Biotic and abiotic stress roles in drugs production through in vitro approaches in plants – a review

Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed1*, R. Arun Kumar2, Muneeb M. Musthafa3, Davindran Rajandram3,

Faiz M.M.T. Marikar4

 

1Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

2Center for Research and Development, Ponnaiyah Ramajayam Institute of Science and Technology,

PRIST Deemed University, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India

3Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur-50603, Malaysia

4General Sir, John Kotelawala, Defence University, Kandawala Estate, Ratmalana, Sri Lanka

 

(Manuscript received 10 January 2020; accepted for publication 27 April 2020)

 

Abstract. Plant metabolic engineering is a modern discipline that promises to create opportunities in pharmaceutical industries to produce and biomedicine. Over the long period natural and synthetic plant hormones have had tremendous implications in callus/cell culture /suspension/ for secondary metabolites production (SMs). Generally, SMs plays a vital fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. This review article focused on the relationship between various factors related to the drug production. In medicinal plants, in vitro studies, based on biotic factors such as fungal/endo-phytic fungal elicitors/microbe-derived exogenous elicitor yeast extract (YE) were cross checked  with the abiotic six factor groups, including auxins and cytokinins, gamma radiation, lights, temperature, carbon sources, photoperiods, precursor chemicals and plant metabolic enzymes. Moreover, key enzymes and gene networks can serve as a resource to selected potential targets for specific SMs production. This is the first review to describe the light factors needed for the SM production, which has favorable role for SMs. We envisage that the researcher can design how to modulate the stress factors in terms of drug improvement from medicinal plants.

Impact of synthetic pesticides utilization on humans and the environment: an overview

C.S. Oaya1*, A.M. Malgwi2, M.M. Degri1, A.E. Samaila1

1Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Kashere, P.M.B. 0182 Gombe State, Nigeria
2Department of Crop Protection, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2070 Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 12 September 2019; accepted for publication 5 November 2019)

Abstract. Pesticides are chemicals that kill or manage the population of pests. There are many different types of pesticides on the market today, but the most common are herbicides and insecticides, which kill or manage unwanted plants and insects. The benefits of pesticides include increased food production, increased profits for farmers and the prevention of diseases. Although pests consume or harm a large portion of agricultural crops, without the use of pesticides, it is likely that they would consume a higher percentage. More food is produced by farmers, thereby increasing profit. Pesticides also increase farm profits by helping the farmer save money on labor costs. Using pesticides reduces the amount of time required to manually remove weeds and pests from the fields. In addition to saving crops and livestock, pesticides have also had direct benefits to human health. It is estimated that since 1945, the use of pesticides has prevented the deaths of around seven million people by killing pests that carry or transmit diseases. Although there are benefits to the use of pesticides, there have also been many problems associated with their use. Pesticides do not always stay in the location where they are applied. They are mobile in the environment and often move through water, air and soil. The problem with pesticide mobility is that when they travel, the pesticides come in contact with other organisms and can cause harm. Pesticides have also been shown to disrupt the balance of an ecosystem. In many situations when a pesticide is used, it also kills non-pest organisms. This can drastically alter the natural balance of the ecosystem. By removing non-pest organisms, the environment can be changed to favor the pest. In addition to causing harm to wildlife, pesticides that travel from their original location are known to cause harm to humans. Human exposure to pesticides has caused poisonings, the development of cancer and the deaths of between 20000 and 40000 people worldwide each year. Another major problem associated with pesticide use is bioaccumulation and biological magnification. Bioaccumulation is when a substance builds up in the body because the body does not have the proper mechanisms to remove it. Many synthetic pesticides are not able to be broken down. Once they enter the body of an organism, they are permanently stored in the body tissue.

Weeds and weed control in forage pea: A Review

  1. Ivanov

Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 February 2018; accepted for publication 15 April 2019)

Abstract. A major limitation factor for the low productivity in peas is weeding. A particularly critical moment in the race between the crop and weeds is the early period of growth and development. Given the influence of the varying climatic and soil conditions on the diversity and density of weed species, a differentiated approach is needed to remove them by using chemical and agrotechnical means. Studies on the varietal susceptibility to herbicides in forage pea in Bulgaria are very limited due to the fact that varietal diversity was not available in the recent past. The objective of the paper is to present a short analysis of the studies relating to weeding in peas and the control of the more important weed groups in it as well as to establish an individual approach in applying agrotechnical and chemical methods for weed control in growing different pea varieties of winter and spring forms. The use of pea varieties different in biological type as well as the possibilities to use varieties from the European variety list in modern agriculture determines the need to test the reaction of each individual variety not only to the herbicides recommended for this crop, but also to new herbicidal preparations and doses. Determining the composition of weed associations, applying suitable herbicides and herbicide mixtures in weed control of pea, combined with proper agrotechnics, is a prerequisite for optimizing the biological productive potential of the crop.

 

Ovarian cysts in sows: causes, frequency of occurrence – a review

  1. Szostak1*, A. Stasiak2, V. Katsarov3, T. Penev4

1Institute of Animal Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Biology and Animal Breeding, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland

2Department of Pig Breeding and Production Technology, Faculty of Biology and Animal Breeding, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland

3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

4Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

(Manuscript received 9 June 2017; accepted for publication 18 March 2018)

 

Abstract. The article presents the causes and frequency of occurrence of ovarian cysts in sows. The literature indicates that the pathogenesis of ovarian cysts is a complex process linked to dysfunction of the mechanisms responsible for ovarian follicle development and ovulation. Disturbances in hormonal interactions often originate in stress situations associated with difficulties in adaptation. According to many authors, large-scale farming places a substantial burden on animals, leading to disturbances in the homeostasis of the organism and thereby contributing to the occurrence of reproductive disorders. The authors of this paper have presented literature data and their own observations pertaining to the frequency of occurrence of ovarian cysts in herds of sows. They have described the symptoms accompanying this type of disorder and presented diagnostic methods, emphasizing the key role of post-slaughter evaluation of the reproductive organs of sows.

Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain maize (Zea mays L.)

  1. G. Delchev, M. Georgiev

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of agriculture, 6000 Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 28 November 2016; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides, are more effective than when they are applied alone in maize crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. There are maize hybrids resistant to imidazolinone for Clearfield technology, but they have not yet been introduced in Bulgaria. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of perennial graminaceous weeds in maize crops are quite scarce even worldwide. The problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information in maize relates to conventional technology for weed control. There is not information about the new Duo system technology in grain maize and the hybrids used are resistant to cycloxydim. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature about control of these volunteers.

Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor Moench.)

Gr. Delchev*, M. Georgiev

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 28 November 2016; accepted for publication 21 March 2017)

Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides are more effective than when applied alone on sorghum crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. The use of herbicide antidotes for the treatment of seeds in sorghum is a safe way to overcome its high sensitivity to many herbicides. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of annual graminaceous weeds in sorghum crops are quite scarce even worldwide. Problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information on sorghum relates to the conventional technology for weed control. There is no information about the new Concep technology in grain sorghum. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature on control of these volunteers.

Problems and achievements of cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) weeds control

T. Barakova1*, G. Delchev2
1Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria
2Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 2 June 2017; accepted for publication 17 August 2017) Abstract. Weed control in the cultivation of cotton is critical to the yield and quality of production. The influence of economically important weeds was studied. Chemical control is the most effective method of weed control in cotton but much of the information on it relates to primary weed infestation. Problems with primary weed infestation in cotton have been solved to a significant extent. The question of secondary weed infestation with annual and perennial graminaceous weeds during the period of cotton vegetation is also determined largely by the use of antigraminaceous herbicides. The data related to herbicides to effectively control secondary germinated broadleaf weeds in conventional technology for cotton growing are quite scarce, even globally. We are still seeking effective herbicides for control of these weeds in cotton crops. Studies on their influence on the sowing characteristics of cotton seed and the quality of cotton fiber are still insufficient. In the scientific literature there is not enough information on these questions. The combinations of herbicides, as well as their tank mixtures with fertilizers or plant growth regulators are more efficient than autonomous application. Often during their combined application higher synergistic effect on yield is produced. There is information about cotton cultivars resistant to glyphosate. These cultivars are GMO and they are banned within the European Union, including Bulgaria.

Alternatives for optimisation of rumen fermentation in ruminants

T. Slavov

Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 12 March 2017; accepted for publication 26 May 2017)

Abstract. The proper knowledge on the variety of events occurring in the rumen makes possible their optimisation with respect to the complete feed conversion and increasing the productive performance of ruminants. The inclusion of various dietary additives (supplements), biologically active substances, nutritional antibiotics, probiotics, enzymatic preparations, plant extracts etc. has an effect on the intensity and specific pathway of fermentation, and thus, on the general digestion and systemic metabolism. The optimisation of rumen digestion is a method with substantial potential for improving the efficiency of ruminant husbandry, increasing of quality of their produce and health maintenance.

Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus against pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms: A review

T. Dinev1*, G. Beev1, S. Denev1, D. Dermendzhieva2, M. Tzanova1, E. Valkova1

1Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physics, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 23 November 2016; accepted for publication 17 February 2017)

Abstract. The purpose of this review is to summarize the information regarding the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, an important species of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are constituents of many beneficent for the consumer’s health food products. They are considered potentially promising in the strategy to combat infections and prevent the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and also have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic properties, improve the lactose metabolism, stimulate the immune system, etc. In the resent years Lactobacillus acidophilus is considered the main probiotic species in the intestinal tract of healthy humans and is widely used in functional dairy foods. It produces a variety of metabolic productswithantimicrobialproperties,includingorganicacidsandbacteriocins,suchaslactacinsBandF,acidophilin,acidocin,acidophilucin, acidophilicin, which are active against many pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms – Escherichia coli (including Escherichi coli 0157:H7), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, Bacillus, Clostridium, Mucor, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Candida spp., etc. Because of the above mentioned reasons Lactobacillus acidophilus could be used as an alternative therapeutic agent against infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. On the other hand Lactobacillus acidophilus based antimicrobial products (mainly bacteriocins and pure cultures) could also be applied to food products to prevent the growth of spoilage microorganisms and food-borne pathogens. To better understand the mode of action and the spectrum of antifungal activity more clinical and laboratory studies of different Lactobacillus acidophilus strains are required.

Triticale – past and future

St. Dobreva*

Field Crop Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 17 May 2016; accepted for publication 28 October 2016)

Abstract. Two of the oldest plants that nature has provided to mankind for feeding – wheat and rye, are now combined in a totally new species. In Bulgaria, as well as all over the world, selection aims to create highly productive varieties, which are resistible to diseases. It was in the middle of the last century when people really started to work on that. The first variety of triticale in Bulgaria was obtained in 1965. The main growers of triticale are Germany, France, China, Australia, Hungary and USA, the biggest being Poland with over 1 million hectares. The main purpose of the crop worldwide is for food for the livestock. There are bread varieties of the triticale created, which are an appropriate addition to the wheat flour for the production of bread and bakery, as well as whole grains for cereals and triticale noodles. The newest usage of triticale is as a raw material for biofuels. Fertilization is critical to the yield and to the quality of production when growing triticale. In the past fertilization has been done by depositing manure, but modern agriculture provides significantly greater choice. The synthetic fertilizers are easy to store and distribute. Fertilization is mechanical, according to the needs of the plants. The use of foliar fertilizers is also completely mechanized. The study of their impact on productivity and quality of production is a subject of growing interest, taking into account the positive impact of the experiments conducted so far.