respondents had access to yam entrepreneurial business training/seminar (75.5%), sources of information through agricultural extension agents (86.2%), radio (83.3%) and fellow farmers (79.5%), non-member of any crop related enterprise group (66.2%). The overall farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills was low among the majority (62.6%). Specifically, the knowledge level of respondents on cultivation skills (=67.0) was high while management skills (=39.5), co-operation/networking (=29.3), customer/marketing skills (=27.1) and opportunity skills (=21.3) of respondents were considered low. It was, therefore, concluded that farmers’ knowledge of yam entrepreneurial skills was low. Agri-entrepreneurship training in management skills, opportunity skills, customer and marketing skills, co-operation and networking skills is recommended and encouraging the less educated yam-based entrepreneurs to participate in the agri-entrepreneurship capacity building training.

Technical efficiency of cowpea farmers in Mubi south local government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria

  1. Joshua


Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 15 May 2018; accepted for publication 23 June 2018)


Abstract. The study analyzed the technical efficiency among cowpea farmers in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 100 respondents randomly selected cowpea farmers using multi-stage, purposive and simple random sampling process. The result of the stochastic frontier production function shows that sigma squared was 0.656 and significant at 1% level, indicating good fit and correctness of the distributional form assumed for the composite error term. The value of gamma was 0.522 and significant at 1% level, suggesting that 52% of the variability in the output of farmers was due to differences in their technical efficiency. The coefficients of farm size, seed, fertilizer, agro-chemicals and labor were positive and significant at varying levels indicating direct relationship with output of cowpea production. The analysis of the inefficiency variables revealed that education, farming experience and extension contact decreases technical inefficiency of the farmers. Mean technical efficiency (TE) was 0.78 with the minimum and maximum values of efficiency as 0.53 and 0.97, indicating that farmers have the potential to increase their TE by 21.2% in the short run given the current state of technology. To achieve this, policies by the government and nongovernmental agencies should be geared towards encouraging farmers’ education on farm management practices so that they would be able to allocate production resources more efficiently especially fertilizer and herbicide for optimum yield.

A study on entrepreneurship skill practices among rural women in Kwara state, Nigeria

G.B. Adesiji, S.O. Ibrahim, S.E. Komolafe


Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria


(Manuscript received 18 March 2018; accepted for publication 21 May 2018)


Abstract. The study examined the entrepreneurial skill practices of rural women in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 147 respondents were selected. Primary data were collected with the use of questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for the study. Mean age of respondents was 38.5 years. The average entrepreneurship experience was 11 years. The most prominent enterprises undertaken by respondents were garri processing (83.7%), corn milling (82.3%), soap making (82.3%), livestock production (81.6%), selling of provision/petty trade (80.3%), grinding pepper (78.2%), tailoring (76.9%), selling of pepper (71.4%), and poultry farming (64.6%). Commonly practiced entrepreneurial skills were communication skills (74.1%), creative thinking skills (72.8%), time management skills (70.1%), decision making and risk management skills (68.0%) and organizational management (61.2%). Most indicated constraints faced were high interest on loan (70.8%), poor road structure (67.3%), high cost of input (66.0%), lack of storage facilities (63.9), poor electricity supply (62.0%), lack of production materials (61.2%) and environmental factors (60.5%). Findings also show that age, marital status, household size and years of experience of respondents had positive significant influence on entrepreneurial skills practised at p<0.01 level of significance. The study concluded that communication skills, creative thinking skills, and time management skills were most practised by rural women entrepreneurs in Kwara State. The study recommends the need for rural women entrepreneurs to form strong credit cooperative society in other to empower themselves financially as well as easy procurement of inputs at cheaper rate.

Perception of rural farmers on pesticide use in vegetable production

  1. Naznin1, M. S. I. Afrad1, M. E. Haque1, M. Zakaria2, A. A. Barau1


1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh

2Department of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh


(Manuscript received 20 March 2018; accepted for publication 21 May 2018)


Abstract. In rural areas of Bangladesh, farmers use various types of pesticides without thinking about the effects of these pesticides on deteriorating and polluting the environment. As a result, the present study examined the rural farmers’ perception on pesticide use for vegetable production. The study was conducted in four villages of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. A total of 110 vegetables farmers were selected as sample for the study. Interview schedule was employed for collection of primary data. Simple statistics was used for analysis, viz. frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, while correlation was employed to test the relationship between the selected socioeconomic characteristics and perception of the farmers on pesticide use in vegetable cultivation. Findings revealed that most of the respondents were over 35 years old, had high literacy level, 7 or less family members, contacted various information sources, received training (64.55%), earned low (78.2%) income annually and slightly above half (52.73%) participated in organizations. A greater majority of the respondents had favorable to highly favorable perception on pesticide use in vegetable production. Also, most of the respondents faced myriad of difficulties in dealing with pesticide, especially eye and skin difficulties. Organizational participation (r = 0.220) showed significant relationship with perception on pesticide use in vegetable production. Therefore, information dissemination should be improved by the government in order to increase awareness on safe use of pesticides, as well as establish centres for surveillance, prevention, and management of difficulties associated with dealing with pesticides.

Effect of fertilizer type and plant spacing on plant morphological characteristics, yield and chemical composition of desho grass (Pennisetumpedicellatum Trin.) in Northwestern Ethiopia

B.Mihret1, B. Asmare2, Y. Mekuriaw2


1Awi Zone, Department of Agriculture, Injibara,Ethiopia

2Department of Animal Production and Technology, P.O.Box 5501, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia


(Manuscript received 19 January 2018; accepted for publication 4 April  2018)


Abstract. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer type and plant spacing on morphological characteristics, yield and nutritive value of desho grass.The study compared three type of fertilizer and three type of between plant spacing on the performance of desho grass. The data collected from the study were morphological parameters including plant height (PH), leaf length per plant (LLPP), number of leaves per plant (NLPP), number of tillers per plant (NTPP), number of roots per plant (NRPP) and root length per plant (RLPP), biomass yield and chemical composition including crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), neutral detergentfibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre(ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) of the grass as well as yield parameters crude protein yield (CPY)and dry matte yield (DMY) were collected. The result indicated that all morphological parameters were significantly affected (P<0.05) by the type of fertilizer. Among chemical composition parameters CP, ash, NDF, ADF, ADLand yield parameters CPY and DMYwere significantly different (P<0.05) due to both factors. However, DM content was not affected (P>0.05) by effect of fertilizer and plant spacing. The highest CPcontent was observed (10.95%) for chemical fertilizer and least value (9%) for non-fertilized grass. The result revealed that the maximum biomass yield and improved quality can be obtained using NPS fertilizer if it is accessible by smallholder farmers. However, if the NPS is not accessible, the use of manure could be an alternative to produce good quality desho fodder with optimum yield. With regard to plant spacing, the intermediate plant spacing can be best to obtain optimum biomass in the study area. Overall, this study implied that desho grass can be planted with available fertilizer and proper spacing recommendable since it has shown good result for yield and quality of the desho grass in the study area and similar agro-ecologies.