Phytosanitary conditions of the organic field and boundary

D. Atanasova1*, V. Maneva1, N. Grozeva2

1Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, Bulgaria
2Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 July 2016; accepted for publication 11 August 2016)

Abstract. In the field and boundary of certificated field for organic farming in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat have been observed and described diseases, pests and weeds in wild and cultivated plants and dependencies between them are reported. The cultural plant diversity at the certified field for organic farming is significant and amounts to 32 species and varieties of cereals. The weeds in crops and in the free areas significantly differed. In crops, the annual broadleaf weeds had greater diversity of species (Anthemis arvensis L., Lathyrus aphaca L., Papaver phoeas L., Polygonum aviculare L., Polygonum convolvulus L.) and at the boundaries – the cereal weeds (Аpera spica-venti L., Hordeum murinum L., Bromus tectorum L., Poa pratensis L.). At the adjacent areas the perennial broadleaf weeds – Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and Convolvulus arvensis L. were not found. At the boundaries less pest species and types of diseases were registered than in the crop fields. In cereals the most common pests are Sitobion avenae L., Aelia acuminate L., Eurygaster austriaca Schr. Beneficial insects are Coccinella septempunctata L. The most common diseases are Erysiphe graminis and Rhynchosporium secalis (Oudem.) Davis.